|Type||Ferry services across Victoria Harbour|
|Founder(s)||Dorabjee Naorojee Mithaiwala|
The ship Meridian Star
The Star Ferry, or The "Star" Ferry Company, is a passenger ferry service operator and tourist attraction in Hong Kong. Its principal routes carry passengers across Victoria Harbour, between Hong Kong Island and Kowloon. It was founded in 1888 as the Kowloon Ferry Company, adopting its present name in 1898.
The fleet of twelve ferries currently operates two routes (four prior to April 1, 2011) across the harbour, carrying over 70,000 passengers a day, or 26 million a year. Even though the harbour is crossed by railway and road tunnels, the Star Ferry continues to provide an inexpensive mode of harbour crossing. The company's main route runs between Central and Tsim Sha Tsui.
Before the steam ferry was first created, people would cross the harbour in sampans. In 1870, a man named Grant Smith brought a twin-screw wooden-hulled boat from England and started running it across the harbour at irregular intervals.
In July 1873, an attempt was made to run steam ferries between Hong Kong and Kowloon. This was stopped at the time at the request of the British consul in Canton.
The company was founded by Parsee merchant Dorabjee Naorojee Mithaiwala as the "Kowloon Ferry Company" in 1888. Naorojee bought Smith's boat, and later acquired the steam vessels Morning Star and Evening Star from a Mr Buxoo. It is thought that a regular service to the public was established in the mid-to-late 1870s, after the cession of Kowloon to the British in 1860. The popularity of this means of transport enabled him to increase his fleet to four vessels within 10 years: the Morning Star, Evening Star, Rising Star and Guiding Star. Each boat had a capacity of 100 passengers, and the boats averaged 147 crossings each day. He incorporated the business into the "Star Ferry Co Ltd" in 1898, prior to his retirement to India. The company name was inspired by his love of Alfred Lord Tennyson's poem "Crossing the Bar", of which the first line reads "Sunset and evening star, and one clear call for me!".
At the time regular service was initiated, ships were moored by having a sailor on the vessel toss the rope to another on the pier, who would then catch it with a long billhook. This is still done today.
On his retirement in 1898, Naorojee sold the company to The Hongkong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company Limited, at that time owned by Jardine, Matheson & Co. and Sir Paul Chater.
A pier constructed on the western end of Salisbury Road opened in 1906, but was destroyed by a typhoon in September 1906. In the early 1950s, construction of the present twin-piered terminal commenced on both sides of Victoria Harbour, designed to handle 55 million passenger trips a year. The structure was completed in 1957, concurrent with the Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier built on the island side.
At the turn of the century, Hong Kong currency and Canton currency were both accepted as legal tender in Hong Kong. In the autumn of 1912, following a devaluation, the Star Ferry caused a controversy by insisting, together with the tramways, that payment had to be made in Hong Kong currency only. Canton coinage would no longer be accepted.
By 1941, the company had six vessels. During the Japanese Occupation of Hong Kong, the competing Yaumati Ferry was allowed to continue, while the Japanese commandeered the Star Ferry for their own purposes. The Golden Star and the Meridian Star were used to transport prisoners of war from Sham Shui Po to Kai Tak Airport. In 1943, the Golden Star was bombed and sunk in the Canton River by the Americans, and the Electric Star was sunk in the harbour. After the war, the ferries were recovered and returned to service.
Until the opening of the Cross Harbour Tunnel in 1972, the Star Ferry remained the main means of public transportation between Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon side.
The Star Ferry operates on a franchise from the Government. It was last renewed in March 1998, the year of its centenary.
In 1966, a fare increase of 5 cents (or 25%) of the ferry was a political milestone, as it caused a 27 year-old student to go on hunger strike in protest at the Edinburgh Place terminal. His arrest sparked the 1966 Hong Kong Riots.
On 11 November 2006, the end of an era was marked when the third generation pier in Central, the Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier, ended its mission, along with the big clock tower. The pier was demolished to make way for reclamation, amidst great controversy and important protests.
The Star Ferry operates the following cross-harbour routes (The prices are effective from 24 June 2012):
- Central to Tsim Sha Tsui. For lower deck, it costs HK$2.0 on Mondays to Fridays; HK$2.8 on Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays. For upper deck, HK$2.5 on Mondays to Fridays; HK$3.4 on Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays.
- Wan Chai to Tsim Sha Tsui for HK$2.5 on Mondays to Fridays; HK$3.4 on Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays.
- Harbour Tour: a tourist cruise, making an indirect, circular route to all the stops, namely Tsim Sha Tsui, Central and Wan Chai.
Passengers may use Octopus or tokens to pay for the ride. Tokens are available in the vending machines at the piers. Direct payment by coins at turnstile is also accepted but no change will be provided.
The Tsim Sha Tsui – Central route does not accept cycles, but the Tsim Sha Tsui – Wan Chai route accepts cycles for an extra charge of HK$13, except during the evening peak hour from Wan Chai to Tsim Sha Tsui.
- Central to Hung Hom for HK$6.3, terminated effective 1 April 2011.
- Wan Chai to Hung Hom for HK$6.3, terminated effective 1 April 2011.
Charter and hire
The Star Ferry "Golden Star' is available for daily charter, for up to 300 people, having been refurbished for cruises and functions, with tables, larger sightseeing windows, an air-conditioned area, and a public address and music system.
Over the years, the fleet has included:
|Builder||Seats||Notes||Image (green and white livery)||Image (other colors)|
|Morning Star (曉星號)||1871||English built steamboat||app 100||The first "Star" Ferry, served from 1871 to 1904|
|Evening Star (夜星號)||1888||English built steamboat||100||The second "Star" Ferry, served from 1888 to 1902|
|Northern Star (北星號)||1900||Served from 1900 to 1959|
|Southern Star||c. 1900|
|Polar Star (極星號)||1901||Served from 1901 to 1927|
|Rising Star (高星號)||1890||100||Served from 1890 to 1902|
|Guiding Star (導星號)||1896||100||Served from 1896 to 1904|
|Electric Star (電星號)||1933||Served from 1933 to 1968, converted to diesel boat in 1948|
|Golden Star (金星號)||1928||Served from 1928 to 1968, converted to diesel boat in 1953|
|Celestial Star (天星號)||8951360||A2071||1956-2011||Hong Kong & Whampoa Shipyard||576||currently the oldest vessel in service|
|Radiant Star (耀星號)||1956-1971||likely Hong Kong & Whampoa Shipyard||Featured in the film The World of Suzie Wong|
|Meridian Star (午星號)||5232725||A2671||1958||Hong Kong & Whampoa Shipyard||576||Modified in 2012 as back-up vessel for Star Ferry Harbour Tour; subsequently re-modified to ordinary ferry standard in 2013|
|Solar Star (日星號)||5333335||A2681||1958||Hong Kong & Whampoa Shipyard||576|
|Northern Star (北星號)||8951372||A2971||1959||Hong Kong & Whampoa Shipyard||576|
|Night Star (夜星號)||8891091||A3136||1963||Hong Kong & Whampoa Shipyard||576||named for original Kowloon Ferry Company's Night Star|
|Day Star (晨星號)||8891120||A4041||1964||Hong Kong & Whampoa Shipyard||576|
|Shining Star (輝星號)||8891118||A3841||1964||Hong Kong & Whampoa Shipyard||576||now used for the Star Ferry Harbour Tour (top sections were opened up); reproduction of 3rd generation ferries c. 1920s|
|Twinkling Star (熒星號)||8891132||A2961||1964||Hong Kong & Whampoa Shipyard||576|
|Morning Star (曉星號)||8891144||A2801||1965||Hong Kong & Whampoa Shipyard||576||named for original Kowloon Ferry Company's Morning Star|
|Silver Star (銀星號)||8891156||A4241||1965||Hong Kong & Whampoa Shipyard||576|
|Golden Star (金星號)||8951384||A5153||1989-2011||Wang Tak Engineering & Shipbuilding Ltd||762|
|World Star (世星號)||8890968||A5243||1989-2011||Wang Tak Engineering & Shipbuilding Ltd||762|
|Glowing Star (耀星號)||Hong Kong Shipyard||288||ex-British Army vessel rented by Star Ferry between 2001 and 2005|
|Pacific Princess||8624527||1971||Bought from Australia as "Temeraire II", and in fleet from 1988 to 1994 as "Lady Star" (后星號); subsequently modified to corporate yacht of Kowloon Wharf Group|
- Star Ferry Pier, Central at Central District
- Star Ferry Pier at Tsim Sha Tsui (1957)
- Wan Chai Pier
- Hung Hom Ferry Pier, service terminated effective 1 April 2011.
Since the Central Star Ferry Pier was moved from its old pier next to City Hall to the new location outside International Finance Centre, passager number has fallen drastically to mainly by tourists and a small number of commuters. This has meant the Star Ferry company has lost many millions of dollars since the relocation. Therefore it decided not to re-tender for the loss-making Hung Hom-Central and Hung Hom-Wan Chai routes and stopped operating these routes and the relevant piers at Hung Hom Ferry Pier on 31 March 2011.
The Star Ferry appears in the 1960 film The World of Suzie Wong. In the beginning of the film, Robert Lomax (played by William Holden) disembarks from the SS President Wilson (an old American President Lines transpacific passenger vessel) and takes the Star Ferry to Hong Kong Island, and on the ferry meets Suzie Wong (played by Nancy Kwan), who scorns his attentions.
Queen's Pier (Old Star Ferry Pier) in Central, Hong Kong.
Two piers in Tsim Sha Tsui at night
Pier 7 in Central, one of two newer piers which replaced the old Central piers.
The 4th (recessed) and 3rd generation (foreground) of the Central pier.
- Hong Kong: Epilogue to an Empire, Jan Morris
- Eitel, Ernest John (1895). Europe in China: the history of Hongkong from the beginning to the year 1882. London: Luzac & Co.
- DeWolf, Christopher "9 Hong Kong tourist traps -- for better or worse" CNN Go. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-03
- Lack of bids dooms Hung Hom ferry lines, SCMP, 15 Jan 2011
- SATW Society of American Travel Writers: SATW's Top Ten Ferry Rides
- The Star Ferry Company Limited: The “Star” Ferry Ranks First in the World’s "Top 10 Most Exciting Ferry Rides”
- Eric Cavaliero, Star of the harbour, The Standard, 6 February 1997
- EIA: A survey report of Historical Buildings and Structures within the Project Area of the Central Reclamation Phase III, Chan Sui San Peter for the HK Government, February 2001
- Chen, Piera (13 August 2010). "24 Hours in Hong Kong". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- Steven Ribet and Amy Tse, Making the connection, The Standard, 1 September 1999
- Richard Frost, History floats aboard Star ferries, The Standard, 1 May 1998
- Wiltshire, Trea. [First published 1987] (republished & reduced2003). Old Hong Kong – Volume One. Central, Hong Kong: Text Form Asia books Ltd. Page 71. ISBN Volume One 962-7283-59-2
- Final Sailings or the End of the Star Ferry Services from Hung Hom
- "Company profile" Star Ferry Co. Retrieved 2012-0-3-04
- "History". The "Star" Ferry Co. Ltd. 2001. Retrieved 28 October 2007.
- "Cancellation of Ferry Services between Hunghom and Central/Wanchai" Star Ferry Co. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-30
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