Roger Joseph Boscovich

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Roger Joseph Boscovich
Rudjer Boskovic.jpg
Portrait by Robert Edge Pine, London, 1760.
Born (1711-05-18)18 May 1711
Dubrovnik, Republic of Ragusa (now Croatia)
Died 13 February 1787(1787-02-13) (aged 75)
Milan, Duchy of Milan
Residence Dubrovnik, Rome, Venice, Paris, Istanbul, Milan, Bassano
Citizenship Republic of Ragusa
Fields Theology, Physics, Astronomy, Mathematics, Natural philosophy, Diplomacy, Poetry
Institutions Brera Observatory, University of Pavia
Alma mater Pontifical Gregorian University
Known for precursor of the Atomic theory, founder of Brera Observatory
Influences G. W. Leibniz
Society of Jesus

History of the Jesuits
Regimini militantis
Suppression

Jesuit Hierarchy
Superior General
Adolfo Nicolás

Ignatian Spirituality
Spiritual Exercises
Ad majorem Dei gloriam
Magis

Notable Jesuits
St. Ignatius of Loyola
St. Francis Xavier
St. Peter Faber
St. Aloysius Gonzaga
St. Robert Bellarmine
St. Peter Canisius
St. Edmund Campion
Pope Francis

Roger Joseph Boscovich (Croatian: Ruđer Josip Bošković (pronounced [rûd͡ʑɛr jɔ̌sip bɔ̂ʃkɔʋit͡ɕ]) (see also names in other languages); 18 May 1711 – 13 February 1787) was a physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat, poet, theologian, Jesuit priest, and a polymath[1] from the city of Dubrovnik in the Republic of Ragusa (today Croatia), who studied and lived in Italy and France where he also published many of his works.[2]

He produced a precursor of atomic theory and made many contributions to astronomy, including the first geometric procedure for determining the equator of a rotating planet from three observations of a surface feature and for computing the orbit of a planet from three observations of its position. In 1753 he also discovered the absence of atmosphere on the Moon.[3]

Biography[edit]

Early years[edit]

Boscovich was born in Dubrovnik to Nikola Bošković and Paola Bettera, and was baptized on 26 May 1711 by Marinus Carolis, curatus et sacristia. The name Ruđer/Ruggiero may have been given to him because both his great-grandfather Agostino Bettera and his mother's brother were called Ruggiero, the godparent was his uncle Ruggiero Bettera. He was the seventh child of the family and the second youngest. His father was a merchant born in 1642, at Orahov Do near Ravno in what was then the Ottoman Empire and is now Bosnia and Herzegovina.[4][5] His father was rich in trading experience and knowledge of that part of the Ottoman Empire, but Ruđer knew him only as a bedridden invalid with paralyzed legs and he died when Ruđer was a child of 10. Boscovich's mother, Paola Bettera (1674–1777), nicknamed "Pavica", was a member of a cultivated Italian merchant family established in Dubrovnik since the early seventeenth century, to where her ancestor, Pietro Bettera, had come from Bergamo in northern Italy. She was a robust and active woman with a happy temperament who lived to 103.[6]

Paola Bettera left nothing in writing, but Boscovich's aunt, her sister, wrote poetry in Italian. Their sons, Ruđer's cousins and playmates, Antun Bošković and Franjo Bošković, grew up into good Latinists. His own brothers and sisters were all older than himself, except his sister Anica Bošković (1714–1804), two years his junior. His eldest sister Mare Bošković, nineteen years his senior, was the only member of the family to marry; his second sister Marija Bošković became a nun in the Ragusa Convent of St Catherine's. His eldest brother Božo Bošković (Boško), thirteen years older, joined the service of the Ragusa Republic. His brother Bartolomej (Baro) Bošković, born in 1700 and educated at the Jesuit school in Dubrovnik, left home when Ruđer was 3 to become a scholar and a Jesuit priest in Rome. He too wrote good verse in both Latin and "Illyrian" (Renaissance era name for Croatian), but eventually burnt some of his manuscripts out of a scrupulous modesty. His brother Ivan (Đivo) Bošković became a Dominican in a sixteenth-century monastery in Dubrovnik, whose church Ruđer knew as a child with its rich treasures and paintings by Titian and Vasari, still there today. His brother Petar (Pero) Bošković, six years his senior, became a poet like his grandfather. He too was schooled by the Jesuits, then served as an official of the Republic and made his reputation as a translator of Ovid, Corneille's Cid and of Molière. A volume of his religious verse, Hvale Duhovne, was published in Venice in 1729.

At the age of 8 or 9, after acquiring the rudiments of reading and writing from the priest Nicola Nicchei of the Church of St. Nicholas, Ruđer was sent for schooling to the local Jesuit Collegium Regusinum. During his early studies Roger Boscovich showed a distinct propensity for further intellectual development. He gained a reputation at school for having an easy memory and a quick, deep mind.

On 16 September 1725, Ruđer Bošković left Dubrovnik for Rome. He was in the care of two Jesuit priests who took him to the Society of Jesus, famous for its education of youth and at that time having some 800 establishments and 200,000 pupils under its care throughout the world. We learn nothing from Bošković himself until the time he entered the novitiate in 1731, but it was the usual practice for novices to spend the first two years not in the Collegium Romanum, but in Sant'Andrea delle Fratte. There, he studied mathematics andphysics; and so brilliant was his progress in these sciences that in 1740 he was appointed professor of mathematics in the college.[4]

He was especially appropriate for this post due to his acquaintance with recent advances in science, and his skill in a classical severity of demonstration, acquired by a thorough study of the works of the Greek geometers. Several years before this appointment he had made a name for himself with an elegant solution of the problem of finding the Sun's equator and determining the period of its rotation by observation of the spots on its surface.

Middle years[edit]

Notwithstanding the arduous duties of his professorship, he found time for investigation in various fields of physical science, and he published a very large number of dissertations, some of them of considerable length. Among the subjects were the transit of Mercury, the Aurora Borealis, the figure of the Earth, the observation of the fixed stars, the inequalities in terrestrial gravitation, the application of mathematics to the theory of the telescope, the limits of certainty in astronomical observations, the solid of greatest attraction, the cycloid, the logistic curve, the theory of comets, the tides, the law of continuity, the double refraction micrometer, and various problems of spherical trigonometry.[citation needed]

In 1742 he was consulted, with other men of science, by Pope Benedict XIV, as to the best means of securing the stability of the dome of St. Peter's, Rome, in which a crack had been discovered. His suggestion of placing five concentric iron bands was adopted.

French translation of Bošković's De solis ac lunae defectibus.

In 1744 he was ordained to the Roman Catholic priesthood.[7]

In 1745 Bošković published De Viribus Vivis in which he tried to find a middle way between Isaac Newton's gravitational theory and Gottfried Leibniz's metaphysical theory of monad-points. He developed a concept of "impenetrability" as a property of hard bodies which explained their behavior in terms of force rather than matter. Stripping atoms of their matter, impenetrability is disassociated from hardness and then put in an arbitrary relationship to elasticity. Impenetrability has a Cartesian sense that more than one point cannot occupy the same location at once.[8] Bošković visited his hometown only once in 1747, never to return.

He agreed to take part in the Portuguese expedition for the survey Brazil and the measurement of a degree of arc of the meridian, but was persuaded by the Pope to stay in Italy and to undertake a similar task there with Christopher Maire, an English Jesuit who measured an arc of two degrees between Rome and Rimini. The operation began at the end of 1750, and was completed in about two years. An account was published in 1755, under the name De Litteraria expeditione per pontificiam ditionem ad dimetiendos duos meridiani gradus a PP. Maire et Boscovicli. The value of this work was increased by a carefully prepared map of the States of the Church. A French translation appeared in 1770 which incorporated, as an appendix, some material first published in 1760 outlining an objective procedure for determining suitable values for the parameters of the fitted model from a greater number of observations. An unconstrained variant of this fitting procedure is now known as the L1-norm or Least absolute deviations procedure and serves as a robust alternative to the familiar L2-norm or Least Squares procedure.

A dispute arose between Francis the Grand Duke of Tuscany and the republic of Lucca with respect to the drainage of a lake. As agent of Lucca, Bošković was sent, in 1757, to Vienna and succeeded in bringing about a satisfactory arrangement in the matter.

The first page of figures from Theoria Philosophiæ Naturalis from 1763. Figure 1 is the force curve which received so much attention from later natural philosophers such as Joseph Priestley, Humphry Davy, and Michael Faraday. The ordinate is force, with positive values being repulsive, and the abscissa is radial distance. Newton's gravitational attractive force is clearly seen at the far right of figure 1.

In Venice in 1758, he published the first edition of his famous work, Theoria philosophiae naturalis redacta ad unicam legem virium in natura existentium (Theory of Natural philosophy derived to the single Law of forces which exist in Nature), containing his atomic theory and his theory of forces.[9] A second edition was published in 1763 in Venice, a third in 1922 in London, and a fourth in 1966 in the United States. A fifth edition was published in Zagreb in 1974.

Another occasion to exercise his diplomatic ability soon arose. The British government suspected that warships had been outfitted in the port of Dubrovnik for the service ofFrance and that therefore the neutrality of the Republic of Ragusa had been violated. Bošković was selected to undertake an ambassadorship to London (1760), to vindicate the character of his native place and satisfy the government. This mission he discharged successfully—a credit to him and a delight to his countrymen. During his stay in Englandhe was elected a fellow of the Royal Society.

In 1761 astronomers were preparing to observe the transit of Venus across the Sun. Under the influence of the Royal Society Bošković decided to travel to Istanbul. He arrived late and then traveled to Poland via Bulgaria and Moldavia then proceeding to Saint Petersburg where he was elected as a member of Russian Academy of Sciences. Ill health compelled him soon to return to Italy.

Bošković visited Laibach, the capital of Carniola (now Ljubljana, Slovenia), at least in 1757, 1758, and 1763, and made contact with the Jesuits and the Franciscan Friars in the town. The Jesuits incorporated his teachings into their lectures at the Laibach Jesuit College. His physics became the foundation of physical lectures as well in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, and influenced the thought of Carl Scherffer, Gabriel Gruber, and Jurij Vega, the prominent physicists of the period. Both Vega and the Rationalist philosopher Franz Samuel Karpe educated their students in Vienna about the ideas of Bošković and in the spirit of his.[10]

Late years[edit]

In 1764 he was called to serve as the chair of mathematics at the University of Pavia, and he held this post with the directorship of the observatory of Brera in Milan, for six years. That's where Charles Burney met him; since Burney's Italian was not very good at that time, Boscovich obliged him speaking French.

He was invited by the Royal Society of London to undertake an expedition to California to observe the transit of Venus in 1769 again, but this was prevented by the recent decree of the Spanish government expelling Jesuits from its dominions. Bošković had many enemies and he was driven to frequent changes of residence. About 1777 he returned to Milan, where he kept teaching and directing the Brera observatory.

Deprived of his post by the intrigues of his associates, he was about to retire to Dubrovnik when in 1773 the news of the suppression of his order in Italy reached him. Uncertainty led him to accept an invitation from the King of France to come to Paris where he was appointed director of optics for the navy, with a pension of 8,000 livres and a position was created for him.

He naturalized in France and stayed ten years, but his position became irksome, and at length intolerable. He, however, continued to work in the pursuit of science knowledge, and published many remarkable works. Among them was an elegant solution of the problem to determine the orbit of a comet from three observations and works on micrometer and achromatic telescopes.

In 1783 he returned to Italy, and spent two years at Bassano, occupying himself with the publication of his Opera pertinentia ad opticam et astronomiam, etc., published in 1785 in five volumes quarto.

After a visit of some months to the convent of Vallombrosa, he went to Brera in 1786 and resumed his work. At that time his health was failing, his reputation was on the wane, his works did not sell, and he gradually fell prey to illness and disappointment. He died in Milan and was buried in the church of St. Maria Podone.

Further works[edit]

In addition to the works already mentioned Bošković published course material he had prepared for his pupils in mathematics.[11][12] He also published accounts of his travels from Constantinople to Poland[13] which was published in several expanded editions[14] and translated into French.[15]

Bošković applied himself to practical engineering projects, including several discussions of architectural repair or stability, including repairs to St Peter's Dome,[16][17] the stability of the Duomo of Milan,[18] repairs to the library of Cesarea di Vienna[19] and a report on the damage to sectors of Rome in June 1749 due by a whirlwind.[20]

Bošković also was consulted on civil works concerning ports and rivers: Ivica Martinovic[21] has shown the extent to which Bošković applied himself to such works, and lists 13 major works:

  1. assessment of damage to the timber jetties in the Fiumicino, the navigable branch of the River Tiber (1751);
  2. the Ozzeri project, spurred by a bitter controversy on the floods in the border area between Lucca and Tuscany (1756);
  3. plan for the drainage of the Pontine Marshes, including the evaluation of an earlier project by Manfredi and Bertaglia (1764);
  4. analysis of the causes of damage to the port of Rimini, accompanied by reparation measures (1764);
  5. assessment of the levees along the River Po (1764);
  6. scientific letter on the principles of hydrodynamics in Lecchi's Idrostatica (1765);
  7. report on the floods in the Perugia area (1766);
  8. official report on the damage to the port of Savona, the underlying causes and the possibilities of repair (1771);
  9. expert opinion referring to the River Tidone in the Piacenza area (1771);
  10. proposal for the renovation of the fountains in Perugia (1772);
  11. expert opinion on the mouth of the River Adige as compared with the proposals by Antonio Lorgna and Simun Stratik for the improvement of the river bed (1773);
  12. instructions for the establishment of a team responsible for the drainage of the Pontine Marshes (1774);
  13. comments on Ximenes's project for the Nuovo Ozzeri drainage channel in Lucca (1781)[21]

Martinovic's paper[21] includes an extensive annotated bibliography on such works.

Legacy[edit]

For his contributions to astronomy, a lunar crater was named after him (see Boscovich crater).

Ruđer Bošković bust in front of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts building in Zagreb, Croatia

The largest Croatian institute of natural sciences and technology, based in Zagreb is called "Ruđer Bošković Institute". Bošković in 1782 was one of the founders of the Accademia nazionale delle scienze detta dei XL (National Association of the Sciences), with the name of "Società Italiana" (Italian Association): this learned society gathered forty members representing the most important Italian scientists of the period.[22] The oldest astronomical society in the Balkans based in Serbia's capital Belgrade is called Astronomical Society Ruđer Bošković.

In 1873, Nietzsche wrote a fragment called 'Time Atom Theory', which was a reworking of Boscovich's Theoria Philosophiae Naturalis redacta ad unicam legem virium in natura existentium. In general, Boscovich's ideas were a large influence on Nietzsche's ideas of force and the will to power.[23][24]

Religious views[edit]

Bošković was a Roman Catholic priest, and in expressing his religious views was straightforward. In his most famous book A Theory of Natural Philosophy (1758) he says: "Regarding the nature of the Divine Creator, my theory is extraordinarily illuminating, and the result from it is a necessity to recognize Him ... therefore vain dreams of those who believe that the world was created by accident, or that it could be built as a fatal necessity, or that it was there for eternity lining itself along his own necessary laws are completely eliminated."[25]

Bošković also composed poetry with many religious and astronomical allusions. In his Marian devotion, he wrote hexameter verses on the Virgin Mary.[26]

In the same dome of St. Peter in Rome, whose cupola he saved from ruin, he worked as a confessor employing the Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation.

Competing claims for Bošković's nationality[edit]

The modern concept of nationality, based on ethnic concepts as language, culture, religion, custom, etc., was developed only in the 19th century. For this reason the attribution of a definite "nationality" to personalities of the previous centuries, living in ethnically mixed regions, is often indeterminable; Bošković's legacy is consequently celebrated in Croatia, Italy and Serbia.[4]

Croatian sources stress that he referred to his Croatian identity.[27] In writings to his sister Anica (Anna), he told her he had not forgotten the Croatian language.[27] When he was in Vienna in 1757, he spotted Croatian soldiers going to the battlefields of the Seven Years' War and immediately rode out to see them, wishing them 'Godspeed' in Croatian.[28] In a letter to his brother from 1757, he describes this encounter and remarks at the end of the letter: "Eviva Haddick e i nostri Croati!", meaning "Long live to Haddick and to our Croats!".[29] While living in Paris and attending to a military parade where he saw a Croatian unit from Ragusa, his words were: "there are, my brave Croats".[28][30]

Italians claim that Boscovich was remembered as an Italian. According to Italians, he was born in city with mixed cultures - Croatian and Italian, and higher society of (also Bošković) Dubrovnik was under Italian influence (Roman-Dalmatian influence). His mother's family came from Italy, and he was under Italian influence in life and career; He moved to Italy at his 14, where he spent most of his life. In some encyclopedias he is described as an Italian scientist. He used Italian language in private purposes even for the correspondence with his brother Baro,[31] and Voltaire wrote to Bošković in Italian "as a sign of respect". Whend'Alembert in his Opuscule mathématiques (...) called him Italian,[32] Bošković said that "the author (ie himself) is Dalmatian from Ragusa, and not Italian (...) but for the long time passed in Italy since its first youth, he can in some way be called Italian.".[33][34]

Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts ranks him among the 100 most prominent Serbs[35][36] claiming that his ancestry on his father's side (Nikola Bošković) was "of ethnic Serbian origin."

Names in other languages[edit]

Works[edit]

Boscovich published eight scientific dissertations prior to his 1744 ordination as a priest and appointment as a professor and another 14 afterwards. The following is a partial list of his publications:

  • De maculis solaribus (1736) (On Sunspots)
  • De maculis solaribus exercitatio astronomica (1736) (An astronomical exercise on sunspots)
  • De Mercurii novissimo infra Solem transitu (1737) (On the most recent transit of Mercury across the Sun)
  • Trigonometriae sphaericae constructio (1737) (The construction of trigonometric spheres)
  • De aurora boreali (1738) (On the Aurora Borealis)
  • De novo telescopii usu ad objecta coelestia determinanda (1739) (On the new use of the telescope for determining celestial objects)
  • De veterum argumentis pro telluris sphaericitate (1739) (On the arguments of the ancients for the sphericity of the earth)
  • Dissertatio de telluris figura (1739) (A dissertation on the shape of the earth)
  • De Circulis osculatoribus, Dissertatio (1740) (A dissertation on intersections of circles)
  • De motu corporum projectorum in spatio non resistente (1741) (On the motion of unresisting projected bodies in space)
  • De inaequalitate gravitatis in diversis terrae locis (1741) (On the inequality of gravity in diverse places on earth)
  • De natura et usu infinitorum et infinite parvorum (1741) (On the nature and use of infinites and infinitessimals)
  • De annusi fixarum aberrationibus (1742) (On the annual aberration fixed stars)
  • De observationibus astronomicis et quo pertingat earundem certitudo (1742) ( On astronomical observations and the certitude which pertains to them)
  • Disquisitio in universam astronomiam (1742) (A disquisition on universal astronomy)
  • Parere di tre Matematici sopra i danni che si sono trovati nella Cupola di S. Pietro(1742) (On the opinion of three mathematicians concerning the damage to the dome of St Peter's)
  • De motu corporis attracti in centrum immobile viribus decrescentibus in ratione distantiarum reciproca duplicata in spatiis non resistentibus (1743) (On the motion of attracted body at an immobile centre by forces decreasing by the duplicate reciprocal proportion in non-resisting spaces)
  • Riflessioni de' Padri Tommaso Le Seur, Francesco Jacquier de el' Ordine de' Minimi, e Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich della Compagnia di Gesù Sopra alcune difficoltà spettanti i danni, e Risarcimenti della Cupola Di S. Pietro (1743) (Reflections of Fathers Tommaso Le Seur, Francis Jacquier of the Order of Minimi, and Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich of the Society of Jesus on problems due to damage, and repair of, the dome of St. Peter's) Link to full text
  • Nova methodus adhibendi phasium observationes in eclipsibus lunaribus ad exercendam geometriam et promovendam astronomiam (1744) (A new method for using observations of phases in lunar eclipses for cultivating geometry and advancing astronomy)
  • De cycloide et logistica (1745) (On the cycloid and the logicstic curve)
  • De Viribus Vivis (1745) (On living forces)
  • Trigonometria sphaerica (1745) (Spherical trigonometry)
  • De cometis (1746) (On comets)
  • Dissertatio de maris aestu (1747) ( A dissertation on the tides of the ocean)
  • Dissertatio de lumine, 1-2 (1748/1749) ( A dissertation on light)
  • De determinanda orbita planetae ope catoptricae ex datis vi celeritate & directione motus in dato puncto (1749) ( On determining the orbits of a planet by the aid of catoptrics/reflections from given force speed and direction of motion in a given point)
  • Sopra il Turbine che la notte tra gli XI e XII giugno del MDCCXLIX danneggio una gran parte di Roma (1749; Latin translation 1766) ( Upon the whirlwind that on the night between the 11th and 12th of June 1749 damaged a large part of Rome)
  • De centrogravitatis (1751) ( On the centre of gravity)
  • Elementorum matheseos ad usum studiosae juventutis (1752) ( The elements of mathematics for the use of young students)
  • De lunae atmosphaera (1753) (On the atmosphere of the moon)
  • De continuitatis lege et eius consectariis pertinentibus ad prima materiae elementa eorumque vires dissertatio (1754) (A dissertation on the law of continuity and its consequences pertaining to the first elements of matter and of its powers)
  • Elementorium universae matheseos, 1-3 (1757) (Elements of general mathematics)
  • De lege virium in natura existentium (1755) (On the law of powers in the nature of existing things)
  • De lentibus et telescopiis dioptricis disertatio (1755) (Of dioptric lenses and telescopes)
  • De inaequalitatibus quas Saturnus et Jupiter sibi mutuo videntur inducere praesertim circa tempus conjunctionis (1756) (On the inequalities which Saturn and Jupiter seem to induce between themselves particularly around times of conjunction)
  • Theoria philosophiae naturalis (1758) (A Theory of Natural Philosophy)link to full text
  • De Solis ac Lunae defectibus (1760) (On the sun, moon and eclipses)
  • Scrittura sulli danni osservati nell' edificio della Biblioteca Cesarea di Vienna, e loro riparazione (1763) (Writing on the damage observed in the building of the Library of Caesarea Vienna, and their repair)
  • Memorie sopra il Porti di Rimini (1765) (A memoir on the Ports of Rimini)
  • Sentimento sulla solidità della nuova Guglia del Duomo di Milano (1765) (Sentiments concerning the soundness of the new Spire of the Duomo of Milan)
  • dissertationes quinque ad dioptricam pertinentes (1767) (Five dissertations pertaining to dioptrics)
  • Voyage astronomique et geographique (1770) (An astronomic and geographic voyage)
  • Memorie sulli cannocchiali diottrici (1771) (A memoir on dioptric telescopes)
  • Journal d'un voyage de Constantinopole en Pologne (1772) (Journal of a voyage from Constantinople to Poland)
  • Sullo sbocco dell'Adige in Mare (1779) (On the mouth of the River Adige)
  • Riflessioni sulla relazione del Sig. Abate Ximenes appartenente al Progetto di un nuovo Ozzeri nello Stato Lucchese (1782) (comments on the report of Signor Abbot Ximenes concerning the project for the Nuovo Ozzeri drainage channel in Lucca)
  • Giornale di un viaggio da Constantinopoli in Polonia dell'abate Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich, con una sua relazione delle rovine di Troia (1784) (Journal of a voyage from Constantinople to Poland of Abbot Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich, together with his report of the ruins of Troy)
  • Opera pertinentia ad opticam et astronomiam, 1-5 (1785) (Works pertaining to optics and astronomy)
  • Sui danni del Porto di Savona, loro cagioni e rimedi (1771) (On the damage to the port of Savona, it causes and possible repairs)
  • Lettere a Giovan Stefano Conti (1780) (Letter to Giovan Stefano Conti)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Biography: Roger Joseph Boscovich, S.J., Fairchild University website.Archived 11 February 2011 at WebCite
  2. ^ Remarkable Physicists by Ioan Mackenzie James
  3. ^ Энциклопедия для детей (астрономия). Москва: Аванта+. 1998. ISBN 978-5-89501-016-7. 
  4. ^ a b c '"Roger Joseph Boscovich'" SJ FRS, 1711–1787 Studies of his life and work on the 250th anniversary of his birth, edited L L Whyte, George Allen and Unwin, London, 1961.
  5. ^ This is disputed by Harold L. Burstyn in this review.[full citation needed]
  6. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=PMvcEPyNMGgC&pg=PA47&lpg=PA47&dq=roger+boscovich&source=web&ots=Scav-J9miA&sig=bQvCpHfaO-S8rtdggWBfMAJf864&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=roger%20boscovich&f=false
  7. ^ Franka Miriam Brueckler. "300th birthday of Ruđer Josip Bošković (Roger Joseph Boscovich)". Mathematics in Europe. Retrieved 2012-06-16. 
  8. ^ The Conflict between Atomism and Conservation Theory 1644–1860 by Wilson L. Scott, London and New York, 1970
  9. ^ Cohesion by John Shipley Rowlinson
  10. ^ Južnič, Stanislav (24 April 2012). "Dobro vidne Boškovićeve sledi v Ljubljani" [Well-visible Traces of Bošković in Ljubljana]. Delo.si (in Slovene). ISSN 1854-6544. 
  11. ^ Bošković, Ruđer(1752)Elementorum matheseos ad usum studiosae juventutis
  12. ^ Bošković, Ruđer (1754) Elementa universae matheseos
  13. ^ Bošković, Ruđer (1762) Giornale di un viaggio da Constantinopoli in Polonia dell'abate Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich, con una sua relazione delle rovine di Troia
  14. ^ Bošković, Ruđer (1784) Giornale di un viaggio da Constantinopoli in Polonia dell'abate Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich, con una sua relazione delle rovine di Troia
  15. ^ Bošković, Ruđer (1772) Journal d'un voyage de Constantinopole en Pologne
  16. ^ Bošković, Ruđer (1742) Parere di tre Matematici sopra i danni che si sono trovati nella Cupola di S. Pietro
  17. ^ Bošković, Ruđer (1743) Riflessioni de' Padri Tommaso Le Seur, Francesco Jacquier de el' Ordine de' Minimi, e Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich della Compagnia di Gesù Sopra alcune difficoltà spettanti i danni, e Risarcimenti della Cupola Di S. Pietro
  18. ^ Bošković, Ruđer (1765) Sentimento sulla solidità della nuova Guglia del Duomo di Milano
  19. ^ Bošković, Ruđer (1763) Scrittura sulli danni osservati nell' edificio della Biblioteca Cesarea di Vienna, e loro riparazione
  20. ^ Bošković, Ruđer (1749) Sopra il Turbine che la notte tra gli XI e XII giugno del MDCCXLIX danneggio una gran parte di Roma
  21. ^ a b c Ivica Martinović (2000) "Ruđer Bošković's Expert Analyses in Hydraulic Engineering:An Unexamined Dimension of Bošković's Work" Jesuits among the Croats Pozaić, Valentin (ed). - Zagreb : Institute of philosophy and theology SJ and Croatian historical , 2000. 65-87.
  22. ^ L'Accademia, from the site of the Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze detta dei XL (in italian).
  23. ^ http://web.warwick.ac.uk/philosophy/pli_journal/pdfs/ansell_pearson_1_pli_9.pdf
  24. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=VT56Pflx5ksC&pg=PA187&lpg=PA187&dq=roger+j+boscovich+and+friedrich+nietzsche+greg+whitlock&source=bl&ots=KREhEloM2V&sig=-rxqs6eVlEQeqQdL9fAHgxA0i-I&hl=en&sa=X&ei=iZUWUd-pC4rx0wGFgYHgBA&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=roger%20j%20boscovich%20and%20friedrich%20nietzsche%20greg%20whitlock&f=false
  25. ^ A Theory of Natural Philosophy, Zagreb, 1974., page 539
  26. ^ Pavle Knezović -Ruđer Bošković's songs on Virgin Mary, Obnovljeni život, Vol.50 No.5 Rujan 1995.http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/3574
  27. ^ a b Dadić, Žarko. Ruđer Bošković (Parallel text in Croatian and English). Zagreb: Školska Knjiga, 1987; Bošković's published letters and correspondence can be found in the Work of Yugoslav Academy of Arts and Sciences, number 185, year 1911 (of special interest are pages 345. and 377.) on the following link: [1]
  28. ^ a b Harris, Robin. Dubrovnik, A History. London:Saqi Books, 2003. ISBN 978-0-86356-332-4
  29. ^ http://www.matica.hr/Vijenac/vijenac386.nsf/AllWebDocs/Rugjer_Boskovic_je_nas_suvremenik_
  30. ^ http://www.croatianhistory.net/etf/et111.html#rudder
  31. ^ Edizione Nazionale delle opere e della corrispondenza di Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich. Corrispondenza, Vol. II, Carteggio con Bartolomeo Boscovich, Milano 2009
  32. ^ Jean la Ronde d'Alembert, Opuscule mathématique (...), Tome I, Paris 1761, p. 246
  33. ^ Boscovich, Ruggero Giuseppe; Christopher Maire (1770). Voyage astronomique et geographique, dans l'État de l'Eglise (in French). Google books Italy. pp. 449 (footnote). "Nous observerons ici en premier lieu que norre Auteur est Dalmate et de Raguse, non Italien... vu le long séjour qu'il a fait en Italie depuis sa premiere jeunesse, on peut in quelque sorte le dire Italien" 
  34. ^ Dadić, Žarko. Ruđer Bošković (Parallel text in Croatian and English). Zagreb: Školska Knjiga, 1987, page 51 -52.
  35. ^ http://www.serbia.travel/about-serbia/people/
  36. ^ Jandric, Miroslav (2011). Three Centuries from the Birth of Rudjer Boskovic (1711– 1787). Google books. pp. 449 (footnote). 
  37. ^ The original Boscovich's autograph.

Further reading[edit]

  • Boscovich, Ruggero Giuseppe. A Theory of Natural Philosophy. Translated by J. M. Child. English ed. Cambridge, Mass.,: M. I. T. Press, 1966.
  • Brush, Stephen G. The Kind of Motion We Call Heat : A History of the Kinetic Theory of Gases in the 19th Century. Vol. 6 Studies in Statistical Mechanics. New York: North-Holland Pub. Co., 1976.
  • Brush, Stephen G. Statistical Physics and the Atomic Theory of Matter : From Boyle and Newton to Landau and Onsager Princeton Series in Physics. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1983.
  • Bursill-Hall, Piers, ed. R.J. Boscovich; Vita E Attivita Scientifica; His Life and Scientific Work. Roma: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1993.
  • Dadić, Žarko. Ruđer Bošković (Parallel text in Croatian and English). Zagreb: Školska Knjiga, 1987
  • Dimitric, Radoslav. Ruđer Bošković (Serbian, with English summary, Bošković works in original, and translations into English and Serbian). Pittsburgh: Helios Publishing Company, 2006, ISBN 978-0-9788256-2-1
  • Feingold, Mordechai. "A Jesuit among Protestants: Boscovich in England C. 1745–1820." In R.J. Boscovich; Vita E Attivita Scientifica; His Life and Scientific Work, ed. Piers Bursill-Hall, 511-526. Roma: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1993.
  • Franolić, Branko. Bošković in Britain, Journal of Croatian Studies Vol. 43, 2002 Croatian Academy of America, New York US ISSN 0075-4218
  • Hrvatski biografski leksikon [The Croatian Biographical Lexicon]. Zagreb 1989. Vol 2, pp 194–199. ISBN 978-86-7053-015-7
  • Justin, Rodriguez. "Scientific Revolution Atomic Projects." Stevens Journal of Oral Traditions, no. 1 (200?): xlv-xc.
  • Kargon, Robert. "William Rowan Hamilton, Michael Faraday, and the Revival of Boscovichean Atomism." American Journal of Physics 32, no. 10 (1964): 792-795.
  • Kargon, Robert. "William Rowan Hamilton and Boscovichean Atomism." Journal of the History of Ideas 26, no. 1 (1965): 137-140.
  • Katritsky, Linde. "Coleridge's Links with Leading Men of Science." Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 49, no. 2 (1995): 261-276.
  • Morais Jr, Luis Carlos de. Alchimia seu Archimagisterium Solis in V Libri. Rio de Janeiro: Quartica Premium, 2013.
  • Priestley, Joseph, and Robert E. Schofield. A Scientific Autobiography of Joseph Priestley, 1733–1804; Selected Scientific Correspondence. Cambridge,: M.I.T. Press, 1966.
  • Scott, Wilson L. "The Significance Of "Hard Bodies" In the History of Scientific Thought." Isis 50, no. 3 (1959): 199-210.
  • Whyte, Lancelot Law, ed. Roger Joseph Boscovich, S.J., F.R.S., 1711–1787: Studies of His Life and Work on the 250th Anniversary of His Birth. London,: G. Allen & Unwin, 1961.
  • Williams, L. Pearce. Michael Faraday, a Biography. New York,: Basic Books, 1965.
  • Williams, L. Pearce. "Boscovich, Mako, Davy and Faraday." In R.J. Boscovich; Vita E Attivita Scientifica; His Life and Scientific Work, ed. Piers Bursill-Hall, 587-600. Roma: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1993.

External links[edit]