Kasaragod district

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Kasaragod district
കാസറഗോഡ് ജില്ല
Kasarodu
District
Kasaragod district is located in Kerala
Kasaragod district
Kasaragod district
Location in Kerala, India
Coordinates: 12°30′N 75°00′E / 12.5°N 75.0°E / 12.5; 75.0Coordinates: 12°30′N 75°00′E / 12.5°N 75.0°E / 12.5; 75.0
Country  India
State Kerala
District Kasargod
Headquarters Kasargod
Government
 • Collector P S MOHAMMED SAGIR IAS
Languages
 • Official Malayalam
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Website kasargod.nic.in

Kasargod District (Malayalam: കാസറഗോഡ് ജില്ല) is one of the districts of the Indian state of Kerala. Kasaragod District was organised as a separate district on Kasaragod became part of Kerala following the reorganisation of states and formation of Kerala in November 1, 1956.[1] Prior to this date, Kasaragod was a part of South Kanara district. Kasaragod is named after Kasaragod Town which is the administrative headquarters of the district. Kasaragod is the northernmost district of Kerala and world renowned for its coir and hand-loom industries. It is a region where three 'dream-lands', like (the rest of) Kerala, Tulunadu and Coorg meet. The district has a coastline of around 29.3 kilometers and a very vast midland. It also consists of high mountain ranges like the Ranipuram-Kottencheri belt. The district is filled with rivers, hillocks, beaches, shrines and forts. Kasaragod District is unique for its Linguistic Culture is also known as "SAPTHABHASHA SANGAMABHOOMI" as seven major languages are spoken here.

Kasaragod has also been fatally affected by indiscriminate use of the pesticide Endosulphan. See Endosulfan#Reproductive and developmental effects.

Overview[edit]

To its south lies Kannur District, to the South east is Kodagu district(Coorg) and to the north Dakshina Kannada district. All along its east it is walled by the Western Ghats while along the west the Laccadive Sea borders it.

The district, covering an area of around 1992 km², has a population (2001 census) of 1,203,342 and has four taluks, namely, Kasaragod and Hosdurg (Kanhangad), Vellarikundu and Manjeshwaram Taluk. Major towns in Kasaragod district are Kanhangad, Kasaragod, Uppala, Trikaripur and Nileshwar. It has three municipalities (Kasaragod, Kanhangad and Nileshwar and thirty-eight grama panchayats.[2] The district is further sub-divided into six administrative segments called development blocks, namely, Manjeshwaram, Kasaragod, Kanhangad, and Nileshwaram, Parappa, Karadka. Like other districts of Kerala, Kasaragod district too has a high literacy rate, around 85.17% according to the 2001 census.

History[edit]

Chandragiri bridge which connects Kasargod town to Chemnad Panchayath.

Kasargod was known to the Arabs by the name Harkwillia.[3][dead link] Many Arab travelers who visited Kerala between the 9th and the 14th centuries visited Kasaragod, which was an important trade centre then. Duarte Borbosa, the Portuguese traveler who visited Kumbla, near Kasaragod in 1514, recorded rice being exported for coir to Maldives.[3]

Kasargod was part of the india Kingdom in which there were 64 Tulu and Malayalam villages.[3] When the Vijayanagara empire attacked Kasargod, it was still under the Kolathiri Raja who had Nileshwaram as one of his capitals. During the decline of the Vijayanagara empire, the administration of this area was vested with Ikkery Naiks.[3] At the onset of collapse of the Vijayanagara empire, Venkappa Naik declared independence to Ikkery. Kumbla, Chandragiri and Bekal are considered to be the chain of forts constructed or renovated by Shivappa Naik.[3]

Francis Buccanan, the family doctor of Arthur Wellesley, visited Kasargod in 1800.[3] In his travelogue, he recorded information on places like Athiraparambu, Kavvai, Nileshwaram, Bekal, Chandragiri and Manjeshwaram.[3] In 1763, Hyder Ali conquered Bedanoor (Bidnur), the capital of the Ikkery Naiks. His son Tippu Sultan conquered much of Malabar. As per the Sreerangapattanam Treaty of 1792, Tippu surrendered Malabar, except Tulunadu (Canara) to the British. The British got Tulunadu only after the death of Tippu Sultan.[3] it is said that 'KINAVOOR MOLOM' (SREE DHARMA SHASHTHA TEMPLE)is belonging to KARINTHALAM (one among 64 BRAHMIN VILLAGES in old Kerala)

Geography[edit]

The district is the northernmost district of the State of Kerala. Kasaragod is located at 12°30′N 75°00′E / 12.5°N 75.0°E / 12.5; 75.0.[4] It has an average elevation of 19  metres (62  feet).

The landscape is dominated by the characteristic coconut palms accompanying rolling hills and streams flowing into the sea. The landscape is dotted with tiled-roof buildings, topped with the famous Kasaragod tiles made with the local hard red clay and typically walled with laterite blocks. Older houses are commonly found with elaborate woodwork. .

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Kasaragod
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 33.1
(91.6)
33.3
(91.9)
33.9
(93)
34.3
(93.7)
33.4
(92.1)
29.8
(85.6)
28.7
(83.7)
28.8
(83.8)
30.1
(86.2)
31.2
(88.2)
32.7
(90.9)
33.1
(91.6)
31.87
(89.36)
Average low °C (°F) 21.1
(70)
21.9
(71.4)
23.7
(74.7)
24.9
(76.8)
24.9
(76.8)
23.5
(74.3)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23.2
(73.8)
23.2
(73.8)
22.7
(72.9)
21.3
(70.3)
23.03
(73.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 0.8
(0.031)
0
(0)
17.3
(0.681)
32.7
(1.287)
182.9
(7.201)
1,010.5
(39.783)
1,002.8
(39.48)
663.6
(26.126)
246.5
(9.705)
222.6
(8.764)
69
(2.72)
12.4
(0.488)
3,461.1
(136.266)
Source: Meo Weather

Demographics[edit]

Kasaragod District Map

According to the 2011 census Kasaragod district has a population of 1,302,600,[5] roughly equal to the nation of Mauritius[6] or the US state of New Hampshire.[7] This gives it a ranking of 375th in India (out of a total of 640).[5] The district has a population density of 654 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,690 /sq mi) .[5] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 8.18%.[5] Kasaragod has a sex ratio of 1079 females for every 1000 males,[5] and a literacy rate of 89.85%.[5]

In 2001 Indian Census Muslim Population is 34.31%, Hindu 58.57% , Christian 7.05%.

Transport[edit]

The National Highway 66(formerly NH17) enters Kerala in Kunjathur of Kasargod district, through which major towns in the district like Uppala-Kasaragod-Kanhagad is connected to Mangalore. The highway form a backbone of the road network for the district from Talapady, covering major towns like Uppala, Kasaragod, Kanhangad, Nileshwar and Cheruvathur. The NH exits the district in Kalikadavu (Pilicode) which ends at Edappally.

Other Major Roads: Kasargod-Sullia, Kasargod-Puttur,Uppala-Bayar, Kanhangad-Panathur,Kanhangad-Konnakkad, Kasargod-Bekal-Kanhangad, Nileshwar-Chittarikkal,Hosangadi-Anekal and the proposed hillhighway of Cherupuzha-Malom-Bandadukka-Nanarapadavu.

Major Railway Stations:Kasargod,Kanhangad,Uppala,Manjeshwar,Nileshwar,Cheruvathur.

Languages[edit]

Kasargod district is one of the rare districts in India which houses as many as 7 different languages (excluding dialects and tribal languages), with each spoken by a substantial number of people.[8]

The principal and recognized administrative language here are Malayalam and Kannada. Kannada, Tulu and Konkani languages are also widely spoken with Kannada being recognized as a language of medium in schools along with Malayalam and English. Besides these, Marathi, Beary Bashe, Hindi and Urdu are also spoken by minorities. Kasaragod also has a sizeable population of Havyaka brahmins.[8][9] The Malayalam spoken here has influences from Kannada and Tulu. Like wise The Kannada and Tulu spoken here are also influenced by Malayalam.[10][11]

Education[edit]

Institution Government Aided Unaided Total
Lower Primary School 141 115 7 263
Upper Primary School 73 72 4 149
High School 43 19 8 70
Higher Secondary School 31 14 0 45
Arts & Science College 3 1 9 13
Engineering College 2 1 3[12]
Agriculture College 1 0 0 1
Pharmacy College 0 2 0 2
Teacher Training School 2 1 0 3
Special Schools for the blind/deaf 1 1 0 2
Industrial Training Institute 2 0 1 3
Industrial Training Centres 2 0 2 4
Polytechnic 2 1 0 3
Kendriya Vidyalaya 0 0 0 3
Navodaya Vidyalaya 0 0 0 1
B.Ed Centre 1 0 0 1

| Central University || 1 || 0 || 0 || 1

Tourist attractions[edit]

Bekal Fort Beach
See also: Kasaragod Town

Kasaragod is one of the most beautiful districts in Kerala state endowed with 9 rivers (out of a total of the 44 rivers that flow in Kerala), hills, beaches, backwaters, as well as temples, churches, mosques and forts.

  • Bekal Fort - It is the biggest fort in Kerala today and is 14  km from Kanhangad and 15  km from Kasaragod town. The nearest railway station is Pallikere railway station, which is now called the Bekal Fort Railway Station, and the nearest airport is Mangalore Airport.
  • Ananthapura Lake Temple, an ancient and attractive-looking temple, dedicated to Lord Vishnu.
  • Mallikarjuna Temple is another temple in the heart of Kasargod Town and is dedicated to Sri Shiva.
  • Ranipuram - A conglomerate of grassy hills near Panathady Town and linked to Kanhangad by Kanhangad-Panathur state highway.
  • Kottancheri Hills - Located near Malom and lies parallel to talacavery which is the starting point of the Kaveri river. It is 36  km from Kanhangad Town.
  • Valiyaparamba Backwaters.

Other tourist attractions are Chandragiri Fort, Anandashramam, Nithyanandashramam, and Kareem forest park - the only man made forest in the Kerala. The forest park is located in Parappa near Nileshwar. The Kerala State Government is planning to set up an IT park in Kasaragod. It will be constructed in 100 acres (0.40 km2) of revenue land in Cheemeni which is estimated to generate around 50,000 IT jobs.

  • Adhur, one of the natural spot in Kasaragod with large diversity of Flaura and fauna. Located on the shore of Payaswini River.

Pilgrim centres[edit]

  • Ananthapura Lake Temple an ancient and attractive-looking temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu.
  • Bela Church, also known as Our Lady of Sorrows Church, is a Roman Catholic church located 14 km north of Kasaragod and 50 km south of Mangalore. It was built in 1890 and is thus the oldest extant church in the district. This Gothic Revival Roman Catholic church, which is under the Mangalore Diocese, recently celebrated its centenary when it was also renovated. Bela Catholic Parish is also one of the oldest existing parishes of the Diocese of Mangalore. The mother tongue of the Catholics is Konkani.
  • Trikkannad Shiva Temple is located on the shore of the Arabian Sea. It is situated at a radius of 1 kilometer from the renowned Bekal Bridge. The location of this temple is unique and it provides the worshippers an opportunity to make their appeal to God. It is said that all the appeals are granted here by the Almighty. As per the legends once a Pandyan ruler tried to attack the Shiva temple and the reigning deity of this temple set fire to his ship and turned him into a rock. In this rock the famous Trikkannad Siva Temple is located. This temple is also known as Dakshina Kashi.
  • Madhur Ganapathy Temple is an architecturally impressive structure.
  • Mallik Deenar Mosque, one of the first masjid in India built during the period of the prophet Muhammad by swahabi 'Malik-ibn-Deenar', is located approximately 3 km from kasaragod railway station in the shore of Arabia Sea. Hundreds of people visit this place every day.
  • Mallikarjuna Temple is another temple in the heart of Kasargod Town and is dedicated to Lord Shiva.
  • Palakunnu Bhagavathi temple.
  • Mallam Temple.
  • Kammadam Bhagavathi temple is most famous for Theyyam Kaliyattam in Dhanu and attract hundreds of people in "Samkramam" day of every month to visit and pray in sacred grove. The Temple is dedicated to Kammadath Bhagavathi and Chamundi (Raktheshwari). This temple is located 25 km east from Nileshwaram town and 5 km East from Chittarikkal Kunnumkai.

Malik Dinar Mosque

Kasaragod acquired over the years, considerabl importance as a centre of Islam on the west coast. It is the side of one of the mosques believed to have been founded by Malik Ibn Dinar. The mosque, Juma Masjid, which is one one of the best kept and mosque attractive in the district, is located at Thalankara. It contains the grave of Malik Ibn Mohammed, one of the descendants of Malik Ibn Dinar and the places is sacred to Muslims. Another notable mosque, in Kasaragod is the Theruvath Mosque which is in the centre of the town. An important local celebration takes place every year in commemoration of the arrival of Malik Ibn Dinar. The Uroos attract pilgrims from all over India.

Malik bin Deenar or Malik Ibn Dinar was a Tabi‘in. He is famous for being the first to bring Islam to India.

In 624 AD, Malik bin Deenar and 12 of his trade associates landed in Kerala[1], and continued the trade between India and Arabia. Their way of trading however was distinctly different from that of earlier Arab traders and the populace was wooed to Islam.

The King of the time, Cheraman Perumal, came to know of the surprising trade practices of these Arabs and had them brought to his palace. On enquiry, Malik Bin Deenar and his comrades related the reason for their honest trade practices to be their recent conversion to Islam.

The king asked them to explain Islam. They discussed the tenets of Islam and talked about Muhammad. The king then wanted to know if there was any proof that Muhammad was a prophet. The traders said Muhammad had performed supernatural deeds, including the Shaqq Al Qamar or the splitting of the moon into two.

The King then summoned his Hindu Astrologers who consulted their almanacs and reported a similar phenomenon recorded by them. The King forthwith abdicated his throne and left with Malik Bin Deenar for Arabia where it is chronicled that he met the Prophet Muhammad and performed the famous Last Hajj with him. On his journey back, he was drowned in a tempest which destroyed his ship and his body came ashore at Salalah, Oman where his grave is a famous landmark today.

Fauna and Flora[edit]

Another look at the Bekal Fort

Kasaragod district surrounded by three forest districts – in the north by Dakshina Kannada (one NP and 2 wildlife sanctuaries), in the east by Kodagu (one NP and two wildlife sancturaies), and in the south by Kannur (one wildlife sanctuary and one elephant corridor). Even then, the forest officials of this district have not sent any proposal to the state forest department or the Central Government for setting up a sanctuary here, although shola, evergreen and mangrove forests exist in abundance.

Kasaragod district is very rich in vegetation. Natural vegetation, except in some coastal regions, consists of different types of forests. But in spite of generally favourable climatic conditions, vegetation is not uniform. In restricted regions, with their own micro climate or special edaphic features, plant formations assume different characters. Thus, plant communities, ranging from psammophytes and mangroves to evergreen forests are seen here.

Ranipuram Wildlife sanctaury (50 km2, proposed)

Ranipuram Top View

In Panathady RF, the proposed Ranipuram Wildlife sanctuary / National park of Kanhangad forest range consists of various flora and fauna which are endemic to the Western Ghats and a yet to studied biodiversity hotspot. It merges with the Talacauvery Wildlife Sanctuary. Ranipuram hill station which falls in Panathady reserve forest is an ideal area to notify as a wild life sanctuary/National park. Shola forest seen only here in this district. Elephants, leopards, deer, wild dogs, wild boars, macaques, jungle cats, Leopard cats slender loris, porcupines, malabar giant squirrels, malabar civet cat, many species of birds, rare butterflies and medicinal plants are found in these forest.

Most of these highly endangered animals are killed by people due to lack of conversational awareness or to protect their crops. Ranipuram wild life sanctuary will be in contiguous to Talacauvery Wildlife Sanctuary in Karnataka. If it is declared as a wild life sanctuary, it will enhance the tourism industry of this district along with Ranipuram hill station/Biodiversity park. Declaring it as a wildlife sanctuary is the only way to protect this Westernghat biodiversity hotspot and permanent solution for Encroachment, Poaching, hunting in night, mining, Illegal tree felling which are main threats for this park.

The proposed Munnamkadavu Dam may very useful to create a fresh water and wetland ecosystem and sanctuary for wild crocodile, otter, endangered fish and water birds. Afforestation around the catchment area of dam reservoir will help to create another new wildlife sanctuary here in future and recreate lost wild elephant corridor.

Malom Wildlife Sanctuary (5 km2) Malom Wildlife Sanctuary of the Kanhagad region is popular among tourists for its tropical rainforest and many wild animals. The sanctuary is home to animals like wild pig, slender loris, rhesus monkey, flying squirrel and porcupine. The Malabar hornbill, peacock and grey-hornbill can also be seen in the sanctuary.Many animals like Flying squirrel, bats, Jungle cat, Butterflies are living here. Encroachment, hunting in night, rampant tree felling and granite mining are the main threats.. Tourists can even spot snakes like king cobra and python. It is 35 km away east of Kanhangad in Balal-Kallar panchayaths and 5 km away from malom town center. Flora': Evergreen monsoon forest, shola, orchids, medicinal plants, grass lands etc. Mammals: about 24 species mainly Elephants, wild bison, Leopard, wild dogs, mongoose, pangolin, Jungle cats, Malabar giant squirrels, Flying squirrels, fox, porcupine, bonnet macaques, Langur, Leopard cats, Deer, wild boar, slender loris, hares, squirrels, bats etc. Birds: About 200 species mainly Great Indian horn bill, Paradise flying catcher, green barbet, peacock, trogon, wood pigeon, malabar grey horn bill, white bellied tree pie, heart spotted wood pecker etc.. Reptiles: King cobra, kraits, viper, rat snakes, Indian cobras, green whip snakes, monitor lizards etc. Amphibians: About 19 species, Thousands of insects and spiders About 100 species of butterflies including sword tail, forest nymph, and malabar bird wing.

Adoor wildlife sanctuary (2 km2)

A Fragmented, Adoor reserve forest which spreads about 2  km2 in Kasaragod district is the home for endangered animals like jungle cat, slender loris, wild pig, porcupine, turtles, peacock, Malabar horn bill, butterflies, medicinal plants and wet evergreen forest. Illicit tree felling, hunting, encroachment are main threats for this sanctuary. It is about 35 km east of Kasaragod town in Adoor-Kuttikol panchayath.

Parappa wildlife sanctuary (2 km2)

A fragmented RF, Parappa reserve forest of Kanhangad range are home for jungle cats, slender loris, wild pig, porcupine, turtles, peacock, Malabar horn bill, butterflies, medicinal plants and wet evergreen forest. Illicit tree felling, hunting, encroachment are main threats for this sanctuary. It is about 22 km East of Chervathur town

Kammadam sacred grove wildlife sanctuary (50 acres)

Kammadam kavu, related with Bhagavathi temple, is the biggest sacred grove of Kerala and rich in wildlife, evergreen forest, orchids, medicinal plants and shrubs. Wild animals like Jungle cat, monitor lizard, civets, fox, bats, snakes, various species of birds and butterflies seen. It is 25 km east of Nileshwaram town.

Kareem's Forest park (32 acres)

India's first private sanctuary which spreads across 32 acres (130,000 m2) and rich in diverse species of trees, medicinal plants, birds, insects, reptiles, amphibians, small wild animals, microorganisms and so on. People from different walks of life environmentalists, scientists, University and Ayurveda students, and laymen, all over the country visit his forest park for practical experience and study purpose. He is also multiplying and distributing the seeds and saplings of forest trees and medicinal plants and help mother earth and help the nation to convert waste lands into thick forests by replicating his efforts without involving additional coasts.

The park is situated at Puliyamkulam, near Parappa. It is 23 km away east of Kanhangad town. Frequent bus service available.

Demand for a separate Tulunadu state[edit]

The Tuluvas of Southern India are a separate culture from the Kannadigas within India. From India's independence and following the reorganization of states, the Tuluvas had been demanding official language status for Tulu and a separate state for themselves comprising the Udupi and South Canara Districts of Karnataka State and Kasargod District of Kerala State. This demand has grown weakened in recent years. Several organizations like the Tulu Rajya Horata Samiti have taken up the cause of the Tuluvas.[13][14][15][16]

National Movement[edit]

Kasaragod played a prominent role in the National Movement for the freedom of the country. Mohammed Sherul Sahib and Kandige Krishna Bhat were the frontline leaders of the independence movement. Umesh Rao, K. M. Krishnan Nambiar, Shreesankarji, Naranthatta Raman Nair, A. C. Kannan Nair, T. Gopalan Nair and Meloth Narayanan Nambiar were prominent freedom fighters.

The agrarian struggle to end the exploitation and oppression by landlords and chieftains were part of the National Movement. The Kadakom Sathyagraha was started following the arrest of Gandhiji in 1932. The Palayi Harvest Agitation (1941), Cheemeni Estate Struggle (1942), Kayyur Agrarian Riot (1944), Eleri Estate Agitation (1946), Karinthalam Paddy Seizure Revolt (1948) and many other struggles waged by the peasant organisations accelerated the tempo of the freedom movement. Besides the agitation of the peasants, the various struggles unleashed for the uplift of the scheduled castes and tribes also supported and enlivened the National Movement.

Uppala Municipality Plan[edit]

If Uppala municipality is carved out from the Mangalpady panchayat by adding the following to Uppala Census town:

  • Census towns - Mangalpady and Shiriya
  • villages - Ichilangod, Kodibail and Mulinja

Uppala Municipality will have a population of 41,212 in an area of 25.04 sq.km. The population density of the municipality will be around 1,650 per sq.km.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kasargod - After District Formation". Kasargod District. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  2. ^ There are 38 Grama Panchayats in Kasargod District (kasargod.nic.in).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Kasaragod History". Government of Kerala. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  4. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Kasaragod
  5. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  6. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Mauritius 1,303,717 July 2011 est." 
  7. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "New Hampshire 1,316,470" 
  8. ^ a b Kumar Suresh Singh (1998). India's communities 6. Anthropological Survey of India. p. 1549. 
  9. ^ "Kasaragod". 
  10. ^ A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. 
  11. ^ "Introduction to Kasaragod district". 
  12. ^ http://www.kerala-colleges.com/Kerala-Districts-India/Kasaragod-Colleges.asp#Engineering
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ [2]
  15. ^ "Tulu organisations to meet soon". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2008-03-06. 
  16. ^ http://www.daijiworld.com/news/news_disp.asp?n_id=68774

External links[edit]