The people who first settled here were called Tuluvas.The Brahmins belonged chiefly to the Sthanika, Shivalli, Havika (Havyaka) and Kotaha sub-sections. Besides the Brahmins there were other non-Brahmin castes, such as the Mogaveera, Bunts, Billavas, the artisan castes, Holeyas and Mahars, the hill-tribes (Koragas). The varna designation of several case in south canara is a contested and complex topic. Even after the introduction of the varna concept to south India, caste boundaries in south India were not as marked as in north India, where the four-tier varna system placed the priestly Brahmins on top followed by the Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras. In south India, on the other hand, there existed only three distinguishable classes, the Brahmins, the non-Brahmins and the Dalits. The two intermediate dvija varnas, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas did not exist.