Sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilization

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Dholavira Sophisticated Water Reservoir

The ancient Indus Valley Civilization of Northwest South Asia, including Pakistan and parts of India, was prominent in hydraulic engineering, and had many water supply and sanitation devices that were the first of their kind.

Among other things, they contain the world's earliest known system of flush toilets. These existed in many homes, and were connected to a common sewerage pipe. Most houses also had private wells. City walls functioned as a barrier against floods.

Lothal was a port at the Indian Ocean with a dockyard.


Mohenjo-daro is one of the best excavated and studied settlements from this civilization. The Great Bath might be the first of its kind in pre-historic period.[1] This ancient town had more than 700 wells, and most houses in Mohenjo-daro had one private well.[2]


Dholavira, located in Gujarat, India, had a series of water storing tanks and step wells, and its water management system has been called "unique".[2] Dholavira had at least five baths, size of one is comparable with the Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro.[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb. 2011. Mohenjo-daro’s Sewers. In Kevin Murray McGeough (ed.), World History Encyclopedia, Vol. 3. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, pp. 121-122.
  2. ^ a b Singh, Upinder (2008). A history of ancient and early medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. pp. 151–155. ISBN 9788131711200. 
  3. ^ harappa., com. "Ancient Indus Valley Sites". Retrieved 4 July 2012.