South Canara

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South Canara
region
Karnataka TuluNadu.png
Coordinates: 13°00′N 75°24′E / 13.00°N 75.40°E / 13.00; 75.40Coordinates: 13°00′N 75°24′E / 13.00°N 75.40°E / 13.00; 75.40
Country  India
State Karnataka
Area
 • Total 8,441 km2 (3,259 sq mi)
Population (2001)[1]
 • Total 3,005,897
 • Density 356.1/km2 (922/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Tulu(40%), Kannada(25%), Konkani(18%), Beary(12%),Others(5%).
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
ISO 3166 code [[ISO 3166-2:IN|]]
Vehicle registration KA 19, KA 20, KA 21, KA 62
Largest city Mangalore

South Canara was a district of the Madras Presidency of British India, located at 13°00′N 75°24′E / 13.00°N 75.40°E / 13.00; 75.40.[2] It covered the areas of the present-day districts of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi of Karnataka and the Kasaragod District of Kerala. The district was one of the most heterogeneous of Madras Presidency with Kannada, Tulu, Konkani and Malayalam being the principal languages spoken. It was succeeded by Dakshina Kannada in 1947.

South Kanara was annexed by the British East India Company following the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Mysore War 1799 and along with North Kanara formed the district of Kanara in the Madras Presidency. In 1859, Kanara was split into two districts, North and South. North Kanara was transferred to the Bombay Presidency, and South was retained by Madras. Mangalore was the administrative headquarters of the district. The district covered an area of 4,021 square miles (10,410 km2).

Taluks[edit]

Map of South Kanara district in 1861. The taluk of Coondapoor was then in North Kanara but was transferred to South Kanara district when North Kanara was transferred to Bombay Presidency in 1862

The district was divided into six taluks:

  • Amindivi Islands (Laccadives) (Area:3 square miles (7.8 km2))
  • Coondapoor (Area:619 square miles (1,600 km2); Headquarters: Coondapoor)
  • Kasaragod (Area:762 square miles (1,970 km2); Headquarters: Kasaragod)
  • Mangalore (Area:679 square miles (1,760 km2); Headquarters: Mangalore)
  • Udupi (Area:719 square miles (1,860 km2); Headquarters: Udupi)
  • Uppinangady (Area:1,239 square miles (3,210 km2); Headquarters: Puttur)

Administration[edit]

The district was administered by a District Collector. For purposes of convenience, the district was divided into three sub-divisions:

  • Coondapoor sub-division: Coondapoor and Udupi taluks
  • Mangalore sub-division: Mangalore, and the Amindivi islands
  • Puttur sub-division: Uppinangady and Kasaragod taluks.

The district had two municipalities, those of Mangalore and Udupi.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1871 918,362 —    
1881 959,514 +4.5%
1891 1,056,081 +10.1%
1901 1,134,713 +7.4%
Source: Imperial Gazetter of India, Volume 14[3]
Temple stambha, South Canara

South Kanara had a total population of 1,134,713 in 1901, of whom 81 percent were Hindus, 11 percent Muslim and 7 percent Christian. The most widely spoken language was Tulu which was the mother tongue of 44 percent of the population, followed by Kannada and Malayalam which formed the mother tongue of 19 percent each of the population. Around 13 percent of the total population spoke Konkani as their mother tongue. In 1901, South Kanara had a density of 282 persons per square mile.

The 1908 Imperial Gazetteer of India lists South Canara, along with the Thanjavur and Ganjam districts, as the three districts of the Madras Presidency where Brahmins are most numerous.[3]

The majority of the people were Billavas, Bunts and Holeyas. There were more Brahmins (12% of the population) in South Kanara than any other district of the Madras Presidency making South Kanara, along with Tanjore and Ganjam as one of the three districts of the province where Brahmins were most numerous.[3]

The people who first settled here were called Tuluvas. The Brahmins belonged chiefly to the Sthanika, Shivalli, Havika (Havyaka) and Kotaha sub-sections. Besides the Brahmins, there were other non-Brahmin castes, such as the Mogaveera, Bunts, Billavas, the artisan castes, Holeyas and Mahars, the hill-tribes (Koragas).[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census GIS India". Census of India. Retrieved 2008-03-26. 
  2. ^ Patsy Lozupone, Bruce M. Beehler, Sidney Dillon Ripley.(2004).Ornithological gazetteer of the Indian subcontinent, p. 82.Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International. ISBN 1-881173-85-2.
  3. ^ a b c The Imperial Gazetteer of India 14. Clarendon Press. 1908. 
  4. ^ Silva, Severine; Fuchs, Stephan (1965). "The Marriage Customs of the Christians in South Canara, India". Asian Folklore Studies (Nanzan University) 24 (2): 2–3. 

External links[edit]