Marathi language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Marathi
मराठी Marāṭhī
Devanāgarī and Modi scripts.svg
Marathi written in Devanāgarī and Modi
Pronunciation [məˈɾaʈʰi]
Native to India
Region Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh parts of Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu.[1]
Native speakers
73 million  (2007)[2]
Early forms
Maharashtri
  • Marathi
Dialects
Balbodh style[3][4][5][6] of the Devanagari script (Marathi alphabet)
Marathi Braille
Modi (historical)
Signed Marathi
Official status
Official language in
 India: Maharashtra, Daman and Diu[7] and Dadra and Nagar Haveli[8]
Regulated by Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad & various other institutions
Language codes
ISO 639-1 mr
ISO 639-2 mar
ISO 639-3 Either:
mar – Modern Marathi
omr – Old Marathi
Linguist list
omr Old Marathi
Glottolog mara1378  (Modern Marathi)[9]
oldm1244  (Old Marathi)[10]
{{{mapalt}}}

Marathi (English pronunciation: Listeni/məˈrɑːti/;[11] मराठी Marāṭhī [məˈɾaʈʰi]) is an Indo-Aryan language. It is the official language of Maharashtra state of India and is one of the 23 official languages of India. There were 73 million speakers in 2001; Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India.[12] Marathi has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indo-Aryan languages, dating from about 1000 AD.[13] The major dialects of Marathi are called Standard Marathi and Warhadi Marathi.[14] There are a few other sub-dialects like Ahirani, Dangi, Vadvali, Samavedi, Khandeshi, and Malwani. Standard Marathi is the official language of the State of Maharashtra.

Geographic distribution[edit]

Maharashtra, the state in India where the majority of Marathi speakers live.

Marathi is primarily spoken in Maharashtra and parts of neighbouring states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh,Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, union-territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The formerly Maratha ruled cities outside Maharashtra such as Baroda, Indore, Gwalior, and Tanjore each have sizable Marathi-speaking communities. Belgaum in the border region of Maharashtra and Karnataka, Surat, and Ahmedabad in Gujarat, Adoni in Andhra Pradesh, and Hyderabad in Telengana have significant number of Marathi Speakers. Marathi is also spoken by Maharashtrian emigrants worldwide, especially in the United States, Israel, Mauritius, and Canada.[15]

Official status[edit]

Marathi is the official language of Maharashtra and co-official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu[7] and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.[8] In Goa, Konkani is the sole official language; however, Marathi may also be used for all official purposes. The Constitution of India recognizes Marathi as one of India's twenty-two official languages.[16]

In addition to all universities in Maharashtra, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda in Vadodara,[17] Osmania University in Hyderabad,[18] Karnataka University in Dharwar,[19] Gulbarga University in Gulbarga,[20] Devi Ahilya University in Indore[21] and Goa University in Goa[22] have special departments for higher studies in Marathi linguistics. Jawaharlal Nehru University (New Delhi) has announced plans to establish a special department for Marathi.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Main article: Marathi literature

Marathi is one of several languages that descend from Maharashtri Prakrit. Further change led to apabhraṃśa languages like Marathi, which may be described as being a re-Sanskritised, developed form of Maharashtri Apabhraṃśa.

Marathi Literature 12th century to 1905[edit]

Yadava[edit]

Marathi literature began and grew owing to the rise of both the Yadava dynasty of Devgiri (who adopted Marathi as the court language and patronized Marathi scholars) and two religious sects - Mahanubhav Panth and Warkari Panth, who adopted Marathi as the medium for preaching their doctrines of devotion. Marathi had attained a venerable place in court life by the time of the Yadava kings. During the reign of the last three Yadava kings, a great deal of literature in verse and prose, on astrology, medicine, Puranas, Vedanta, kings and courtiers were created. Nalopakhyan, Rukmini swayamvar and Shripati's Jyotishratnamala (1039) are a few examples.

The oldest book in prose form in Marathi, Vivekasindhu (विवेकसिंधु), was written by Mukundaraj, a yogi of Natha Pantha and arch-poet of Marathi. Mukundaraj bases his exposition of the basic tenets of the Hindu philosophy and Yoga Marga on the utterances or teachings of Shankaracharya. Mukundaraj's other work, Paramamrita, is considered the first systematic attempt to explain the Vedanta in the Marathi language. One of the famous saints of this period is Sant Dnyaneshwar (1275–1296) who wrote Bhavarthadeepika, popularly known as Dnyaneshwari (1290), and Amritanubhava. He also composed devotional songs called abhangas. Dnyaneshwar gave a higher status to Marathi by bringing the sacred Bhagavad Gita from Sanskrit to Marathi.

Mahanubhav sect[edit]

Notable examples of Marathi prose are "Līḷācarītra" (लीळाचरीत्र), events and anecdotes from the miracle filled life of Chakradhar Swami of the Mahanubhav sect compiled by his close disciple, Mahimabhatta, in 1238. The Mahanubhav sect made Marathi a vehicle for the propagation of religion and culture.

Varkari sect[edit]

The Mahanubhav sect was followed by the Varkari saint-poet Eknath (1528–1599). Eknath's Bhavarth Ramayana brought the message of the Bhagvat cult[clarification needed] to the people. Mukteshwar translated the epic Mahabharata into Marathi. Saint-poet Tukaram transformed Marathi into a rich literary language. Saint Tukaram’s (1608–49) poetry contained his inspirations. Tukaram wrote over 3000 Abhangas. He was followed by Ramadas. Writers of the Mahanubhav sect contributed to Marathi prose while the saint-poets of Varkari sect composed Marathi poetry. However, the latter group is regarded as the pioneers and founders of Marathi literature.[citation needed] Jainism too enriched Marathi during Bahamani period.[citation needed]

Medieval and Deccan Sultanate period[edit]

Sant Dyaneshwar wrote largest treaty of the initial time A D 1290 titled Dyaneshwari. later, Saint Tukaram made important contributions to Marathi poetic literature in Warkari Pantha. Saints like Samartha Ramdas (Dasboth), Sant Namdev (his marathi couplets were even taken to Punjab), Moropant (creator of 'Aryas") and many others created famous literary works in Marathi.

Marathi also became language of administration during the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar.[23] Adilshahi of Bijapur also used Marathi for administration and record keeping.[24]

Maratha Empire Period[edit]

Marathi gained prominence with the rise of the Maratha empire beginning with the reign of Chhatrapati Shivaji (1674`–1680). Subsequent rulers extended the empire northwards to Delhi, eastwards to Odisha, and southwards to Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu. These excursions by the Marathas helped to spread Marathi over broader geographical regions. This period also saw the use of Marathi in transactions involving land and other business. Documents from this period, therefore, give a better picture of life of common people. There are lot of Bakharis written in Marathi and Modi lipi (shorthand marathi) from this period. But by the late 18th century, the Maratha Empire's influence over a large part of the country was on the decline

In the 18th century, some well-known works such as Yatharthadeepika by Vaman Pandit, Naladamayanti Swayamvara by Raghunath Pandit, Pandava Pratap, Harivijay, Ramvijay by Shridhar Pandit and Mahabharata by Moropanta were produced. Krishnadayarnava and Sridhar were poets during the Peshwa period. New literary forms were successfully experimented with during the period and classical styles were revived, especially the Mahakavya and Prabandha forms..

British colonial period(Early 19th to mid 20th century)[edit]

The British colonial period (also known as the Modern Period) saw standardization of Marathi grammar through the efforts of the Christian missionary William Carey. Carey's dictionary had fewer entries and Marathi words were in Modi script. The most comprehensive Marathi-English dictionaries was compiled by Captain James Thomas Molesworth in 1831. The book is still in print nearly two centuries after its publication.[25]

The late 19th century in Maharashtra was a period of colonial modernity. Like the corresponding periods in other Indian languages, this was the period dominated by English-educated intellectuals. It was the age of English prose, reformist activism and a great intellectual ferment.

The first Marathi translation of an English book was published in 1817, and the first Marathi newspaper was started in 1832. Newspapers provided a platform for sharing literary views, and many books on social reforms were written. The Marathi language flourished as Marathi drama gained popularity. Musicals known as Sangeet Natak also evolved. Keshavasut, the father of modern Marathi poetry published his first poem in 1885. First Marathi periodical Dirghadarshan was started in 1840 while first Marathi newspaper Durpan was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in 1832.

The popular Marathi language newspapers at a newsstand in Mumbai, 2006

The first half of the 20th century was marked by new enthusiasm in literary pursuits, and socio-political activism helped achieve major milestones in Marathi literature, drama, music and film. Modern Marathi prose flourished through various new literary forms like the essay, the biographies, the novels, prose, drama etc. Chiplunkar's Nibandhmala (essays), N.C.Kelkar's biographical writings, novels of Hari Narayan Apte, Narayan Sitaram Phadke and V. S. Khandekar, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar's nationalist literature and plays of Mama Varerkar and Kirloskar's are particularly worth noting.

Marathi since Indian independence[edit]

After Indian independence, Marathi was accorded the status of a scheduled language on the national level. On 1 May 1960, Maharashtra was re-organised along linguistic lines adding Vidarbha and Marathwada region in its fold and thus bringing major chunks of Marathi population socio-politically together. With state and cultural protection, Marathi made great strides by the 1990s.

Notable works in Marathi in the latter half of 20th century includes Khandekar's Yayati which won him, the Jnanpith Award. Also Vijay Tendulkar's plays in Marathi have earned him a reputation beyond Maharashtra. P.L.Deshpande(PuLa), P.K.Atre & Prabodhankar Thackeray, were also known for their writings in Marathi in the field of Drama, comedy and Social commentary.

A literary event called Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Sahitya Sammelan (All-India Marathi Literature Meet) is held every year. In addition, the Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Natya Sammelan (All-India Marathi Theatre Meet) is also held annually. Both events are very popular amongst Maharashtrians.

Dialects[edit]

Standard Marathi is based on dialects used by academics and the print media.

Indic scholars distinguish 42 dialects of spoken Marathi. Dialects bordering other major language areas have many properties in common with those languages, further differentiating them from standard spoken Marathi. The bulk of the variation within these dialects is primarily lexical and phonological (e.g. accent placement and pronunciation). Although the number of dialects is considerable, the degree of intelligibility within these dialects is relatively high.[26]

Jhadi Boli[edit]

Jhadi Boli or Jhadiboli is spoken in Jhadipranta (Forest rich region) of far eastern Maharashtra or eastern Vidarbha or western-central Gondvana comprising Gondia, Bhandara, Chandrpur, Gadchiroli and some parts of Nagpur and Wardha districts of Maharashtra.

Zadi Boli Sahitya Mandal and many literary are working for the conservation of this important and distinct dialect of Marathi.

Southern Indian Marathi[edit]

Thanjavur Marathi, Namdev shimpi Marathi and Bhavsar Marathi are spoken by many Maharashtrians in Southern India. This dialect is stuck in the 17th century and is old Marathi - it did not change from the time the Marathas conquered Thanjavur and Bangalore in southern India.[citation needed] It has speakers in parts of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

Varhadi[edit]

Main article: Varhadi dialect

Varhadi (Varhādi), or Vaidarbhi, is spoken in the Western Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. In Marathi, the retroflex lateral approximant [ɭ] is common, while in the Varhadii dialect, it corresponds to the palatal approximant y (IPA: [j]), making this dialect quite distinct. Such phonetic shifts are common in spoken Marathi, and as such, the spoken dialects vary from one region of Maharashtra to another

Others[edit]

Sounds[edit]

Main article: Marathi phonology

The phoneme inventory of Marathi is similar to that of many other Indo-Aryan languages. An IPA chart of all contrastive sounds in Marathi is provided below.

Consonants[27]
  Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Alveopalatal Velar Glottal
Voiceless
stops
p

t̪ʰ
ts
ʈ
ʈʰ

tʃʰ
k
Voiced
stops
b

d̪ʱ
dz
dzʱ
ɖ
ɖʱ

dʒʱ
ɡ
ɡʱ
Voiceless
fricatives
s ʃ h
Nasals m

n̪ʱ
ɳ
Liquids ʋ
ʋʱ
l ɾ
ɾʱ
[28] j

Older aspirated *tsʰ, dzʱ have lost their onset, with *tsʰ merging with /s/ and *dzʱ being typically realized as an aspirated fricative, [zʱ]. This /ts, dz, zʱ/ series is not distinguished in writing from /tʃ, tʃʰ, dʒ, dʒʱ/.

Vowels
  Front Central Back
High i   u
Mid e ə o
Low   a  

There are two more vowels in Marathi to denote the pronunciations of English words such as of a in act and a in all. These are written as अॅ and . The IPA signs for these are [æ] and [ɒ], respectively. Marathi retains the original Sanskrit pronunciation of certain letters such as the anusvāra (for instance, saṃhar, compared to sanhar in Hindi). Moreover, Marathi preserves certain Sanskrit patterns of pronunciation, as in the words purṇa and rāma compared to purṇ and rām in Hindi.

Writing[edit]

Modi script was used to write Marathi
Main articles: Devanagari, Balbodh and Modi script

Written Marathi first appeared during the 11th century in the form of inscriptions on stones and copper plates. The Marathi version of the Devanagari alphabet, called Balbodh, is similar to the Hindi Devanagari alphabet. From the 13th century until the mid-20th century, Marathi was written in the Modi script. Since 1950 it has been written in the Balbodh style of Devanagari.[29]

Devanagari[edit]

Marathi is usually written in the Balbodh version of Devanagari script, an abugida consisting of 36 consonant letters and 16 initial-vowel letters. It is written from left to right. The Devanagari alphabet used to write Marathi is slightly different from the Devanagari alphabets of Hindi and other languages: there are a couple of additional letters in the Marathi alphabet, and Western punctuation is used.

Modi[edit]

From the thirteenth century until 1950, Marathi was written in Modi script — a cursive script designed for minimising the lifting of pen from paper while writing.[30] Currently, due to the availability of Modi fonts and the enthusiasm of the younger speakers, the script is far from disappearing. (See Reference Links).

Latin[edit]

Since Devanagri was difficult to type on Latin keyboards and Devanagri does not display properly on old computers without the proper fonts, the general public used to type Marathi in Latin on social networking sites like Facebook and in online chats. Since it was a new trend there was no standardisation of phonetic and spelling rules. This trend seems to have saturated and is on the decline due to widespread support of Unicode and the availability of easy to use Devanagari transliteration on modern computers.

Consonant clusters[edit]

In Marathi, the consonants by default come with a schwa. Therefore, तयाचे will be 'təyāche', not 'tyāche'. To form 'tyāche', you will have to add त् + याचे, giving त्याचे.

When two or more consecutive consonants are followed by a vowel then a jodakshar (consonant cluster) is formed. Some examples of consonant clusters are shown below:

  • त्याचे - tyāche - "his"
  • प्रस्ता - prastāv - "proposal"
  • विद्या - vidyā - "knowledge"
  • म्या - myān "Sheath"
  • त्वरा - tvarā "immediate/Quick"
  • महत्त्व - mahatva - "importance"
  • क्त - phakta - "only"
  • बाहुल्या - bāhulyā - "dolls"

Marathi has a few consonant clusters that are rarely seen in the world's languages, including the so-called "nasal aspirates" (ṇh, nh, and mh) and liquid aspirates (rh, ṟh, lh, and vh). Some examples are given below.

  • ण्हेरी - kaṇherī - "a shrub known for flowers"/ Oleander
  • न्हाणे - nhāṇe - "bath"
  • म्हणून - mhaṇūn - "because"
  • ऱ्हा - taṟhā - "different way of behaving"
  • कोल्हा - kolhā - "fox"
  • केंव्हा - keṃvhā "when"

Grammar[edit]

Main article: Marathi grammar
Rajya Marathi Vikas Sanstha was established by Government of Maharashtra

Marathi grammar shares similarities with other modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi, Gujarati, Punjabi, etc. The first modern book exclusively concerning Marathi Grammar was printed in 1805 by William Carey. Sanskrit Grammar used to be referred more till late stages of Marathi Language.[citation needed]

The contemporary grammatical rules described by Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad and endorsed by the Government of Maharashtra are supposed to take precedence in standard written Marathi. Traditions of Marathi Linguistics and the above-mentioned rules give special status to 'Tatsam' (Without Change) words adapted from the Sanskrit language. This special status expects the rules for 'Tatsam' words to be followed as in Sanskrit grammar. While this supports Marathi Language with a larger treasure of Sanskrit words to cope with demands of new technical words whenever needed; maintains influence over Marathi.[clarification needed]

The primary word order of Marathi is SOV (subject–object–verb)[31] An unusual feature of Marathi, as compared to other Indo-European languages, is that it displays the inclusive and exclusive we feature, common to the Austronesian languages, Dravidian languages, Rajasthani, and Gujarati.

Unlike its related languages, Marathi preserves all three grammatical genders (Linga) from Sanskrit, masculine, feminine and neuter. Marathi contains three grammatical voices (prayog) i.e. Kartari, Karmani and Bhave. Detailed analysis of grammatical aspects of Marathi language are covered in Marathi grammar.

Marathi organisations[edit]

Many government and semi-government organisations exist which work for the regulation, promotion and enrichment of the Marathi language. These are either initiated or funded by Government of Maharashtra. Few Marathi organisations are given below:[32]

Outside Maharashtra state[edit]

  • Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Mandal JABALPUR[34]
  • Andhra Pradesh Marathi Sahitya Paraishad, Hyderabad
  • Marathi Granth Sangrahalay, Hyderabad
  • Vivek Vardhini Shikshan Sanstha, Hyderabad
  • Gomantak Marathi academy[35]
  • Madhya Pradesh Sahitya Parishad, Jabalpur
  • Marathi Sahitya Parishad, Karnataka
  • Vadodara (Badode Sansthan-Gaikwad State), Gujarat Rajya, Bharat
  • Shri Maharashtra Sahitya Sabha, Indore
  • Sanand Nyas,Indore
  • Marathi Samaj, Indore
  • Maharashtra Rangayan, Delhi
  • Vrihanna Maharastra Mandal, An Umbrella Body of ALL Marathis Who Stays Outside Maharashtra

Vocabulary[edit]

Sharing of linguistic resources with other languages[edit]

Marathi neon signbo ard at Maharashtra Police headquarters in Mumbai

Over a period of many centuries the Marathi language and people came into contact with many other languages and dialects. The primary influence of Prakrit, Maharashtri, Apabhraṃśa and Sanskrit is understandable. At least 50% of the words in Marathi are either taken or derived from Sanskrit.[citation needed]

Marathi has also shared directions, vocabulary and grammar with languages such as Indian Dravidian languages, and foreign languages such as Persian, Arabic, English and a little from Portuguese.

While recent genome studies suggest some amount of political and trade relations between the Indian subcontinent and East Africa, Middle East, Central Asia over a millennium, these studies are still not conclusive about the exact effect on linguistics.[citation needed]

Noted freedom fighter and revolutionary, social emanicipator and Hindutva Ideologue Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, has contributed immensely to the language, by coining new marathi equivalents for words from other languages, mostly English. Prior to these marathi equivalents, words from other languages were used commonly which was unacceptable to Savarkar. He opined that intrusion of foreign words, polluted the marathi language, while also rendering the original marathi words, of the same meanings, obsolete.[citation needed] Following are some of the words coined and popularized by him for safeguarding cultural integrity:

School: शाळा, College: महाविद्यालय, Academy: प्रबोधिका, Headmaster: मुख्याध्यापक, Superintendent of highschool: आचार्य, Principal: प्राचार्य, Professor: प्राध्यापक, Dispensary: औषधालय, Consulting room: चिकित्सालय, Vakil(an Urdu word): विधिज्ञ, Fauj, Lashkar(Urdu): सेना, सैन्य, Skirmish: चकमक, Camp: शिबीर, छावणी, Submarine: पाणबुडी, Telephone: दूरध्वनी, Television: दूरदर्शन, Circular: परिपत्रक, Report: अहवाल, प्रतिवृत्त, इतिवृत्त, Jindabad: की जय, जय हो, अमर हो, Legislature: विधी मंडळ, Parliamentarian: संसदपटू, Ahmedabad: कर्णावती, Arabian sea: पश्चिम समुद्र, सिंधुसागर, Hyderabad(south): भाग्यनगर, Cinema hall:चित्रपटगृह, Cinema: चित्रपट, Film: चित्रावली, चित्रपट्टिका, Interval: मध्यंतर, Studio: कलागृह, कलामंदिर, Shooting: चित्रण, Three dimension: त्रिमितीपट, Green groom: नेपथ्य, Photograph: छायाचित्र, Camera: छायिक, Portrait: व्यक्तिचित्र, Tape recorder: ध्वनिमुद्रा, Scenario: पटकथा, चित्रकथा, Trailer: परिचयपट, Music director: संगीत नियोजक, Director: दिग्दर्शक, Editor: संकलक,[citation needed]

Morphology and etymology[edit]

Day-to-day spoken Marathi retains a noticeably higher number of Sanskrit-derived (tatsam) words compared to sister North-Indian languages like Hindi, and many of these words are more or less unchanged versions of their original Sanskrit counterparts. Examples of such words used more or less daily by Marathi speakers include nantar (from nantaram or after), purṇa (purṇam or complete, full, or full measure of something), ola (olam or damp), karaṇ (karaṇam or cause), puṣkaḷ (puṣkalam or much, many), satat (satatam or always), vichitra (vichitram or strange), svatah (svatah or himself/herself), prayatna (prayatnam or effort, attempt), bhīti (from bhīti, or fear) and bhāṇḍa (bhāṇḍam or vessel for cooking or storing food). Others such as dār (dwāram or door), ghar (gṛham or house), vāgh (vyāghram or tiger), paḷaṇe (palāyate or to run away), kiti (kati or how many) have undergone more modification.

Examples of words borrowed from other Indian and foreign languages include:

  • Adakitta "nutcracker" directly borrowed from Kannada
  • Hajeri Attendance(native Marathi- "upasthiti") from Haziri Urdu
  • Jaahiraat "advertisement" is derived from Arabic zaahiraat
  • Marjii "wish" is derived from Persian "marzi"
  • Shiphaaras "recommendation" is derived from Persian sefaresh

A lot of English words are commonly used in conversation, and are considered to be totally assimilated into the Marathi vocabulary. These include "pen" (native Marathi lekhaṇii), "shirt" (sadaraa).

Influence of foreign languages[edit]

Usage of punctuation marks was one of the major contributions to Indic script by foreign languages. Previously, due to Sanskritised poetry, textual punctuation requirements of many texts may have been less.[citation needed]

Forming complex words[edit]

Marathi uses many morphological processes to join words together, forming complex words. These processes are traditionally referred to as sandhi (from Sanskrit, "combination"). For example, ati + uttam gives the word atyuttam.

Another method of combining words is referred to as samaas (from Sanskrit, "margin"). There are no reliable rules to follow to make a samaas. When the second word starts with a consonant, a sandhi can not be formed, but a samaas can be formed. For example, miith-bhaakar ("salt-bread"), udyog-patii ("businessman"), ashṭa-bhujaa ("eight-hands", name of a Hindu goddess), and so on. There are different names given to each type of samaas.

Counting[edit]

Like many other languages, Marathi uses distinct names for the numbers 1 to 20 and each multiple of 10, and composite ones for those greater than 20.

As with other Indic languages, there are distinct names for the fractions 14, 12, and 34. They are paava, ardhaa, and pauṇa, respectively. For most fractions greater than 1, the prefixes savvaa-, saaḍe-, paavaṇe- are used. There are special names for 32 (diiḍ) and 52 (aḍich).

Powers of ten are denoted by separate specific words as depicted in below table.

Number power to 10 Marathi Number name[36][37] In Devanagari
100 Eka एक
101 dahaa दहा
102 Shambhara शंभर
103 Hazaara (Sahasra, Ayut) सहस्र/हजार
104 Daha Hazaara (dash-sahasra) दशहजार
105 Laakha (laksha) लाख/लक्ष
106 DahaaLaakha (Dasha-Laksha) दशलक्ष
107 Koti (Karoda) कोटी
108 dasha-koti दशकोटी
109 Abja (Arbud, Arab) अब्ज
1010 dasha-Abja दशअब्ज
1011 Vrunda
1012 Kharva (Kharab) खर्व
1013 Nikharva (Neela) निखर्व
1014 - -
1015 Mahaapadma (padma) महापद्म
1016 - -
1017 Shanku (shankha) शंकू
1018 - -
1019 jaladhi (samudra) जलदी
1020 - -
1021 Antya अंत्य
1022 - -
1023 Madhya मध्य
1024 - -
1025 paraardha परार्ध

A positive integer is read by breaking it up from the tens digit leftwards, into parts each containing two digits, the only exception being the hundreds place containing only one digit instead of two. For example, 1,234,567 is written as 12,34,567 and read as 12 laakha 34 hazaara 5 she 67.

Every two-digit number after 18 (11 to 18 are predefined) is read backwards. For example, 21 is read एक-वीस (1-twenty). Also, a two digit number that ends with a 9 is considered to be the next tens place minus one. For example, 29 is एकुणतीस/एकोणतीस (एक-उणे-तीस)(Thirty minus one). Two digit numbers used before hazaara, etc. are written in the same way.

Marathi on computers and the Internet[edit]

Shrilipi, Shivaji, kothare 2,4,6, Kiran fonts KF-Kiran[38] and many more (about 48) are clip fonts that were used prior to the introduction of Unicode standard for Devanagari script. Clip fonts are in vogue on PCs even today since most of the computers in use are working with English Keyboard. Even today a large number of printed publications of books, newspapers and magazines are prepared using these ASCII based fonts. However, clip fonts fonts cannot be used on internet since those did not have unicode compatibility.

Earlier Marathi suffered from weak support by computer operating systems and Internet services, as have other Indian languages. But recently, with the introduction of language localisation projects and new technologies, various software and Internet applications have been introduced. Various Marathi typing software is widely used and display interface packages are now available on Windows, Linux and Mac OS. Many Marathi websites, including Marathi newspapers, have become popular especially with Maharashtrians outside India. Online projects such as the Marathi language Wikipedia, with 36,000+ articles, the Marathi blogroll and Marathi blogs have gained immense popularity.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1] Marathi. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  2. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
  3. ^ Masica, Colin P. (1993). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 437. ISBN 9780521299442. Archived from the original on 7 December 2014. 
  4. ^ Rao, Goparaju Sambasiva (1994). Language Change: Lexical Diffusion and Literacy. Academic Foundation. pp. 48 and 49. ISBN 9788171880577. Archived from the original on 7 December 2014. 
  5. ^ Ajmire, P.E.; Dharaskar, RV; Thakare, V M (22 March 2013). "A Comparative Study of Handwritten Marathi Character Recognition". International Journal of Computer Applications. INTRODUCTION. Archived from the original on 7 December 2014. 
  6. ^ Bhimraoji, Rajendra (28 February 2014). "Reviving the Modi Script". Typoday. Archived from the original on 7 December 2014. 
  7. ^ a b The Goa, Daman and Diu Official Language Act, 1987 makes Konkani the sole official language, but provides that Marathi may also be used "for all or any of the official purposes". The Government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, pp. para 11.3
  8. ^ a b Marathi is an official language of Dadra and Nagar Haveli Administration's profile.
  9. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Modern Marathi". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  10. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Old Marathi". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  11. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  12. ^ "Abstract of Language Strength in India: 2001 Census". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2013-05-09. 
  13. ^ arts, South Asian." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2007 Ultimate Reference Suite.
  14. ^ Dhoṅgaḍe, Rameśa; Wali, Kashi (2009). "Marathi". London Oriental and African language library (John Benjamins Publishing Company) 13: 101, 139. ISBN 9789027238139. 
  15. ^ "Ethnologue report of Marathi language". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2013-05-09. 
  16. ^ Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para.2[dead link]
  17. ^ "Dept. of Marathi, M.S. University of Baroda". Msubaroda.ac.in. Retrieved 2013-05-09. 
  18. ^ http://www.osmania.ac.in/ArtsCollege/marathi.htm
  19. ^ http://www.kudacademics.org/departments
  20. ^ http://www.gulbargauniversity.kar.nic.in/FacArt/Marathi.html
  21. ^ "List of statutes (Devi Ahilya University of Indore)". 
  22. ^ "Dept.of Marathi, Goa University". Unigoa.ac.in. 2012-04-27. Retrieved 2013-05-09. 
  23. ^ Gordon, Stewart (1993). Cambridge History of India: The Marathas 1600-1818. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7. 
  24. ^ Kamat, Jyotsna. "The Adil Shahi Kingdom (1510 CE to 1686 CE)". Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved 4 December 2014. 
  25. ^ James, Molesworth , Thomas Candy, Narayan G Kalelkar (1857 (2nd Edition), 1975 corrected reprint). Molesworth's, Marathi-English dictionary. Pune: J.C. Furla , Shubhada Saraswat Prakashan. ISBN 81-86411-57-7.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  26. ^ Khodade, 2004
  27. ^ Colin Masica, 1993, The Indo-Aryan Languages
  28. ^ Masica (1991:97)
  29. ^ "Marathi language, alphabet and pronunciation". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 2013-05-09. 
  30. ^ Modi lipi[dead link]
  31. ^ "Wals.info". Wals.info. Retrieved 2013-05-09. 
  32. ^ Encyclopaedia of Indian literature Volume I, Sahitya Akademi
  33. ^ Rajya Marathi Vikas Sanstha
  34. ^ Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Mandal JABALPUR
  35. ^ Gomantak Marathi academy
  36. ^ "Indian Numbering System". Oocities.org. Retrieved 2012-09-18. 
  37. ^ Sushma Gupta, Sushma, Gupta. "Indian Numbering System". Sushmajee.com. Retrieved 2012-09-18. 
  38. ^ "Welcome to www.kiranfont.com". Kiranfont.com. Retrieved 2012-09-18. 
  39. ^ Askari, Faiz. "Inside the Indian Blogosphere". Express Computer. Retrieved 2008-10-10. 
  • A Survey of Marathi Dialects. VIII. Gāwḍi, A.M.Ghatage & P.P.Karapurkar. The State Board for Literature and Culture, Bombay. 1972.
  • Marathi: The Language and its Linguistic Traditions - Prabhakar Machwe, Indian and Foreign Review, 15 March 1985.
  • 'Atyavashyak Marathi Vyakaran' (Essential Marathi Grammar) - Dr. V. L. Vardhe
  • 'Marathi Vyakaran' (Marathi Grammar) - Moreshvar Sakharam More.
  • 'Marathi Vishwakosh, Khand 12 (Marathi World Encyclopedia, Volume 12), Maharashtra Rajya Vishwakosh Nirmiti Mandal, Mumbai
  • 'Marathyancha Itihaas' by Dr. Kolarkar, Shrimangesh Publishers, Nagpur
  • 'History of Medieval Hindu India from 600 CE to 1200 CE, by C. V. Vaidya
  • Marathi Sahitya (Review of the Marathi Literature up to I960) by Kusumavati Deshpande, Maharashtra Information Centre, New Delhi

External links[edit]

Dictionaries