East Lansing, Michigan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
East Lansing, Michigan
City
Beaumont Tower at Michigan State University
Beaumont Tower at Michigan State University
Location in Michigan
Location in Michigan
Coordinates: 42°44′5.28″N 84°28′50.88″W / 42.7348000°N 84.4808000°W / 42.7348000; -84.4808000Coordinates: 42°44′5.28″N 84°28′50.88″W / 42.7348000°N 84.4808000°W / 42.7348000; -84.4808000
Country United States
State Michigan
Counties Ingham, Clinton
Settled 1847
Incorporation 1907
Government
 • Type Council-Manager
 • Mayor Nathan Triplett
 • City Manager George Lahanas (interim)
Area[1]
 • Total 13.67 sq mi (35.41 km2)
 • Land 13.59 sq mi (35.20 km2)
 • Water 0.08 sq mi (0.21 km2)
Elevation 856 ft (261 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 48,579
 • Estimate (2012[3]) 48,518
 • Density 3,574.6/sq mi (1,380.2/km2)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 48823-48826
Area code(s) 517
FIPS code 26-24120[4]
GNIS feature ID 0625219[5]
Website www.cityofeastlansing.com

East Lansing is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. The city is located directly east of Lansing, the state capital. Most of the city is within Ingham County, though a small portion lies in Clinton County. The population was 48,579 at the time of the 2010 census, an increase from 46,420 in 2000. It is best known as the home of Michigan State University.

History[edit]

The settlement of East Lansing began around 1847, the same year nearby Lansing was made the capital of the state of Michigan. Downtown East Lansing was an important junction of two major Native American trails: the Okemah Road, and the Park Lake Trail. By 1850, the Lansing and Howell Plank Road Company was established to connect a toll road to the Detroit and Howell Plank Road, improving travel between Detroit and Lansing, which cut right through what is now East Lansing. The toll road was finished in 1853, and included seven tollhouses between Lansing and Howell.[6]

Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and established in what is now East Lansing in 1857. For the first four decades, the students and faculty lived almost entirely on the College campus. A few commuted from Lansing, and that number increased when a streetcar line was built in the 1890s, but there were few places to live in the then-rural area immediately around the campus.

That started to change in 1887, when professors William J. Beal and Rolla C. Carpenter created Collegeville, along what is now Harrison Road and Center and Beal Streets, north of Michigan Avenue. Few faculty were attracted to the location, and the first residents were "teamsters and laborers".[7] In 1898, the College Delta subdivision (including what is now Delta Street) had the support of the College itself, which provided utilities, and several professors built homes there (one of which survives today at 243 W. Grand River Ave.).[8] Other subdivisions followed.

At that time, the post office address was "Agricultural College, Michigan". A school district encompassing the nascent community was created in 1900. In 1907, incorporation as a city was proposed under the name "College Park"; the legislature approved the charter but changed the name to "East Lansing". The first seven mayors, starting with Clinton D. Smith in 1907 and Warren Babcock in 1908, were professors or employees of the College.

The city charter in 1907 prohibited the possession, sale, or consumption of alcoholic beverages, and East Lansing was a "dry" city until voters modified the charter provision in 1968.

Geography[edit]

Downtown East Lansing at night overlooking Albert Street.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.67 square miles (35.41 km2), of which 13.59 square miles (35.20 km2) is land and 0.08 square miles (0.21 km2) is water.[1]

Since 1998, East Lansing has expanded its borders through the use of 425 Agreements. The city is currently in three 425 Agreements with Bath Township, DeWitt Township, and Meridian Township, and has effectively added thousands of acres of land to its border.

  • East Lansing and DeWitt Township entered into two 425s in 1998 and 2001, which involved nearly 1,200 acres (4.9 km2) of land. The agreement stipulates that East Lansing gains full control of the land after 33 years.
  • East Lansing and Bath Township entered into a 425 Agreement in June 2002 involving 1,056 acres (4.27 km2) of land. The agreement stipulates that East Lansing gains full control of the land after 100 years.
  • East Lansing and Meridian Township entered into a 425 in November 2002 involving 101 acres (0.41 km2) of land. The agreement stipulates that the Meridian Township residents get to decide the fate of the land after 100 years.

The city has also made use of annexation of surrounding township lands in recent years. It annexed the 66.5 acres (269,000 m2) of the Four Winds Golf Course in Meridian Township in 2001, and another 6 acres (24,000 m2) of the township in 2006. The city also annexed from DeWitt Township the land that is currently the East Lansing Soccer Complex.

Description[edit]

The city's downtown area is centered around Grand River Avenue, a wide tree-lined boulevard that evolved out of the 19th century plank road that connected Lansing to Detroit. Grand River Avenue and Michigan Avenue serves as a dividing line between the Michigan State University campus and the rest of the city. The street is lined with many college-oriented businesses, such as bars, tanning salons, coffee shops, head shops, restaurants (many dine al fresco) and bookstores. Immediately north of downtown are predominantly student neighborhoods. Further north of that is the residential part of the city, which is much like any other suburb. At the very northern tier of the city are several new housing subdivisions and student-oriented apartment complexes. These new developments are far from the university, but their lower property tax rates allow them to offer students more amenities for their monthly rent.

Neighborhoods[edit]

East Lansing has more than 25 neighborhoods, many of which have neighborhood associations that sponsor social events, attend to neighborhood issues, and often advocate for neighborhood interests in meetings of the City Council and city commissions.[9]

A section of the city has been designated a Historic District, and a Historic District Commission has been established by the City Council.[10] In addition, many landmark structures in the older neighborhoods have been identified within a Landmark Structures Historic District of the Historic Preservation Code.[11]

Neighborhoods with pages: Tamarisk

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1910 802
1920 1,889 135.5%
1930 4,380 131.9%
1940 5,839 33.3%
1950 20,325 248.1%
1960 30,198 48.6%
1970 47,540 57.4%
1980 51,392 8.1%
1990 50,677 −1.4%
2000 46,525 −8.2%
2010 48,579 4.4%
Est. 2011 48,666 0.2%

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 48,579 people, 14,774 households, and 4,811 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,574.6 inhabitants per square mile (1,380.2 /km2). There were 15,787 housing units at an average density of 1,161.7 per square mile (448.5 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 78.4% White, 6.8% African American, 0.3% Native American, 10.6% Asian, 1.0% from other races, and 2.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population.

There were 14,774 households of which 13.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 24.7% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.2% had a male householder with no wife present, and 67.4% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.80.

The median age in the city was 21.6 years. 7.5% of residents were under the age of 18; 62.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 14.6% were from 25 to 44; 9.2% were from 45 to 64; and 6.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 46,525 people, 14,390 households, and 5,094 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,136.6 per square mile (1,596.7/km²). There were 15,321 housing units at an average density of 1,362.2 per square mile (525.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 80.91% White, 7.40% African American, 0.33% Native American, 8.21% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.95% from other races, and 2.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.69% of the population.

There were 14,390 households out of which 16.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.6% were married couples living together, 5.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 64.6% were non-families. 36.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.82.

In the city the population was spread out with 9.0% under the age of 18, 58.6% from 18 to 24, 16.4% from 25 to 44, 9.9% from 45 to 64, and 6.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $28,217, and the median income for a family was $61,985 (these figures had risen to $29,885 and $81,941 respectively as of a 2007 estimate[12]). Males had a median income of $43,767 versus $30,556 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,333. About 11.0% of families and 34.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.8% of those under age 18 and 3.7% of those age 65 or over.

Government[edit]

East Lansing has a council-manager government, where the city council appoints one of its own as mayor, and another of its own as mayor pro tem — a city council member with extra ceremonial duties, but who chairs council meetings in the mayor's absence. The city council consists of 5 at-large council members who are elected in non-partisan elections to 4-year terms in November of odd-numbered years. The city council chooses the city manager, the city's chief administrative officer. The manager is appointed by, and answers to, the city council.

An important aspect of East Lansing's government is its system of commissions. The commission members are ordinary East Lansing citizens who are appointed by the city council and advised by members of the city staff. Commissions may propose or review policies in their bailiwicks and make recommendations to the city council. Major East Lansing commissions and boards include those for Planning, Zoning, Housing, Transportation, and Parks and Recreation. Other commissions and boards that also involve active engagement of ordinary citizens play a role in East Lansing's governance.[13]

East Lansing Government founded the Technology Innovation Center, an incubator for technology start-ups.[14]

Education[edit]

Higher education[edit]

Michigan State University, a member of the Big Ten Conference, is the largest education institution in the State of Michigan (8th largest in the United States), reflecting East Lansing's history as a college town. MSU has more than 200 programs of study including two in human medicine (M.D. and D.O.) and one veterinary medicine school (D.V.M.), a law school (J.D., L.L.M., and M.J.), and numerous Ph.D. programs. There is also a Master of Arts in Technology (MAET) program.[15]

Nearby Lansing is home to several other colleges, including Thomas M. Cooley Law School which is the largest law school in the United States (by attendees), Davenport University, and Lansing Community College.

Public primary and secondary schools[edit]

This city is covered by the East Lansing Public Schools district, which has an enrollment of just over 3,400 students in grades K-12. The district also includes small portions of neighboring Lansing, Lansing Township, and Meridian Township. The district consists of six elementary schools, one middle school (MacDonald Middle School), and East Lansing High School. One fifth of the district's students come from outside of East Lansing through Michigan's Schools of Choice program.

Private schools[edit]

  • St. Thomas Aquinas Parish School,[16] 915 Alton Road
  • Stepping Stones Montessori School,[17] 1370 Beech Street

Transportation[edit]

Amtrak, Indian Trails,[18] and Greyhound all provide intercity rail and bus services at the East Lansing Amtrak depot, which is located at 1240 South Harrison Road, within walking distance of the Michigan State University main campus, although public transportation also serves the depot. Capital Area Transportation Authority (CATA) provides public bus transit throughout East Lansing, Lansing, and surrounding areas. Three major interstates and one U.S. Highway serve the East Lansing area including: Interstate 96 (I-96), I-69, I-496, and U.S. Highway 127 (US 127). The Capital Region International Airport in nearby Lansing offers a number of non-stop domestic and international flights as far as Cancún, Las Vegas, and Orlando; connections between East Lansing and the airport are offered by CATA (with a transfer in downtown Lansing); rental cars are also available at the airport. Bus transportation is offered between East Lansing and Detroit Metro Airport twelve times daily by Michigan Flyer. Megabus offers three daily trips between Chicago, Grand Rapids, East Lansing, and Detroit. The Northern Tier Trail[19] is a shared-use pedestrian and bicycle path system connecting some parts of the northern half of the city; the Lansing River Trail begins on the campus of Michigan State University and extends west into downtown Lansing and then north towards the airport. Finally, two class one freight railroads serve East Lansing including Canadian National Railway (CN) and CSX Transportation (CSXT).

Major highways[edit]

Culture[edit]

The Great Lakes Folk Festival in East Lansing's Ann Street Plaza.

The city has several neighborhoods of detached, single-family houses within a mile of the Michigan State University campus.[20] Under a 2004 city zoning ordinance, several of those neighborhoods have used a petition process to establish zones that prohibit or severely restrict renting. The net size of the area where renting is prohibited has increased since 2004.[21]

East Lansing has a very large student population; in 2006 the city's population was about 45,931,[22] while the university's 2006-07 enrollment was 45,520. Granted, not all students enrolled live in East Lansing or on campus.[23]

Michigan State University has the reputation of having a very passionate fan base. Spartans followers have attracted notoriety with public celebrations that periodically erupt throughout the year. The celebrations are often associated with the men's basketball team's perennially deep runs in the National Collegiate Athletic Association tournament, such as an incident in 1999 in which students and visitors rioted after a loss to Duke University in the NCAA Final Four. Although generally peaceful, the East Lansing police department has sometimes responded to those events with force, invoking emergency powers and hiring extra police from neighboring jurisdictions to clear streets.

Sports[edit]

From March 29 to April 2, 2006, East Lansing hosted the USA Hockey National Tournament. The age group that competed contained players from the U-14 Tier 2 division. States were represented with teams from Massachusetts, Michigan, Alaska, Nebraska, Florida, California, Connecticut, Indiana, New York,and Pennsylvania. In the end, The LA Hockey Club representing California won.

Centennial[edit]

In 2007, the City of East Lansing celebrated its Centennial. The celebration began in January 2007 with a kick-off press conference at the Marriott Hotel in downtown East Lansing. Events throughout the year included an old fashion concert, a birthday party, and a historic homes tour. A fireworks show took place in August, along with many more events throughout the year. With Michigan State University's Sesquicentennial ice cream flavor such a huge success, the City of East Lansing contracted Melting Moments ice cream shop to develop a Centennial ice cream flavor. All downtown businesses were encouraged to take part in Centennial festivities. The Peoples Church on West Grand River Avenue also celebrated its 100th birthday in 2007.

Residents were asked to submit their favorite stories, pictures and memories on the Centennial website, which includes photographs dating back to the early 1900s. The website lists all Centennial events and includes a complete history of the city. Fun East Lansing facts can also be found, along with a list of famous East Lansing residents. Michigan State University and the City of East Lansing partnered on many of the events.

Elephant incident[edit]

The 1963 elephant rampage in East Lansing, Michican refers to an incident in late September 1963 in that city. A 12 year old, 3,000 pound female dancing elephant named Rajee (alternately reported as Raji, Little Rajjee, among other variations) rebelled against her trainer during a performance in a shopping center circus, and escaped into the streets of Lansing, Michigan aggravated by the frenzied pursuit of nearly 4,000 local residents. The incident ended tragically with the shooting of the elephant by local police.[24][25] Provoked by the growing crowd, her rampage took her through the Men's wear, sporting goods and gift departments of a local Arlan's discount store, before leading police on a two-mile chase in which Rajje knocked down and injured a 67 year-old man, tried to move a car, and caused thousands of dollars in damage before being subdued.

Life Magazine quoted Rajje's trainer William Pratt at the scene as shouting, "Damn these people [...] They wouldn't leave her alone."[24]

The incident was widely reported, including a photospread in Life Magazine.[24] While the Lansing State Journal coverage stresses the danger of the incident during the "Big Beast" rampage,[26] the Detroit Free Press notes witnesses cried out "Murderers! Murderers!" as police fired eight shots.[27]

Author Nelson Algren cites the injustice and sad end of the pursuit of "Raji, the Pixie-Eared Elephant" in continuity with the ambush of Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow in his introduction to a 1968 biography of the outlaws.[28] Then teenage Lansing residents who had goaded the elephant on recalled the incident with sober regret in a local newspaper retrospective in 2011.[26]

Sites of interest[edit]

On campus[edit]

Broad Art Museum at
Michigan State University

Off campus[edit]

  • Hannah Community Center (originally built as East Lansing High School, and later used as a middle school) featuring the Albert A. White Performing Arts Theatre.[33]
  • East Lansing Public Library.[34]
  • The "Habitrail", or Hamster Cage, or Gerbil Cage, is a large multicolored parking structure near campus that resembles a Habitrail home for pet rodents. The controversial design resulted from the city's instructions to the architect that the building be "festive" and have "no brick".
  • Saper Galleries, an award-winning art gallery serving clients internationally since 1978 is in a contemporary gallery building in downtown East Lansing on Albert Avenue.[35]
  • Scene metrospace, the city sponsored art gallery located in the ground floor of the multicolored parking structure.
  • East Lansing Family Aquatic Center.[36]
  • Trowbridge railroad junction (located near Trowbridge Road[37]) and the nearby Amtrak depot are popular spots with railfans for train watching. At Trowbridge, the busy Grand Trunk Western Railroad line connecting Chicago to Toronto intersects the former Pere Marquette Railroad (now Conrail line from Detroit to Grand Rapids).
  • El Azteco, a local Mexican restaurant noted for its outdoor rooftop dining. El Azteco is one of East Lansing's longest-lasting establishments, celebrating its 30th anniversary in August 2006. Many older MSU alumni remember when it was located under Campbell's Smoke Shop on M.A.C., but in 1991 the restaurant moved to its present location at 215 Ann St. Arturo Santa Cruz is the owner. El Azteco has employed some people of note, including State Representative Fred Miller and NPR journalist Sarah Hulett.
  • Harper's, is a locally owned restaurant, bar and brewpub with the largest outdoor dining deck in the city.[38]
  • Spartan Hall of Fame Cafe is one of the only MSU restaurants off campus in East Lansing.[39]

Outside East Lansing[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

Local events[edit]

  • The East Lansing Film Festival[46] is the largest festival of its kind in Michigan.
  • East Lansing Art Festival[47] is a juried art show held each spring, on the weekend before Memorial Day. In 2009 it received a national ranking in the Art Fair Sourcebook[48] Top 200 for its fine art and craft sales. "With its 117th fine art ranking and 153rd fine craft ranking, the festival was included among a list of the top 200 best-selling art fairs and festivals in the country. These rankings are based on the festival’s gross average sales for 2009, which totaled $2,857 per artist exhibitor".[49]
  • Great Lakes Folk Festival[50] originated after The National Folk Festival, which made East Lansing its home for 3 years, moved to a new city for another 3 years. The festival is usually held during the last weekend of August.
  • The Michigan High School Boys State Basketball Championship[51] tournament is typically held at Michigan State University's Breslin Center each March.
  • The 2007 Odyssey of the Find World Finals[52] occurred at Michigan State University.
  • The 2009 Future Problem Solvers International Conference was held in East Lansing.[53]
  • The Children's Concert[54] held at East Lansing Hannah Community Center, is an annual series of live music geared for young audiences and their families.
  • The Crystal Awards[55] honors the extraordinary accomplishments of individuals, businesses and organizations that have impacted the quality of life in East Lansing.
  • The Summer Solstice Jazz Festival[56] is a two day festival that salutes jazz music with local and national jazz performers and celebrates the longest day of the year.
  • The Summer Concert Series[57] features live local music each Friday and Saturday in Downtown East Lansing.
  • The Moonlight Film Festival[58] offers free movies on an outdoor big screen in Valley Court Park in downtown East Lansing.
  • One Book One Community[59] is a unique program that brings the city-university community together to read the same book and come together to discuss it in a variety of settings.
  • The Winter Bowl Soup & Chili Cook-off[60] combines holiday activities, musical entertainment, merchant activities and an old-fashioned soup and chili cook-off. The Festival is usually takes place at the Ann Street Plaza, Parking Lot 1 and the East Lansing Marriott.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

  • "A Brief History of East Lansing, Michigan"[64]
  • City of East Lansing[65]
  • East Lansing Demographics and Maps[66]
  • East Lansing Film Festival[67]
  • East Lansing Art Festival[47]
  • East Lansing Public Library[68]
  • East Lansing Public Schools[69]
  • Virtual Michigan: City of East Lansing[70]
  • East Lansing travel guide from Wikivoyage

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  3. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-03. 
  4. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ Forsyth, Kevin S. "East Lansing - Origins". A Brief History of East Lansing, Michigan. Retrieved 2007-10-31. 
  7. ^ James D. Towar, History of the City of East Lansing, 1933.
  8. ^ Forsyth, Kevin S. "East Lansing - College Delta". A Brief History of East Lansing, Michigan. Retrieved 2007-10-31. 
  9. ^ Neighborhood Associations
  10. ^ Historic District Commission
  11. ^ Forsyth, Kevin S. "Landmark Structures". A Brief History of East Lansing, Michigan. Retrieved 7 February 2011. 
  12. ^ East Lansing city, Michigan, 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, United States Census Bureau
  13. ^ Boards & Commissions
  14. ^ TIC Home
  15. ^ Master of Arts in Educational Technology (MAET)
  16. ^ St. Thomas Aquinas Parish School
  17. ^ Stepping Stones Montessori
  18. ^ Indian Trails
  19. ^ Northern Tier Trail website
  20. ^ Neighborhood Associations
  21. ^ Residential Rental Restriction Overlay District
  22. ^ US Census Bureau 2006-08 population estimate, available at:. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=16000US2624120&-qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_DP3YR2&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-_sse=on
  23. ^ Michigan State University Board of Trustees announcement, September 12, 2007, available at: http://trustees.msu.edu/decisions-news/2007-09/enrollment.html
  24. ^ a b c news report in LIFE magazine "Death for a Dancing Elephant", Life Magazine, 11 October 1963. p. 34B. Retrieved on 25 June 2013.
  25. ^ entry for Little Rajee at King Amusements at Elephant Database. "Little Rajee at King Amusements", Elephant Database, 27 October 2011. Retrieved on 25 June 2013.
  26. ^ a b Schneider, John. "Regret lingers after death of elephant in '63", Lansing State Journal, 28 October 2011. Retrieved on 25 June 2013.
  27. ^ Meyer, Zlati. "This week in Michigan history: Runaway elephant is shot and killed in Lansing", Detroit Free Press, 22 September 2012. Retrieved on 25 June 2013.
  28. ^ Fortune, Jan I. et al (1968). The true story of Bonnie & Clyde, p. xiii. Signet Books, New York. ISBN 0451058844.
  29. ^ Fairchild Theatre
  30. ^ MSU Auditorium
  31. ^ Abrams Planetarium
  32. ^ MSU Forest Akers Golf Courses
  33. ^ Hannah Center website
  34. ^ East Lansing Public Library
  35. ^ Saper Galleries website
  36. ^ Aquatic Center website
  37. ^ Trowbridge Road
  38. ^ Harper's website
  39. ^ Spartan Hall of Fame Cafe's website
  40. ^ Michigan Library and Historical Center
  41. ^ City Market
  42. ^ MSU Sailing Club
  43. ^ NOISE
  44. ^ City Pulse
  45. ^ Spartan Edge
  46. ^ East Lansing Film Festival/
  47. ^ a b East Lansing Art Festival
  48. ^ Art Fair SourceBook
  49. ^ East Lansing Art Festival Receives National Ranking > City of East Lansing > News Releases
  50. ^ Great Lakes Folk Festival
  51. ^ The MI High School Boys State Basketball Championship
  52. ^ The 2007 Odyssey of the Mind World Finals
  53. ^ "Pecatonica Problem Solvers are Grand Champions," Wisconsin State Journal, June 15, 2009.
  54. ^ Children's Concert
  55. ^ Crystal Awards
  56. ^ Summer Solstice Jazz Festival/
  57. ^ Summer Concert Series
  58. ^ Moonlight Film Festival/
  59. ^ One Book One Community
  60. ^ Winter Soup & Chili Cookoff/
  61. ^ 2012 Forbes 400 [retrieved 9-20-2012]
  62. ^ "The 2009 Time 100". Time. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  63. ^ East Lansing Educational Foundation
  64. ^ A Brief History of East Lansing, Michigan
  65. ^ City of East Lansing
  66. ^ East Lansing - Demographics and Maps
  67. ^ East Lansing Film Festival
  68. ^ East Lansing Public Library
  69. ^ East Lansing Public Schools
  70. ^ Virtual Michigan: City of East Lansing

Further reading[edit]

  • Balaskovitz, Andy. "Despite hurdles, consolidating Lansing, East Lansing and Lansing Township makes sense." Lansing City Pulse. Wednesday, November 28, 2012. News section. Available on NewsBank, Record Number: 33658e6f3e435749c466e59bf44dd1b692752.