San Marco, Rome
|Basilica of St. Marco
Basilica di San Marco Evangelista al Campidoglio
|Location||Italy Rome, Italy|
|Ecclesiastical or organizational status||Minor basilica Titular, National church in Rome of Venice|
|Architect(s)||Leon Battista Alberti (façade)|
|Architectural style||Renaissance, Baroque|
San Marco is a minor basilica in Rome dedicated to St. Mark the Evangelist located in the small Piazza di San Marco adjoining Piazza Venezia. It was first built in 336 by Pope Mark, whose remains are in an urn located below the main altar. The basilica is the national church of Venice in Rome.
In 336, Pope Mark built a church devoted to one of the Evangelists, his name bearer St. Mark, in a place called ad Pallacinas. The church is thus recorded as Titulus Marci in the 499 synod of Pope Symmachus. [At that time it became one of the stational churches of the city (Monday of the third week in Lent)].
After a restoration in 792 by Pope Adrian I, the church was rebuilt by Pope Gregory IV in 833. Besides the addition of a Romanesque bell tower in 1154, the major change in the architecture of the church was ordered by Pope Paul II in 1465-70, when the façade of the church was restyled according to the Renaissance taste with a portico and loggia, using marbles taken from the Colosseum and the Theatre of Marcellus. The façade is attributed to Leon Battista Alberti. Paul II being a Venetian by birth, assigned the church to the Venetian people living in Rome.
The floor of the church is below the Renaissance period ground level, and steps lead down to the interior, which retains its ancient basilica format, with a raised sanctuary. The inside of the church is clearly Baroque. However, the basilica shows noteworthy elements of all her millenary history:
- the apse mosaics, dating to Pope Gregory IV, show the pope, with the squared halo of a living person, offering a model of the church to Christ, in the presence of Mark the Evangelist, Pope Saint Mark and other saints;
- the wooden ceiling, with the emblem of Pope Paul II, is one of only two original 15th century wooden ceilings in Rome, together with the one at Santa Maria Maggiore;
- the tomb of Leonardo Pesaro (1796) by Antonio Canova.
Cardinal priests since 1846
- Charles Januarius Acton (21 Dec 1846 Appointed - 23 Jun 1847 Died)
- Giacomo Piccolomini (4 Oct 1847 Appointed - 17 Aug 1861 Died)
- Pietro de Silvestri (27 Sep 1861 Appointed - 19 Nov 1875 Died)
- Domenico Bartolini (3 Apr 1876 Appointed - 2 Oct 1887 Died)
- Michelangelo Celesia, O.S.B. (25 Nov 1887 Appointed - 14 Apr 1904 Died)
- József Samassa (11 Dec 1905 Appointed - 20 Aug 1912 Died)
- Franz Xavier Nagl (2 Dec 1912 Appointed - 4 Feb 1913 Died)
- Friedrich Piffl (25 May 1914 Appointed - 21 Apr 1932 Died)
- Elia Dalla Costa (13 Mar 1933 Appointed - 22 Dec 1961 Died)
- Giovanni Urbani (19 Mar 1962 Appointed - 17 Sep 1969 Died)
- Albino Luciani (5 Mar 1973 Appointed - 26 Aug 1978)
- Marco Cé (30 Jun 1979 Appointed - )
- Roma, collection "L'Italia", Touring Editore, 2004, Milano.
- Macadam, Alta. Blue Guide Rome. A & C Black, London (1994), ISBN 07136-3939-3
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