|Solomon Kane character|
|First appearance||"Red Shadows"|
|Created by||Robert E. Howard|
Solomon Kane is a fictional character created by the pulp-era writer Robert E. Howard. A late 16th/early 17th century Puritan, Solomon Kane is a somber-looking man who wanders the world with no apparent goal other than to vanquish evil in all its forms. His adventures, published mostly in the pulp magazine Weird Tales, often take him from Europe to the jungles of Africa and back.
Howard described him as a sombre and gloomy man of pale face and cold eyes, all of it shadowed by a slouch hat. He is dressed entirely in black and his weaponry usually consists of a rapier, a dirk, and a brace of flintlock pistols. During one of his latter adventures his friend N'Longa, an African shaman, gave him a juju staff that served as a protection against evil, but could easily be wielded as an effective weapon. It is revealed in another story, "The Footfalls Within", that this is the mythical Staff of Solomon, a talisman older than the Earth and unimaginably powerful, much more so than even N'Longa knew. In the same adventure with N'Longa, Kane is seen using a musket as well.
Most of the Solomon Kane stories were first published in Weird Tales. The order of publication, however does not coincide with the order in which the stories were written.
"Red Shadows" 
First published in Weird Tales, August 1928, alternatively titled "Solomon Kane". This was the first Solomon Kane story ever published. In France, Kane finds a girl attacked by a gang of brigands led by a villain known as Le Loup. As she dies in his arms, Kane determines to avenge her death, and the trail leads from France to Africa, ending with Kane's first meeting with N'Longa.
"Skulls in the Stars" 
First published in Weird Tales, January 1929. In England, Kane is on his way to the hamlet of Torkertown, and must choose one of two paths, a route that leads through a moor or one that leads through a swamp. He is warned that the moor route is haunted and all travelers who take that road die, so he decides to investigate.
"Rattle of Bones" 
First published in Weird Tales, June 1929. In Germany Kane meets a traveler named Gaston L'Armon, who seems familiar to Kane, and together they take rooms in the Cleft Skull Tavern.
"The Moon of Skulls" 
First published in Weird Tales, Part 1, June 1930; Part 2, July 1930. Kane goes to Africa on the trail of an English girl named Marylin Taferal, kidnapped from her home and sold to Barbary pirates by her cousin. When he finds the hidden city of Negari, he encounters Nakari, "the vampire queen of Negari".
"Hills of the Dead" 
First published in Weird Tales, August 1930. In Africa again, Kane's old friend N'Longa (the witch doctor from "Red Shadows") gives the Puritan a magic wooden staff, the Staff of Solomon, which will protect him in his travels. Kane enters the jungle and finds a city of vampires.
"The Footfalls Within" 
First published in Weird Tales, September 1931. In Africa again, Kane encounters Arab slave traders busily engaged driving slaves to market. He rushes to save a girl whom the slavers are mistreating but is himself overwhelmed and taken prisoner.
"Wings in the Night" 
First published in Weird Tales, July 1932. In Africa again, Kane comes across an entire village wiped out, and all of the roofs have been ripped off, as if by something attempting to get inside from above.
"Blades of the Brotherhood" 
First published in Red Shadows, Grant, 1968. Also known as "The Blue Flame of Vengeance". On the English coast, Kane battles The Fishhawk and his fellow pirates in a historical action tale with no fantasy elements. Writer John Pocsik was commissioned by Arkham House founder August Derleth to "edit" Howard's prose and to add a weird element for his 1964 anniversary anthology Over the Edge. REH scholar L. Sprague de Camp and author Fritz Leiber are both reported to have thought highly of the "new" version. Pocsik went on to pen several other Kane pastiches, only one of which, "The Fiend Within", saw print in Ariel (with "Solomon Kane" changed to "Jonathan Flint").
"The Right Hand of Doom" 
First published in Red Shadows. Kane plays a minimal role in this story. A condemned wizard seeks revenge on the man who betrayed him.
"Death's Black Riders" 
First published in The Howard Collector #10, Spring 1968. Just a few lines completed. Kane meets a shadowy ghost rider on the road.
"The Castle of the Devil" 
First published in Red Shadows, Grant, 1967. In the Black Forest Kane tells John Silent, an English mercenary, that he cut down a boy from the local Baron's gibbet. Both men head to the Baron's castle for a reckoning.
"The Children of Asshur" 
First published in Red Shadows. Kane comes across a lost city of Assyrians.
"Hawk of Basti" 
First published in Red Shadows. Kane's old acquaintance, Jeremy Hawk, was once the king of an African lost civilization, and wants to resume that role.
- Ramsey Campbell has completed Howard's three sizable fragments, and several compilations contain some of these collaborations.
- Javier Martin Lalanda has completed Howard's fragments in Las Aventuras De Solomon Kane, the complete Spanish edition of the Kane stories.
- Gianluigi Zuddas has completed Howard's fragments in Solomon Kane, Fanucci, Rome, 1979, the complete Italian edition of the Kane stories.
"The One Black Stain" 
Wherein Solomon Kane speaks out to Sir Francis Drake, objecting to his execution of Sir Thomas Doughty in 1578 Patagonia, South America (actual historical people and events)
"The Return of Sir Richard Grenville" 
Kane fights side-by-side with the ghost of Sir Richard Grenville, at whose 1591 death Kane had been present.
"Solomon Kane's Homecoming" 
After years of wandering, Kane comes back to England "to live forever in my place." Then he hears "the howling of the ocean pack" and leaves again. This work contains a dialog exchange between Kane and a local man: "Where is Bess? Woe that I caused her tears."/"In the quiet churchyard by the sea she has slept these seven years." Most fans of the character have assumed that Bess is Queen Elizabeth I of England and consequently date the incident to 1610 but this is wrong. In the Howard fragment, "Hawk of Basti," Kane says of this monarch, "She herself has lied to and betrayed the folk of my faith...," an historian described Elizabeth as "a huge boulder in the path of Puritanism, unavoidable, insurmountable, immovable," and she is buried in Westminster Abbey which does not fit the description of Bess' burial place.
Some fans consider "Bess" to be the love interest of Solomon Kane. There is no other mention of Bess in the stories, but given the character of Kane, a story has been read between the lines: Bess and Kane have shared a love, but the way-faring nature of Kane has forced him to pursue his adventures. Perhaps he has planned to come home to start a family with Bess, but upon hearing of her death, breaks all connections to home and leaves again without returning.
The Staff of Solomon 
The Staff of Solomon is an incredibly ancient staff that N'Longa presented to Kane to aid him in his adventures. It is described as sharp-pointed on one end and with the head of a cat on the other, made of a wood that no longer exists on Earth. The staff is covered with ancient hieroglyphics which themselves were added a very long time after the staff was created. Using the staff Kane can communicate over distances with N'Longa, and it has also been used to slay vampires.
When Kane is taken prisoner by slavers, one of their party, "Yussef the Hadji", recognises the staff for what it is. He says the staff is older than the world itself and holds mighty magic. The cat-head is a representation of Bast, and the priests of Bast used the staff in ancient Egypt. The feline head which now decorates the staff's top was itself carved out of a pre-existing decoration, thought it's now impossible to say what manner of eldritch symbol (or creature) was originally effigiated on it. With the staff Moses (known as Musa in Arabic) did wonders before the Pharaoh, and carried it with him when his people fled Egypt. For centuries it was the Scepter of Israel (mentioned in Numbers 24:17), and Solomon used it to combat magicians and capture djinns. The staff may be related to Aaron's rod, Moses' rod or the Rod of Asclepius.
Before this, when the world was young, Atlantean, pre-Adamite, priests in silent cities beneath the seas used the staff to fight evil, millions of years before mankind was born.
He is an ancient African shaman, who is driven to study magic. He has travelled the world in ancient times as a slave, secretly studying under various sorcerers and holy men of the Middle and Near East. In Judea he acquired the Staff of Solomon, which he later gave to Solomon Kane to aid him in his wanderings. N'Longa's magical powers derive from his ability to send his spirit out of his body. He can take over the bodies of the living and dead through this method, to communicate with Solomon Kane through the Staff of Solomon, and also summons the vultures by sending his spirit to parley with them.
Le Loup 
A French criminal mastermind (his name means "the wolf") whom Kane spent several years tracking down to avenge the murder of a dying girl he found, and her whole village. Kane eventually tracks Le Loup to Africa, where he first meets N'Longa, and justice is served.
The Fishhawk 
His real name is Jonas Hardraker and he is known on all coasts of the civilized world as a ruthless pirate. He is a tall, rangy, broad-shouldered man, with a lean hawk-like cruel face. Solomon Kane hunted him for two years after Hardraker sank a ship that was carrying the daughter of an old friend of Kane, the old friend having gone mad after hearing of his daughter's death. Kane finally confronted and killed Hardraker in England where Hardraker was smuggling alcohol with Sir George Banway.
At the 2006 San Diego Comic Con, it was announced that a feature film based upon the character of Solomon Kane was in development at Davis-Films, with Michael J. Bassett writing and directing. The film was produced by Samuel Hadida, Paul Berrow and Kevan Van Thompson. Shooting started in Czech Republic in January 2008, with James Purefoy (Rome's Mark Anthony) as Kane. Max von Sydow plays Kane's father, and Pete Postlethwaite, Alice Krige and Jason Flemyng are among the supporting cast. Patrick Tatopoulos, creature designer for Godzilla, Underworld, Silent Hill, I Am Legend and others, conceptualized the monsters Kane fights in his battles with the forces of evil. The film was released in France on December 23, 2009, in the UK on February 19, 2010 and in the US on September 28th, 2012.
- Marvel Comics published several comic books featuring Solomon Kane in the 1970s and 1980s.
- It was announced at the 2006 Comic Con that Paradox Entertainment has completed a publishing deal with Dark Horse Comics for a Solomon Kane comic series, to be written by Scott Allie, drawn by Mario Guevara, and colored by Dave Stewart. As of 2012, three mini-series were published: Solomon Kane, Solomon Kane: Death's Black Riders, and Solomon Kane: Red Shadows.
- Andrew Cain, a fictional 19th century monster hunter in the Italian comic book Zagor was inspired by Kane.
Music Video 
Role-playing game 
Pinnacle Entertainment Group has published a role-playing game based on the character utilizing the Savage Worlds rules system, titled The Savage World of Solomon Kane. In addition to game rules, the book features a background and summaries of Howard's original stories and an original adventure campaign featuring a group of wanderers following the path of Kane and revisiting places changed by Solomon's actions.
Copyright and trademark 
Trademark on name Solomon Kane and the names of Robert E. Howard's other principal characters are claimed by Paradox Entertainment of Stockholm, Sweden, through its US subsidiary Paradox Entertainment Inc. Paradox also claims copyrights on the stories written by other authors under license from Solomon Kane Inc. Since Robert E. Howard published his Solomon Kane stories at a time when the date of publication was the marker, the owners had to use the copyright symbol, and they had to renew after a certain time to maintain copyright, the exact status of all of Howard's Solomon Kane works are in question.
The Australian site of Project Gutenberg has many Robert E. Howard stories, including several Solomon Kane stories. This indicates that, in their opinion, the stories are free from copyright and may be used by anyone, at least under Australian law.
Subsequent stories written by other authors are subject to the copyright laws of the relevant time.
Paul Di Filippo, "Observable Things" in Conqueror Fantastic, ed. by Pamela Sargent (New York : DAW Books, c2004.). As narrated by a young Cotton Mather, Solomon Kane comes to the aid of the colonists in New England during King Philip's War
Tales of the Shadowmen 
Tales of the Shadowmen is an anthology series edited by Jean-Marc Lofficier and Randy Lofficier, where characters from French adventure literature exist in the same universe. Tales of the Shadowmen, Volume 3: Danse Macabre includes a story entitled "The Heart of the Moon" by Matthew Baugh which features Solomon Kane as one of a group of adventurers visiting Féval's vampire metropolis, Selene. Tales of the Shadowmen, Volume 4: Lords of Terror includes a story entitled "The Anti-Pope of Avignon" by Micah Harris featuring Solomon Kane as the central protagonist supporting the Huguenot cause in Avignon.
The Wold Newton Family 
In Philip José Farmer's Doc Savage: His Apocalyptic Life, Farmer identifies Solomon Kane as being a direct ancestor of adventurer Doc Savage. This book is part of a larger literary concept that the (real) meteorite which fell in Wold Newton, Yorkshire, England, on December 13, 1795 was radioactive and caused genetic mutations in the occupants of a passing coach. As luck would have it many of these occupants were also already of heroic stock. See the Savage Family Tree.
Book editions 
Howard's stories, poems, and fragments featuring Solomon Kane have been published several times as a collection in book form. Not every publication has been a complete collection.
- Red Shadows, Donald M. Grant, 1968 (all but Death's Black Riders, assembled by the Howard estate's literary agent, Glenn Lord, in what he considered internal chronological order.
- Three volume set, all but Death's Black Riders:
- The Moon of Skulls, Centaur Press, November 1969.
- The Hand of Kane, Centaur Press, October 1970.
- Solomon Kane, Centaur Press, February 1971.
- Two volume set, all but Death's Black Riders, with introductory essays by Ramsey Campbell, who also completed the three sizable fragments for this collection:
- Solomon Kane: Skulls in the Stars, Bantam Books, December 1978.
- Solomon Kane: The Hills of the Dead, Bantam Books, March 1979.
- Solomon Kane, Baen Books, November 1995. (ISBN 0-671-87695-3)
- The Savage Tales of Solomon Kane, Wandering Star, November 1998. (British Edition)
- The Savage Tales of Solomon Kane (2004) Howard, Robert E.; Illus. Gianni, Gary. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-46150-9. (North American Edition)
- The Right Hand of Doom & Other Tales of Solomon Kane, Wordsworth Editions, 2007. (ISBN 978-1-184022-611-9)
- Las Aventuras de Solomón Kane, Ultima Thule, Ed. Anaya, Spain, November 1994. (A complete collection of stories, poems, and fragments featuring Solomon Kane, in Spanish translation.)
- Ten (?) volume set from Wildside Press, the publisher of Weird Tales, as a complete collection of Howard's entire Weird Tales catalog.
- Shadow Kingdoms: The Weird Works of Robert E. Howard, Volume One, Wildside Press, 2004. (ISBN 0-8095-6236-7)
- Moon of Skulls: The Weird Works of Robert E. Howard, Volume Two, Wildside Press, 2006. (ISBN 0-8095-6236-7)
- People of the Dark: The Weird Works of Robert E. Howard, Volume Three, 2006.
- Wings in the Night: The Weird Works of Robert E. Howard, Volume Four, 2007.
- Valley of the Worm: The Weird Works of Robert E. Howard, Volume Five
- The Garden of Fear: The Weird Works of Robert E. Howard, Volume Six
- Beyond the Black River: The Weird Works of Robert E. Howard, Volume Seven
- Hours of the Dragon: The Weird Works of Robert E. Howard, Volume Eight
- Volumes 9 and 10 are awaiting publication.
Further reading 
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- Campbell, J. Ramsey, "The Mystery of Solomon Kane," Solomon Kane: The Hills of the Dead, Bantam Books, March 1979, pp. ix-xii.
- The REH Forum.
- IMDB description page
- Robert E. Howard's Solomon Kane Returns at Dark Horse, August 18, 2007, Comic Book Resources
- Zagor - Il terrore dal mare/The sea terror http://www-en.sergiobonellieditore.it/auto/alborist?collana=10&numero=386&subnum=
- Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States at Cornell University
- Paul Herman's research on the copyright status of Robert Howard's works
- A - M, Project Gutenberg Australia free ebooks ebook etext etexts
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