Second New Deal
The Second New Deal is the term used by commentators at the time and historians ever since to characterize the second stage of the New Deal programs of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In his address to Congress in January 1935, Roosevelt called for five major goals: improved use of national resources, security against old age, unemployment and illness, and slum clearance, as well as a national welfare program (the WPA) to replace state relief efforts. It is usually dated 1935-36, and includes programs to redistribute wealth, income and power in favor of the poor, the old, farmers and labor unions. The most important programs included Social Security, the National Labor Relations Act ("Wagner Act"), the Banking Act, rural electrification, and breaking up utility holding companies. Programs that were later ended by the Supreme Court or the Conservative Coalition included WPA, NYA, the Resettlement Administration, and programs for retail price control, farm rescues, coal stabilization, and taxes on the rich and the Undistributed profits tax. Liberals in Congress passed the Bonus Bill of $1.5 billion to 3 million World War veterans over FDR's veto. Liberals strongly supported the new direction, and formed the New Deal Coalition of union members, big city machines, the white South, and ethnic minorities to support it; and conservatives—typified by the American Liberty League were strongly opposed.
- The term was introduced by columnist Frank Kent, Without grease (1936) p 53
- Folsom, Burton W. New Deal or Raw Deal?: How FDR's Economic Legacy Has Damaged America (2009), excerpt and text search
- Kennedy, David M. Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945 (2001), online edition
- Leuchtenburg, William. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal: 1932-1940 (1963),
- Phillips-Fein, Kim. Invisible Hands: The Businessmen's Crusade Against the New Deal (2010) excerpt and text search
- Schlesinger, Jr., Arthur Meier. The Politics of Upheaval: 1935-1936 (The Age of Roosevelt, Volume III) (1959), excerpt and text search