List of streets in George Town, Penang

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Plan of Beach Street and side streets
CIMB Bank Berhad Tanjung Branch on Beach Street
Old colonial buildings in a street in George Town, Penang, opposite the entrance to the Leong San Tong Khoo Kongsi temple.

The street names of George Town, reflect the multicultural heritage of the city, the capital of a former British settlement of Penang, now part of Malaysia, which has a multiracial, largely Chinese population.

Most streets in the city were built and named during the colonial era, and the historic English names generally remain and are still used by most Penangites. Since the passage of the National Language Act 1967, government policy has been to use the Malay language for all official purposes, and the Malay translations of the street names are the primary official versions that are used on street signs, now supplemented with names in English (and, in some places, Chinese, Tamil and Arabic).

Traditional Chinese names[edit]

In addition to the official English and Malay names, many streets in central George Town have a mostly unrelated and original set of road names in Penang Hokkien, the language of the majority of Penang's majority Malaysian Chinese community. These are noted in the table below using the Peh-oe-ji notation common in Taiwan. As the Hokkien names cited here are not official, and are based on an oral tradition, they may be out of date.

Many streets also have Cantonese names that are less well-known and are not documented here.

Changes in street names[edit]

Since independence, there have been some changes to the official names of some streets. On the whole, however, like Singapore and unlike many other cities in Malaysia, George Town has retained most of its colonial street names, although until recently they have been indicated on street signs only in their Malay translations.

Until 2007, street signs in George Town were only written in Malay, as a result of the national language policy. Unfortunately, this had the effect of confusing tourists, who found it difficult to match the English names commonly used by Penangites with the Malay names on street signs which were often very different. In the case of proper nouns, the English name is easily recognisable, e.g. Kimberley Street is Lebuh Kimberley. In other cases, however, the Malay translation may be unfamiliar to those who do not speak the language, e.g. Church St is literally translated as Lebuh Gereja (from the Portuguese igreja). A few streets have been given completely new names in Malay.

Even where official street names have changed, the local population have largely continued informally to use the old names when referring to streets. This is partly because the new names are often unwieldy (e.g. Green Lane vs Jalan Masjid Negeri, Pitt Street vs Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling, or Northam Road vs Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah), but also reflects a strong conservatism in the local population, who see Penang's colonial history as part of their local identity. When Scott Road was renamed Jalan D S Ramanathan, after the first Mayor of the City of George Town, the new street signs were repeatedly defaced and had to be replaced several times, eventually forcing the city authorities to fix a replacement street sign fifteen feet up a lamppost (instead of at waist-height, as was then usual).

Street sign design[edit]

Colonial-era street sign at Market Cross
National-language street sign at Armenian Street (Lebuh Armenian)
New multilingual street sign at Victoria Street (Lebuh Victoria)
New multilingual street sign at China Street Ghaut (Gat Lebuh China)

The oldest street signs in the centre of George Town are rectangular and made of painted metal plate (blue with white lettering), usually affixed to corner shop-houses at the top of the ground floor, and many can still be seen. In the suburbs, rectangular cast-iron signs with indented corners (white with black lettering and edging) in English and sometimes Jawi script, fixed at head-height to a black iron pole surmounted with a finial, could also be seen. Almost all of these have recently been replaced by the modern road signs.

By 2007, rectangular reflective road signs (green with white lettering) in the Malay Rumi script had largely replaced the older signs. These were initially at waist-height, fixed to two black metal supports, and subsequently at head-height, fixed to a single black metal support. These signs also indicated the postal town and postcode.

Since 2007, new bilingual reflective street signs based on the old suburban signs have started to replace the Malay-only street signs. These are partly based on the old white signs, and are rectangular with indented corners (green with white lettering) and mounted at head-height to a black iron pole surmounted with an onion dome. The street name is given in Malay and English, together with the town and postcode.

In June 2007, while Penang was under the rule of Gerakan, street signs in Chinese were illegally set up by Penang's DAP Socialist Youth division along several roads in George Town under the justification it helps attract tourists from China, only to be removed by the Penang Municipal Council.[1]

On July 22, 2008, following DAP's electoral victory in Penang and George Town's entry into UNESCO's World Heritage Site list, Gerakan was reported to have placed Chinese-language on existing street signs at six roads, claiming the signs were now vital with George Town's recognition by UNESCO and serve as a reminder to DAP of its earlier promises to erect such signs if voted into office.[1] DAP Socialist Youth National Organizing secretary Koay Teng Hai had also proposed to include Tamil and Jawi translations, depending on the cultural background of the area, along with Chinese street names.[1]

Despite opposition from Malay political parties and individuals at state and federal levels, the bilingual street signs with Chinese or Arabic names were put up in November 2008.[2] Bilingual street signs with Tamil names have also been put up.

Standard translations[edit]

The remaining wing of the old Penang Secretariat on Beach Street

In translating the English words for street, road, lane, etc., the city authorities follow a fairly regular system to avoid confusion between many streets of similar names. There are exceptions to this rule where the historic Malay usage is different and there is no chance of confusion, e.g. Hutton Lane has always been known as Jalan Hutton (see e.g. the Mesjid Jalan Hatin (mosque) there) rather than *Lorong Hutton.

  • Avenue - Lebuhraya (e.g. Peel Avenue/Lebuhraya Peel; context usually prevents confusion with the normal meaning of lebuhraya, viz. highway/expressway)
  • Circus - Lilitan (e.g. Hargreaves Circus/Lilitan Hargreaves)
  • Close - Solok (e.g. Scott Close/Solok Scott)
  • Court - Halaman (e.g. Cantonment Court/Halaman Cantonment)
  • Crescent - Lengkok (e.g. Jesselton Crescent/Lengkok Jesselton)
  • Cross - Lintang (e.g. Burmah Cross/Lintang Burma)
  • Drive - Persiaran (e.g. Gurney Drive/Pesiaran Gurney)
  • Gardens - Taman (e.g. Western Gardens/Taman Western)
  • Lane - Lorong (e.g. Prangin Lane/Lorong Perangin)
  • Place - Pesara (e.g. Claimant Place/Pesara Claimant)
  • Quay - Pengkalan (e.g. Weld Quay/Pengkalan Weld)
  • Road - Jalan (e.g. Perak Road/Jalan Perak)
  • Square - Medan (e.g. College Square/Medan Maktab; also used for some new square-shaped roads that are not open squares, e.g. York Square/Medan York)
  • Street - Lebuh (e.g. Campbell Street/Lebuh Campbell)
  • Street Ghaut - Gat Lebuh (e.g. China Street Ghaut/Gat Lebuh China)
  • Terrace - Tingkat (e.g. Erskine Terrace/Tingkat Erskine)

The word "Ghaut" at the end of some street names reflects the fact that they are extensions of the original streets beyond the original waterfront at Beach St with the reclamation of the Ghauts and the construction of Weld Quay, ghat being a Hindi and Bengali word meaning a flight of steps leading down to a body of water.

List of street names[edit]

This list is by no means exhaustive. Road name changes (as opposed to translations) are marked in green.







English name Official Malay name Etymology Traditional Malay name Hokkien name Hokkien etymology
Aboo Sittee Lane Lorong Abu Siti After Aboo Sittee @ Mamak Pushi, who founded the Malay opera form known as bangsawan in Penang in the 1870s Lorong Pushi, after Mamak Pushi 三牲巷 Sam-seng-hāng Gangsters' lane
Acheen Street Lebuh Acheh After the Arab traders from Acheh who lived here. 拍石街 Phah-chio̍h-ke
懸樓仔 Koâiⁿ-laû-á
Stone-breaking street
Small high tower (after the four-storied Gedung Atjeh at the Beach St corner)
Acheen Street Ghaut Gat Lebuh Acheh 拍石街路頭 Phah-chio̍h-ke lơ̄-thâu
懸樓仔路頭 Koâiⁿ-laû-á lơ̄-thâu
Acheen St landing place
Adams Road Jalan Adams After Sir Arthur Adams (1861–1937), lawyer and Legislative Councillor.
Ah Quee Street Lebuh Ah Quee After Capitan China Chung Keng Quee, who presented it to the Municipality Lorong Takia, after the kampong formerly there.[3] 阿貴街 A-kùi-ke Ah Quee street
Amoy Lane Lorong Amoy After the Hokkien city of Amoy
Anson Road Jalan Anson After Major-General Sir Archibald Anson, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang (1867–1882)
Argus Lane Lorong Argus After Penang's first independent newspaper, the Pinang Argus, published at Argus House here from 1867 to 1873. 色藍乳禮拜堂後巷仔 Sek-lân-ní lé-paì-tn̄g-aū hāng-á Lane behind the Eurasian (Serani) church (the Roman Catholic Church, now Cathedral, of the Assumption)
Argyll Road Jalan Argyll Possibly after George Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll, Secretary of State for India (1868–74). 萬葛里巷 Bang-ka-lí hāng Bengali (or Sikh) lane
Ariffin Road Jalan Ariffin After Haji Syed Ariffin, a Muslim alim in the 1880s and 1890s
Armenian Street Lebuh Armenian After the Armenian Orthodox Church that was formerly there. W. of Cannon St
拍銅街 Phah-tâng-ke Copper-beaters' street
E. of Cannon St
本頭公巷 Pún-thâu-kong-hāng
建元街 Kièn-gôan-ke
Gods' lane, after the Kong-si house of the Toā Peh Kong or Kièn Tek secret society (formerly at the junction of Armenian & Pitt Streets) there
Kièn Tek society origin street
Armenian Street Ghaut Gat Lebuh Armenian 本頭公巷路頭 Pún-thâu-kong-hāng lơ̄-thâu Armenian St landing place
Arratoon Road Jalan Arratoon After the Armenian merchant Arathoon Anthony, the father of A. A. Anthony who founded the Penang stock-broking firm that bears his name, who came from Shiraz in Persia to Penang in 1819.
Ayer Itam Road Jalan Air Itam After the Ayer Itam stream which flows there 亞也依淡路 A-iá i-tâm lơ̄ (phonetic)
Ayer Rajah Road Jalan Tunku Abdul Rahman After the Telok Ayer Rajah, the bay between George Town and Tanjong Tokong. New Malay name after Tunku Abdul Rahman, first prime minister of Malaya (1957–1970), who lived there.
Bagan Jermal Road Jalan Bagan Jermal After Bagan Jermal, where it leads 灣斗路 Oân-tó-lơ̄ Bay road
Batu Lanchang Road Jalan Tan Sri Teh Ewe Lim After the area of Batu Lancang.
Barrack Road Jalan Barrack After the sepoy barracks formerly there 兵房路 Peng-pâng-lơ̄ Barrack road
Beach Street Lebuh Pantai Self-describing. The street formerly ran along the shoreline until the construction of Weld Quay. N. of China St
Jalan Gedung
"Warehouse street"
土庫街 Thớ-khờ-ke Warehouse street
China St – Chulia St
港仔口 Káng-á-khaú Harbour entrance, where the main shipping business was carried out
Chulia St – Armenian St
中街 Tiong-ke Middle street
Armenian St – Acheen St
緞羅申 Toan-lơ̂-sîn Tuan Losin (Tengku Syed Hussein)'s street
Acheen St – Malay St
拍鐵街 Phah-thi̍h-ke Blacksmiths' street
S. of Malay St
Ujong Pasir
"Beach end"
社尾 Siā-bóe Village end
Biggs Road Jalan Biggs After the Rev. Louis Coutier Biggs, colonial chaplain in Penang (1885–97), who founded the St George's Chinese Mission (now St Paul's Church)
Birch Road Jalan Birch After James Kortright Birch, Resident Councillor of Penang (1905–1906) and Acting Resident Councillor from (3 March 1897 - August 1898, April 1901 - November 1902 and 1903–1905).
Bishop Street Lebuh Bishop After the Roman Catholic Bishop Garnault, who was brought by Francis Light to Penang in 1786 from Kuala Kedah after fleeing persecution in Ligor and Phuket. His presbytery stood here. W. of King St
順德公司街 Sūn-tek kong-si-ke Soon Teik Association street
King St - Penang St
呂宋禮拜堂前 Lū-sòng lé-paì-tn̂g-chêng In front of the Armenian (Luzon) church formerly there
E. of Penang St
漆木街 Chhat-bok-ke
柴工街 Chhâ-kang-ke
Lacquerers' street
Carpenters' street
Boundary Road Jalan Sempadan Part of the road formerly formed part of the boundary of the City of George Town
Brick Kiln Road Jalan Gurdwara After the brick kiln formerly there. The area was known as Bakar Bata or 罇仔窰 Chuíⁿ-á-iô. New Malay name after the Sikh gurdwara there. Bakar Bata
"Brick Kiln"
風車路 Hong-chhia-lơ̄ Winnowing-machine road, after the winnowing machines used to separate rice from chaff.
Bridge Street Jalan C. Y. Choy After the Anson Bridge over the Prangin Ditch and the bridge over the Pinang River, which it links. New Malay name after Cllr C. Y. Choy, the last Mayor of George Town (1964–1966). North (Beach St) end
過港仔 Kòe-káng-á Past the Prangin Ditch
Middle
枋廊 Pang-lông Sawmill
South (Jelutong Rd) end
城隍廟路 Sêng-hông-biō-lơ̄ City god temple road
Brown Road Jalan Brown After David Brown (1778–1825), an early settler and planter and at one time the largest landowner in Penang, to whom a memorial stands at Padang Brown (Dato' Kramat Gardens)
Buckingham Street Lebuh Buckingham After Richard Temple-Grenville, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, British Colonial Secretary (1867-8) 新街頭 Sin-ke-thaû At the head of Campbell St
Burmah Road Jalan Burma After the Burmese village (Kampong Ava) at Burmah Lane. Jalan Kreta Ayer
"Water-cart road"
車水路 Chhia-chúi-lơ̄ Drawing-water road, after the aqueduct that ran along the road (see e.g. the Mesjid Tarek Ayer there)
Campbell Street Lebuh Campbell After Sir George William Robert Campbell, Acting Lieutenant-Governor of Penang (1872–1873) Jalan Nona Bahru
"New maidens street"
新街 Sin-ke
新大門樓 Sin-toā-mûiⁿ-laû
New street, alternatively 新雞 (new prostitutes), in contradistinction to Chulia St, where the brothels formerly were
New Chulia St
Cannon Square Medan Cannon After the cannon that was brought in by the Government during the Penang Riots in 1867 and fired here, where the members of the Kièn Tek society were encamped. 龍山堂內 Liông-san-tông-laī Within Leong San Tong (the Khoo Kongsi clanhouse)
Cannon Street Lebuh Cannon 大銃空 Toā-chhèng-khang Cannonball-hole
Cantonment Road N. of Kelawei Rd After the military cantonment formerly established at Sepoy Lines, to which it leads. The new Malay name of Cantonment Road Ghaut is after the Penang Malay Association (Persatuan Melayu Pulau Pinang, "Pemenang") there.
Jalan Pemenang
S. of Kelawei Rd
Jalan Cantonment
Carnarvon Lane Lorong Carnarvon After Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon, British Colonial Secretary (1866-7, 1874–1878) at the time of the Treaty of Pangkor. 鑑光內 Kàm-kong-laī Within the village (kampung)
Carnarvon Street Lebuh Carnarvon N. of Campbell St
大門樓橫街 Toā-mûiⁿ-laû hoâiⁿ-ke Chulia St cross street
Campbell St - Acheen St
番仔塚 Hoan-á-thióng Malay cemetery
S. of Acheen St
沓田仔 Lam-chhân-á
姓張公司街 Sὲⁿ-tiơⁿ kong-si-ke
十間厝 Tsa̍p-keng-chhù
四角井 Sì-kak-chέⁿ
Swamp fields
Teoh clanhouse street
Ten houses
Square well
Caunter Hall Road Jalan P. Ramlee After Caunter Hall, the house of George Caunter, Acting Superintendent of Prince of Wales Island (1797) who was deputed to Kedah to negotiate the purchase of Province Wellesley, there. New Malay name after Malayan filmmaker P. Ramlee
Cecil Street Lebuh Cecil After Sir Cecil Clementi Smith, Governor of the Straits Settlements (1887–93). (過港仔第)七條路 (Kòe-káng-á tē) Chhit-tiaû-lơ̄ 7th road (past the Prangin Ditch)
Ceylon Lane Lorong Ceylon After the Ceylonese inhabitants 四十間 Sì-tsa̍p-keng Forty houses
Cheapside Cheapside After Cheapside, a street in London where one of the city's main produce markets was located.
Che Em Lane Lorong Che Em After Chee Eam @ Chu Yan, a Chinese merchant named as the largest Chinese property owner by Francis Light in 1793. Known in Tamil as Koli Kadai Sandhu 北間內 Pak-kan-laī Within the town (pekan)
China Street Lebuh China After the Chinese inhabitants 大街 Toā-ke Main street
China Street Ghaut Gat Lebuh China 大街路頭 Toā-ke lơ̄-thaû
明山路頭 Bêng-san lơ̄-thaû
China St landing place
(Khoo) Beng San (shop) landing place
Chowrasta Road Jalan Chowrasta After the chowrasta or "four crossroads" market there 吉寧仔萬山 Kiet-lêng-á bān-san (also Tamil St) Indian market
Chow Thye Road Jalan Chow Thye After Loke Chow Thye (died 1931), a prominent Selangor miner who was educated at the Penang Free School.
Chulia Lane Lorong Chulia After the Tamil inhabitants, then known as Chulias after the ancient Tamil kingdom of Chola 十七間 Tsap-chhi̍t-keng Seventeen houses, after the row of seventeen houses of the same size there.
Chulia Street Lebuh Chulia W. of Love Lane
牛干冬 Gû-kan-tàng Cattle pen (kendang)
Love Lane - Pitt St
大門樓 Toā-mûiⁿ-laû Great archway, after the two archways into a large compound house formerly here: see Sek Chuan Lane
E. of Pitt St
羅粦街 Lơ̂-lîn-ke
吉寧仔街 Kiet-lêng-á-ke (now usually Market St)
(H. M.) Noordin (shop) street
Indian street
Chulia Street Ghaut Gat Lebuh Chulia 吉寧仔街路頭 Kiet-lêng-á-ke lơ̄-thaû
姓楊公司街 Sὲⁿ-iơ̂ⁿ-kong-si-ke
柴路頭 Chhâ lơ̄-thaû
大水井 Toā-chuí-chέⁿ (also Pitt St (middle))
Chulia St landing place
Yeoh clanhouse street
Firewood landing place, where firewood used to be sold before Maxwell Rd was constructed
Great well, after the big water tank formerly there
Church Street Lebuh Gereja After the Portuguese Eurasian church located here in the late 18th century. 義興街 Gī-hin-ke Ghee Hin secret society street, after the association house that formerly stood there.
Church Street Ghaut Gat Lebuh Gereja 義興街路頭 Gī-hin-ke lơ̄-thaû
酒廊路頭 Chiu-lōng lơ̄-thaû
Church St landing place
Distillery landing-place, after the distillery operated at the junction of Church and Beach Sts by the Opium and Spirit Farm Offices.
Cintra Street Lebuh Cintra After the Portuguese town of Cintra. 新街橫街 Sin-ke hoâiⁿ-ke
拍袍街 Phah-phaù-ke
China St cross street
Brothel street, where the brothels of the lowest type were.
N. of Campbell St
日本街 Ji̍t-pún-ke Japanese (brothel) street
Claimant Place Pesara Claimant Supposedly after the claimant in the Tichborne Case
Clarke Street Lebuh Clarke After Major-General Sir Andrew Clarke, Governor of the Straits Settlements (1873-5)
Clove Hall Road Jalan Clove Hall After the nearby residence of the Armenian Anthony family (see Arratoon Rd)
Codrington Avenue Lebuhraya Codrington After Stewart Codrington, President of the Municipal Commissioners of George Town and Acting Resident Councillor of Penang (1924)
Cross Street Lebuh Lintang Self-describing. It formerly crossed from Gladstone Rd to Magazone Rd.
Dato' Kramat Road Jalan Dato' Keramat After the Dato' Kramat village, to which it led, named after an early-18th-century Muslim ascetic W. of Patani Rd
四崁店 Sì-khám-tiàm Four shops
E. of Patani Rd
柑仔園 Kam-á-hûiⁿ Mandarin orange plantation, after a former orange plantation there. The area was known in Malay as Kebun Limau
Dickens Street Lebuh Dickens After John Dickens, judge and magistrate of Prince of Wales Island (appointed 1801)
Downing Street Lebuh Downing After Downing Street in London, the seat of government. 外關 Goā-koan
大人關 Taī-jîn-koan
Overseas Chinese protector's office
Drury Lane Lorong Drury After Drury Lane in London (where the Theatre Royal is) because of the Chinese theatre there. 新戲臺 Sin-hì-tâi New Chinese theatre
Duke Street Lebuh Duke After Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, who visited and stayed here in 1869.
Dundas Court After Philip Dundas, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang (1805–1807). The road was formerly a cul-de-sac opposite Leith St Ghaut, but was demolished when Northam Rd was extended to create the Farquhar St-Northam Rd one-way system.
W. of Fort Point Jalan Tun Syed Sheh Barakbah Self-describing. Fort Rd was the eastern section of the road leading from the tip of the cape, Fort Point, to the Jubilee Clock Tower roundabout. Both The Esplanade and Fort Rd were joined with the new road built west of Duke St to form a road named after Tun Syed Sheh Barakbah, Governor of Penang (1969–1975). 舊關仔角 Kū-koan-á-kak (also King Edward Place) Old government corner - see also King Edward Place. When Gurney Drive was built, it was called the new Esplanade, or new government corner, even though there are no government buildings there.
The Esplanade
S. of Fort Point
Fort Road
New section W. of Duke St
Jalan Tun Syed Sheh Barakbah
Esplanade Road Jalan Padang Kota Lama Road leading from Light St to the Esplanade 草埔海墘路 Chhaú-pơ haí-kiⁿ-lơ̄ Grass field (cricket ground) shorefront road
Farquhar Street Lebuh Farquhar After R. T. Farquhar, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang (1804–1805) W. of Leith St
紅毛路 Âng-mơ̂-lơ̄ (also Northam Rd, to which it joins) European road
Leith St - Love Lane
蓮花河 Liên-hoa-hô
色蘭乳學前 Sek-lân-ní-o̍h-chêng
Lotus-flower pond, after a lotus-pond formerly at the side of the old St George's Girl's School, which was filled up on account of many accidents involving people trying to get at the lotus.
In front of the Eurasian (Serani) school (St Xavier's Institution)
E. of Love Lane
紅毛學前 Âng-mơ̂-o̍h-chêng In front of the old Penang Free School
Fish Lane Lorong Ikan 鹹魚仔巷 Kiâm-hû-á-hāng Saltfish lane, lane off Prangin Lane
Free School Road Jalan Free School After the new Penang Free School there.
Gaol Road Jalan Penjara After the Penang Gaol there. 新跤樞 Sin-kha-khu New prison
Gladstone Road Jalan Gladstone After William Ewart Gladstone (1809-98), British prime minister. The western end of Gladstone Rd, where it joined Magazine Circus, was demolished with the construction of KOMTAR in 1985, and the remainder was demolished around 2000 with the building of Prangin Mall. 火車路 Hoé-chhia-lơ̄ Tram road
Glugor Road Jalan Sultan Azlan Shah After the area of Glugor, and the 19th century Glugor Estate of David Brown, where it leads, named after the assam glugor (tamarind) tree.
Gottlieb Road Jalan Gottlieb After Felix Henry Gottlieb, a lawyer who served in the Straits Settlements government from 1846 to 1882
Green Hall Jalan Green Hall 緞巴尼 Toān pá-lí
麒麟虎 Ki-lin hơ̄
Mr (Tuan) Paddy's (land)
(phonetic)
Green Lane Jalan Masjid Negeri Formerly self-describing. New Malay name after the state mosque there. 青草巷 Chhεⁿ-chhaú-hāng Green grass lane
Gurney Drive Pesiaran Gurney After Sir Henry Gurney, High Commissioner of the Federation of Malaya (1950–1951) assassinated during the Malayan Emergency. 新關仔角 Sin-koan-á-kak New Government Office Corner, i.e. New Esplanade.
Halfway Road Jalan Sekerat
Hargreaves Road Jalan Hargreaves After W Hargreaves (died 1939), a former principal of the Penang Free School.
Herriot Street Lebuh Herriot After Stuart Herriot, British merchant who wrote the petition of the Capitan China, Chung Keng Kwee, and others in 1872, asking for British intervention in Perak after the Larut Riots. (過港仔第)八條路 (Koè-káng-á tē) peh-tiaû-lơ̄ 8th road (past the Prangin Ditch)
Hogan Road Jalan Hogan After R A D Hogan, a prominent Penang lawyer in the 1870s
Hongkong Street Jalan Cheong Fatt Tze After the island of Hong Kong. New Malay name after Cheong Fatt Tze, 19th century merchant and Chinese consul in Penang, despite the fact that the famous Cheong Fatt Tze mansion is not here, but on Leith St. 香港街 Hiang-káng-ke Hong Kong street
Hospital Road Jalan Hospital After the Penang General Hospital there 病厝路 Pε̄ⁿ-chhù-lơ̄ Hospital road
Hutton Lane Jalan Hutton After Dr Hutton, one of the first doctors in Penang, who arrived in 1805. 惹蘭亞丁 Gia-lân-a-teng (phonetic)
Jahudi Road Jalan Zainal Abidin After the former Jewish inhabitants and the Jewish cemetery that is still there.
Jelutong Road Jalan Jelutong After the Jelutong village at the junction with Perak Rd, named after the Jelutong tree. 日落洞路 Ji̍t-lo̍h-tong-lơ̄ (phonetic)
Town end
下洞 ε̄-tong Lower Jelutong road
Jelutong end
頂洞 Téng-tong
上洞 Siāng-tong
Upper Jelutong road
id.
Kampong Deli Kampung Deli After the inhabitants from Deli, Medan.
Kampong Kaka Jalan Kampung Kaka After the Malabarese Muslim (Kaka) inhabitants.
Kampong Kolam Jalan Kampung Kolam After the large granite pool that stood there in the compound of the Kapitan Kling mosque.
Kampong Malabar Lorong Kampung Malabar After the Malabarese inhabitants 日本新路 Ji̍t-pún-sin-lơ̄ New Japanese road
Katz Street Lebuh Katz After the importing agents, Katz Brothers Ltd, established in 1864. (過港仔第)六條路 (Koè-káng-á tē) la̍k-tiaû-lơ̄ 6th road (past the Prangin Ditch)
Kedah Road Jalan Kedah After the neighbouring Malay state of Kedah Kampong Melaka, after the kampong there. 鑑光麻六甲 Kām-kong mâ-la̍k-kah Malaccan village.
Kelawei Road Jalan Kelawai From Kuala Awal, the first estuary west of George Town
Keng Kwee Street Lebuh Keng Kwee After Capitan China Chung Keng Quee, who built the street and connected it with Penang Rd.[4] 景貴街 Kéng-kùi-ke Keng Kwee street
Khoo Sian Ewe Road Jalan Khoo Sian Ewe After Khoo Sian Ewe (1886-1964), President of the Penang Chinese Town Hall, philanthropist and Straits Settlements Legislative Councillor
Kimberley Street Lebuh Kimberley After John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley, British Colonial Secretary (1870–1874, 1880–1882). 汕頭街 Soaⁿ-thaû-ke
潮州街 Tiô-chiu-ke
麺線街 Mīⁿ-soàⁿ-ke
姓鄧公司街 Sὲⁿ-Tεⁿ-kong-si-ke
拍索仔巷 Phah-soh-á-hāng (also Rope Walk)
Swatow street
Teochew street, after the Teochew prostitutes from Swatow that formerly worked there
Rice-vermicelli makers' street
Teh clanhouse street
Ropemakers' street
King Edward Place Pesara King Edward After King Edward VII (reigned 1901–1910) (舊)關仔角 (Kū-) koan-á-kak (also the Esplanade) (Old) government corner. The old Resident Councillor's Office and Penang Secretariat was a U-shaped building facing King Edward Place, with wings along Beach St and Weld Quay and backing onto Downing St, until it was destroyed by Allied bombing during the Second World War. The only remaining wing of the building is now occupied by Penang Religious Affairs Department on Beach St.
King Street Lebuh King After King George III (reigned 1760–1820). N. of Bishop St
九間厝後 Kaú-keng-chhū-aū Behind the nine houses
Bishop St – China St
廣東大伯公街 Kuíⁿ-tang-toā-pεh-kong-ke
亞片公司街 À-phièn-kong-si-ke
Cantonese Heavenly Emperor's street, after the Cantonese temple there
Opium farm street, after the Opium & Spirit Farm Offices at the junction with China St
China St – Market St
舊和勝公司街 Kū-hô-seng-kong-si-ke Old Ho Seng secret society street
S. of Market St
吉寧仔街 Kiet-lêng-á-ke (also Market St, formerly also Chulia St (E. of Pitt St)) Indian street
Kuala Kangsar Road Jalan Kuala Kangsar After the town of Kuala Kangsar 番仔戲園街 Hoan-á-hì-hûiⁿ-ke Malay theatre street
Kulim Lane Lorong Kulim After the town of Kulim 萬安臺 Bān-an-tâi
明戲台 Bêng-hì-tâi
Ban An theatre
(Ong) Beng (Tek)'s theatre
Leith Street Lebuh Leith After Major-General Sir George Leith, Lieutenant-Governor of Penang (1800–1803). Leith St Ghaut was formerly known as Martina's Lane, after Martina Rozells, mistress of Francis Light, but no longer appears on maps. Nyior Cabang, after the palm trees that used to line it. 相好厝前 Siang-hó-chhū-chêng In front of Siang Ho's house
Leith Street Ghaut Gat Lebuh Leith
Light Street Lebuh Light After Captain Francis Light, Founder of Penang and first Superintendent of the colony (1786–1794) 玻理口 Po-lê-khaú Entrance to the Police Court, now the Legislative Assembly buildings
Lines Road Jalan S. P. Chelliah After army lines (barracks) formerly there.
Logan Road Jalan Logan After James Richardson Logan, lawyer and editor of the Pinang Gazette, to whom the Logan Memorial in the grounds of the Supreme Court Building on Light St is dedicated.
Lorong Salamat Lorong Selamat 平安街 Phêng-an-ke Peace street
Love Lane Lorong Cinta 色蘭乳巷 Sek-lân-ní-hāng (also Muntri St)
愛情巷 aì-chhêng-hāng
Eurasian (Serani) lane, after the Portuguese Eurasian inhabitants
Love lane
MacAlister Road Jalan MacAlister After Colonel Norman MacAlister, Governor of Penang (1807–1810) Jalan Bharu 中路 Tiong-lơ̄ Middle road, being the middle road of the six roads that met at Magazine Circus.
MacAlister Lane Lorong MacAlister 姓王公司後 Sὲⁿ-ông-kong-si-aū Behind the Ong clanhouse
Macallum Street Lebuh Macallum After Colonel Sir Henry McCallum, Colonial Engineer of the Straits Settlements (1884–1889) (過港仔第)五條路 (Koè-káng-á tē) gơ̄-tiaû-lơ̄ 5th road (past the Prangin Ditch)
Madras Lane Lorong Madras After the Indian city of Madras 油絞路 Iû-ka-lơ̄
柴落頭 Chhâ-lơ̄-thaû
Oil mill road
Timber landing-place
Magazine Circus After the government gunpowder depot formerly there. Simpang Enam, "Six-road Junction" 五葩燈 Gơ̄-pha-teng
銃藥間 Chhèng-io̍h-keng
六叉路 La̍k-chhē-lơ̄
Five-armed lamp
Gunpowder store
Six-road junction, self-descriptive until the demolition of Gladstone Rd and the construction of KOMTAR.
Magazine Road Jalan Magazine (過港仔)頭條路 (Koè-káng-á) thaû-tiaû-lơ̄ 1st road (past the Prangin Ditch)
Malay Street Lebuh Melayu After the Malay inhabitants 刣牛後 Thâi-gû-aū
刣牛巷 Thâi-gû-hāng
Behind the cattle slaughterhouse
Cattle slaughterhouse lane
Malay Street Ghaut Gat Lebuh Melayu 刣牛巷路頭 Thaî-gû-hāng lơ̄-thaû Malay St landing place
Market Lane Lorong Pasar After the Indian market formerly at Market St Ghaut. 廣福居巷 Kóng-hok-kū-hāng Penang Mutual Improvement Association lane
Market Street Lebuh Pasar 吉寧仔街 Kiet-lêng-á-ke (also King St (S. of Market St), formerly also Chulia St (E. of Pitt St))
巴虱街 Pá-sat-ke
Indian street
Market (pasar) street
Market Street Ghaut Gat Lebuh Pasar 新萬山 Sin-bān-san New market (bangsal)
Maxwell Road Jalan Maxwell After Sir William Edward Maxwell, Acting Resident Councillor of Penang (1886–1889) W. of Gladstone Rd
開恒美米絞 Khai-hêng-bí bí-ka Khie Heng Bee ricemill
E. of Gladstone Rd
柴埕 Chhâ-tiâⁿ
港仔墘 Káng-á-kîⁿ(also Prangin Rd (W. of Sungei Ujong Rd))
Firewood yard, where firewood was principally sold
By the Prangin Ditch
McNair Street Lebuh McNair After Major John Frederick Adolphus McNair, Acting Lieutenant-Governor of Penang (1880–1884)
Moulmein Close Solok Moulmein After the Burmese city of Moulmein (now Mawlamyaing)
Muda Lane Lorong Muda After the Sungai Muda (river) 癞哥巷 Thái-ko-hāng Lepers' lane, after the lepers who used to live here on the charity of a certain wealthy Chinaman
Muntri Street Lebuh Muntri Possibly after the Mantri (minister) of Larut, Ngah Ibrahim bin Long Ja'afar 南華醫院街 Lâm-hoa-i īⁿ-ke
新海南公司街 Sin-hái-lâm-kong-si-ke
色蘭乳巷 Sek-lân-ní-hāng (also Love Lane)
Lam Wah Ee Hospital street, after the hospital formerly here
New Hainanese association street
Eurasian (Serani) lane, after the inhabitants.
Nagore Road Jalan Nagore After the Indian city of Nagore
Nanking Street Lebuh Nanking After the Chinese city of Nanking. (過港仔第)七條路 (Kóe-káng-á tē) chhit-tiaû-lơ̄ 7th road (past the Prangin Ditch)
New Lane Lorong Baru
Noordin Street Lebuh Noordin After H. M. Noordin, Indian Muslim Merchant & one of the founders of the Kapitan Kling Mosque. (過港仔第)二條路 (Kóe-káng-á tē) jī-tiaû-lơ̄ 2nd road (past the Prangin Ditch)
Noordin Street Ghaut Gat Lebuh Noordin 土橋尾 Thơ̄-kiô-boé
紅燈角 Âng-teng-kak
End of the earthen-bridge
Red lamp corner, after the red lamp used to guide boats at sea
Northam Road Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah New Malay name after the 7th Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang, who visited Penang in 1982. 紅毛路 Âng-mơ̂-lơ̄ European road
E. of Transfer Rd
紅毛舊塚 Âng-mơ̂-kū-thióng Old European cemetery, after the old Protestant and Roman Catholic Cemetery there.
Pangkor Road Jalan Pangkor After the Pangkor Treaty of 1874
Peel Avenue Lebuhraya Peel After Sir William Peel, Resident Councillor of Penang (1925-6), later Governor of Hong Kong
Penang Road Jalan Penang After Penang About Chulia St
吊人街 Tiaù-lâng-ke Gallows street, where criminals were formerly hanged
About Chowrasta Market
舊跤樞 Kū-kha-khu
寧爵厝前 Lêng-chiak-chhù-chêng
Old prison
In front of Lêng Chiak's house
About Prangin Ditch
吊橋頭 Tiaù-kiô-thaû Drawbridge head, after the bridge that formerly spanned the Prangin Ditch (see e.g. the Mesjid Titi Papan) there
About the Magazine
人車丁牌館 Lâng-chhia-tèng-pâi-koan Rickshaw signboard office, after the rickshaw registration office
Penang Street Lebuh Penang N. of Bishop St
廣東街 Kúiⁿ-tang-ke
九間厝 Kaú-keng-chhù
Cantonese street
Nine houses
Bishop St - Market St
馬交街 Má-káu-ke Macau / Cantonese street
S. of Market St
齊知街 Che-ti-ke Chettiar street, after the Chettiar money-lenders who operated there
Peirce Road Jalan Peirce After the Municipal Engineer of Penang in the 1890s
Perak Road Jalan Perak After the sultanate of Perak 大路後 Toā-lơ̄-aū Behind MacAlister Road
Phee Choon Lane Lorong Phee Choon 丕竣路 Phi-chùn-lơ̄ Phee Choon road
Pigott Road Jalan Pigott After F J Pigott, Colonial Engineer and Surveyor-General of the Straits Settlements (1905-21)
Pinhorn Road Jalan Pinhorn After R H Pinhorn, headmaster of the Penang Free School (1905–21)
Pitt Lane Lorong Pitt After William Pitt the Younger, who was British prime minister when Penang was founded (1783–1801, and again in 1804-1806). The new Malay name of Pitt St is after the Kapitan Kling mosque there, despite the fact that the street is also home to St George's Church, the Goddess of Mercy Temple (Taoist) and the Mahamariamman Temple (Hindu), all dating back to the earliest years of George Town and indicative of its religious diversity. 潮州公司後 Tiô-chiu-kong-si-aū Teochew association street
Pitt Street Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling
The junction with Chulia St is known as Simpang Lelong ("Auction Junction") after the public auctions that were carried out here. N. of China St
觀音亭前 Koan-im-têng-chêng, also Kolam têng-chêng In front of the Goddess of Mercy temple
China St - Chulia St
大峇唻 Toā-ba-laí Big police station (balai), after the Pitt St Police Station
S. of Chulia St
椰跤 Iâ-kha
大水井 Toā-chuí-chέⁿ (also Chulia St Ghaut)
Beneath the coconut trees
Great well
Prangin Lane Lorong Prangin After the Prangin River (now Ditch) along Prangin Rd 鹹魚埕 Kiâm-hû-tiâⁿ Saltfish yard
Prangin Road Jalan Dr Lim Chwee Leong W. of Sungei Ujong Rd
牛車街 Gû-chhia-ke
港仔墘 Káng-á-kîⁿ (also Maxwell Rd)
Bullock-cart street
By the Prangin Ditch
Sungei Ujong Rd - Carnarvon St
開恒美街 Khai-hêng-bí-ke Khie Heng Bee (shop) street
E. of Carnarvon St
惠州公司街 Hūi-chiu-kong-si-ke
彎頭仔 Oân-thaû-á
Huichew association street
Little turning
Presgrave Street Lebuh Presgrave After Edward Presgrave, who founded the law firm of Presgrave & Matthews on Beach St in 1898. (過港仔第)三條路 (Kóe-káng-á tē) saⁿ-tiaû-lơ̄ 3rd street (past the Prangin Ditch)
Pykett Avenue Lebuhraya Pykett After the Rev. G. F. Pykett, headmaster of the Anglo-Chinese School, Penang (1892–1932)
Queen Street Lebuh Queen After Queen Charlotte (consort to King George III 1761-1818) Gedung Rumput
"Hay barn"
十二間 Tsa̍p-jī-keng
舊和合社街 Kū-hô-ha̍p-siā-ke
Twelve houses, after twelve houses of the same height there
Old Ho Hup society street
Race Course Road Jalan Lumba Kuda After the Penang Turf Club racecourse there 大菜園路 Toā-chhài-hûiⁿ-lơ̄ Big vegetable farm road
Rangoon Road Jalan Rangoon After the Burmese capital, Rangoon.
Residency Road Jalan Residensi After the Residency, the official residence of the British Resident Councillor and now of the Governor of Penang, to which it leads. 二王厝路 Jī-ông-chhù-lơ̄ Second king's house road. The Governor of the Straits Settlements in Singapore was the "first king"; the Resident Councillor of Penang the "second king".
Rope Walk Jalan Pintal Tali After the ropewalk there, where rope was made from coconut fibres. 拍索巷 Phah-soh-hāng (also Kimberley St)
義福街 Gī-hok-ke
Ropemakers' lane
Ghee Hock society street
S. of Kimberley St
煙筒路 Ien-tâng-lơ̄ Kerosene-lamp tube road
Ross Road Jalan Ross After Frederick John Caunter Ross, who founded the Penang law firm of Logan & Ross in 1874
Sandilands Street Lebuh Sandilands After G. M. Sandilands, a British trader who co-founded Lorraine, Sandilands & Co. in Penang in 1859 (過港仔第)九條路 (Kóe-káng-á tē) kaú-tiaû-lơ̄ 9th road (past the Prangin Ditch)
Scotland Road Jalan Scotland Whimsically so called because of the estates there of Captain James Scott, business partner of Captain Francis Light, the founder of Penang. 峇抵眼東 Ba-tu-gan-tong Batu Gantong, after the overhanging rock there.
Scott Road Jalan D. S. Ramanathan After James Scott, a companion of Francis Light and founder of Jamestown (now Bayan Lepas). New Malay name after Cllr D. S. Ramanathan, the first Mayor of the City of George Town (1957).
Seh Tan Court Halaman Seh Tan After the Tan clan association there 姓陳公司 Sὲⁿ-tân-kong-si Tan clanhouse
Seck Chuan Lane Lorong Sek Chuan 大門樓内 Toā-mûiⁿ-laû laī
Within the great archway, the lane being one of two entrances to a big compound house there over which there was a large archway.
Sepoy Lines Road Jalan Sepoy Lines After the Indian sepoy barracks formerly there
Soo Hong Lane Lorong Soo Hong After Khoo Soo Hong, a founding senator on the Khoo Kongsi board in 1851
Sri Bahari Road Jalan Sri Bahari After the Sri Kunj Bihari Temple established on Penang Rd by Bihari members of the Bengali Regiment of the East India Company, whose endowment included houses on this road
Stewart Lane Lorong Stewart After the Eurasian Stewart family who lived there 觀音亭後 Koan-im-têng-aū
三板巷 Sam-pán-hāng
Behind the Goddess of Mercy temple
Boat lane
Sungei Ujong Road Jalan Sungai Ujong After the district of Sungai Ujong in Negeri Sembilan 胡椒埕 Hơ̂-chio-tiâⁿ
萬得豐路 Bān-tek-hong-lơ̄
Pepper yard
Bān Tek Hong (pepper yard) road
Tamil Street Lebuh Tamil After the Tamil inhabitants 吉寧仔萬山 Kiet-lêng-á bān-san (also Chowrasta Rd) Indian market
Tek Soon Street Lebuh Tek Soon After Cheah Tek Soon, a prominent 19th century Chinese businessman and opium farmer. 柴埕後 Chhâ-tiâⁿ-aū
德順路 Tek-sūn lơ̄
Behind Maxwell Rd (E. of Gladstone Rd)
Tek Soon road
Tengku Kudin Road Jalan Tengku Kudin After Tunku Dhiauddin ibni Almarhum Sultan Zainul Rashid (Tunku Kudin), crown prince of Kedah and Viceroy of Selangor at the time of the Treaty of Pangkor (1874), who settled in Penang after being exiled from Kedah (see also Udini Rd)
To Aka Lane Lorong Toh Aka 鑑光內橫路 Kàm-kong-laī-hoaîⁿ-lơ̄
拍鐵街巷仔 Phah-thih-ke hāng-á
Carnarvon Street cross street
Little lane off Beach St (Acheen St - Malay St)
Transfer Road Jalan Transfer After the transfer of the Straits Settlements from the Government of British India to the administration of the Colonial Office in 1867. 德順厝邊街 Tek-sūn-chhù-piⁿ-ke Street by Tek Soon's house
Tye Sin Street Lebuh Tye Sin After Foo Tye Sin, a commissioner into the causes of the 1867 Penang Riots. (過港仔第)四條路 (Kóe-káng-á tē) sì-tiaû-lơ̄ 4th road (past the Prangin Ditch)
Udini Road Jalan Udini After Tunku Dhiauddin ibni Almarhum Sultan Zainul Rashid (Tunku Kudin), crown prince of Kedah and Viceroy of Selangor at the time of the Treaty of Pangkor (1874), who settled in Penang after being exiled from Kedah (see also Tengku Kudin Rd)
Union Street Lebuh Union Possibly after the Union of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922) 玻理後 Po-lê-aū Behind the Police Courts (now the Legislative Assembly buildings)
Vermont Road Jalan Vermont After J F B Vermont, a leader of the European community in Penang in the 1880s and 1890s.
Victoria Green Road Jalan Padang Victoria After Victoria Green, the grounds of Chinese Recreation Club which boast a statue of Queen Victoria, there.
Victoria Street Lebuh Victoria After Queen Victoria (reigned 1836–1901), Queen and Empress of India. 海墘新路 Haí-kiⁿ-sin-lơ̄ (also Weld Quay) New road by the waterfront
Waterfall Road Jalan Air Terjun After the waterfall in the neighbouring Penang Botanic Gardens 亞逸倒潤 A-e̍k-tò-lūn Ayer Terjun, waterfall.
Weld Quay Pengkalan Weld After Sir Frederick Weld, Governor of the Straits Settlements (1880–1887) 新海墘街 Sin-haí-kiⁿ-ke
海墘新路 Haí-kiⁿ-sin-lơ̄ (also Victoria St)
New-waterfront street
New road by the waterfront
Western Road Jalan Utama English name self-describing. The Residency of the Governor is here, and the new Malay name means "principal road", after the style of the Governor, Tuan Yang Terutama, literally "most principal lord/master", which is used in place of the English style "His Excellency". 紅毛新塚 Âng-mơ̂-sin-thióng
平安巷 Pêng-an-hāng
西華巷 Sai-hoa-hāng
New European cemetery
Peace lane
Western grand lane
York Road Jalan York After the English city of York. Whimsically so called because it leads to Scotland Rd.

Districts in George Town[edit]

Name Etymology Hokkien name Hokkien etymology
Bakar Bata After the brick kiln formerly there 罇仔窰 Chuíⁿ-á-iô Brick kiln
Dato' Kramat Possibly after a Datuk Keramat shrine there. 四崁店 Sì-khám-tiàm Four shops, the name of Dato' Kramat Rd (W. of Patani Rd)
Dhoby Ghaut After the laundrymen (Hindustani: dhobi) who used to work there. The original Dhobi Ghat is in Bombay. 洗布橋 Sé-pờ-kiô Washermen's bridge
Jalan Bharu New road 中路 Tiong-lơ̄ Middle road, the name of MacAlister Rd
Kampong Bharu New village 大樹跤 Toā-chhiū-kha Under the big trees
Kebun Limau Lime/lemon plantation 柑仔園 Kam-á-hûiⁿ Mandarin orange plantation, the name of Dato' Kramat Rd (E. of Patani Rd).
Pulau Tikus Rat island, the name of the small islet off the coast. 浮羅池滑 Phû-lơ̂-ti-kut (phonetic)
Rifle Range After the rifle range formerly there 拍銃埔 Phah-chhèng-pơ̄ Rifle range
Sepoy Lines After the sepoy barracks formerly there 時排埔 Si-paî-pơ̄ Sepoy field
Tarek Ayer Drawing water, after the aqueduct that ran along Burmah Rd 牛車水 Gû-chhia-chuí Bullock-cart water
Titi Papan Plank bridge, after the bridge over the Prangin Ditch. 吊橋頭 Tiaù-kiô-thaû Suspension-bridge head, the name of Penang Rd (about the Prangin Ditch).
Ujong Pasir End of the sand 社尾 Siā-bóe End of the village, the name of Beach St (S. of Malay St)

Roads outside George Town[edit]

English name Malay (current official) name Etymology Hokkien name Hokkien etymology
Fettes Road Jalan Fettes After J. D. Fettes, the engineer of the Guillemard reservoir built there in 1929. 水池路 Chuí-tîⁿ-lơ̄ Reservoir road.
Mount Erskine Road Jalan Mount Erskine Mount Erskine (350 ft) was owned by John James Erskine, Judge and Member of the Council, so-called "Second King of Penang", who came to the island in 1805. 白雲山 Pε̍h-hûn-soaⁿ White cloud mountain
Vale of Tempe Road Jalan Lembah Permai After the Greek Vale of Tempe; the Malay name is a semi-calque which means "Peaceful Valley".
Summit Road Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra Self-descriptive: the road at the summit of Penang Hill.
Karpal Singh Drive Persiaran Karpal Singh Formerly known as IJM Promenade. It was renamed after Penang born lawyer and also Jelutong Member of Parliament, Karpal Singh.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • City Council of George Town, Penang Past and Present 1786-1963: A Historical Account of the City of George Town since 1786, Penang: 1966.
  • Khoo Su Nin, Streets of George Town Penang (4th ed.), Penang: 2007, ISBN 983-9886-00-2
  • Lo Man Yuk, Chinese Names of Streets in Penang, Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Singapore: January 1900.
  • S Durai Raja Singam, Malayan Place Names, 1938.
  • Penang Travel Tips, George Town Walking Tours Accessed November 2008.
  • The Penang File [1] [2] [3] [4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Tan Sin Chow (2008-07-22). "Gerakan puts up road names in Chinese as reminders to state govt". The Star Online. Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  2. ^ "Multilingual road signs put up to boost Penang's tourism". The Star (Malaysia). Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  3. ^ Chinese Names of Streets in Penang by Lo Man Yuk, Commissioned by the Secretary, Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society June 1899, pg 198
  4. ^ Chinese Names of Streets in Penang by Lo Man Yuk, Commissioned by the Secretary, Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society June 1899, pg 210

External links[edit]

Media related to Streets in Penang at Wikimedia Commons