|10th United States Secretary of Energy|
January 20, 2001 – January 31, 2005
|President||George W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Bill Richardson|
|Succeeded by||Samuel Bodman|
|United States Senator
January 3, 1995 – January 3, 2001
|Preceded by||Donald W. Riegle, Jr.|
|Succeeded by||Debbie Stabenow|
|Born||Edward Spencer Abraham
June 12, 1952
East Lansing, Michigan
|Alma mater||Harvard University
Michigan State University
Edward Spencer Abraham (born June 12, 1952) is a former United States Senator from Michigan. He served as the tenth United States Secretary of Energy, serving under President George W. Bush. Abraham is one of the founders of the Federalist Society and a co-founder of Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy.
Education and family 
Abraham was born in East Lansing, Michigan and a graduate of East Lansing High School. Of Lebanese descent, Abraham is married to Jane Abraham (current co-chairwoman of the Michigan Republican Party) and has three children: a son and twin girls, Betsy and Julie. He holds a Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree from Harvard University, and is a 1974 Honors College graduate of Michigan State University. In 1978, while at Harvard Law School, Abraham helped found the Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy. It became one of the official journals of the Federalist Society, which was founded in 1982.
Political career 
Before his election to the Senate, Abraham was a law professor at Thomas M. Cooley Law School.
Republican Party service 
He was elected chairman of the Michigan Republican Party from 1983 to 1990. He was deputy chief of staff for Vice President Dan Quayle from 1990 to 1991. He later served as co-chairman of the National Republican Congressional Committee (NRCC) from 1991 to 1993 and ran for chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1993, coming second to Haley Barbour.
United States Senate 
Abraham was elected to represent Michigan in the United States Senate in 1994, and he served until 2001 when he was defeated for reelection to the Senate in 2000 for a second term by Debbie Stabenow. He was the only Arab American in the chamber. According to the New York Times, State Republicans attributed his loss to "scathing advertisements by a wide range of special interest groups, including advertisements that criticized Mr. Abraham's support for a relaxation of some immigration restrictions". During the campaign the Federation for American Immigration Reform ran ads asking: "Why is Senator Spencer Abraham trying to make it easier for terrorists like Osama bin Laden to export their war of terror to any city street in America?" The media denounced these commercials as "vengeful". Abraham was a consistent advocate of large-scale immigration and worked relentlessly to lessen immigration controls and regulations. In 1996, when President Clinton endorsed Congresswoman Barbara Jordan's proposed cuts to legal immigration Senator Abraham played a leading role in blocking the proposed cuts. The following year he received the "Defender of the Melting Pot" award from the National Council of La Raza for his efforts on the immigration issue.
||This section may contain original research. (October 2008)|
Committee service and legislation 
He served on the Budget, Commerce, Science and Transportation, Judiciary, and Small Business Committees. He also chaired two subcommittees: Manufacturing and Competitiveness, and Immigration. Abraham authored the "H1B Visa in Global and National Commerce Act", establishing a federal framework for on-line contracts and signatures; the "Government Paperwork Elimination Act", and the "Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act", which protects Internet domain names for businesses and persons against copyright and trademark infringements. In 1999, Abraham co-sponsored S.896, a bill to abolish the U.S. Department of Energy, which would have transferred control of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in large part to the Defense Department.
U.S. Energy Secretary 
Abraham was appointed Secretary of Energy by the incoming George W. Bush's administration. On November 15, 2004, Abraham announced that he would resign from this position, effective with the swearing in of his successor Samuel W. Bodman on February 1, 2005.
Hoover Institution 
Abraham was a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution, an influential conservative think tank based at Stanford University from 2005 through 2007. After leaving office, Abraham opened The Abraham Group, a Washington DC based international strategic consulting firm. In 2006, Spencer Abraham has accepted the appointment as Chairman of the Board of Areva Inc., the US subsidiary of the French nuclear energy company.
Thompson for President 
Later career 
In 2006 Abraham was appointed Non-Executive Chairman of the Board of AREVA Inc., the American arm of the French nuclear company Areva, which is planning to build EPR nuclear power plants in the United States, and is building the mixed oxide fuel (MOX) manufacturing plant at the Savannah River Site to convert legacy weapons-grade plutonium into power station fuel.
With William Tucker, Abraham wrote Lights Out!: Ten Myths About (and Real Solutions to) America's Energy Crisis, which was published in July 2010.
Abraham is also the Chairman and CEO of The Abraham Group, a strategic consulting firm providing assistance to clients seeking opportunities in the U.S. and global markets.
Electoral history 
|Michigan U.S. Senate Election 2000|
|Republican||Spencer Abraham (Incumbent)||1,994,693||47.9|
|Michigan U.S. Senate Election 1994|
- "Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy". Archived from the original on June 2, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
- The New York Times. November 9, 2000 http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/09/politics/09SENA.html?pagewanted=all&ei=5070&en=5289f2405dd5300b&ex=1147320000
|url=missing title (help). Retrieved April 9, 2010.[dead link]
- http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282/is_18_52/ai_66106575/pg_4. Missing or empty
- Pear, Robert (June 8, 1995). "Clinton Embraces a Proposal To Cut Immigration by a Third". The New York Times.
- http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/krikorian200508190822.asp. Missing or empty
- "Farid Abboud awards Spencer Abraham "The National Order of the Cedar"". Retrieved 2007-09-25.
- (French) "Spencer ABRAHAM nommé Président du conseil d’administration d’AREVA Inc.". Framatome ANP. March 1, 2006.
- The Politico, F. Thompson shakes up pre-launch campaign, by Jonathan Martin and Mike Allen, July 24, 2007.
- Jo Becker and William J. Broad (April 10, 2011). "New Doubts About Turning Plutonium Into a Fuel". New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
- "Officers - Strong U.S. Leadership". Areva. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Voting record at The Washington Post
|Party political offices|
Melvin L. Larson
|Chairman of the Michigan Republican Party
David J. Doyle
|United States Senate|
Donald W. Riegle, Jr.
|United States Senator (Class 1) from Michigan
Served alongside: Carl Levin
|U.S. Secretary of Energy
Served under: George W. Bush
Samuel W. Bodman