Bihari people

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For other uses, see Bihari (disambiguation).
Bihari
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Total population
About 105 million (2011)
Regions with significant populations
 India 103 million (2011)[1]
 Pakistan A sizeable percentage of the 2 million Muhajirs[2]
 Bangladesh 888,000 approx. Bihari Muslims (2011)[3]
 Mauritius A sizeable percentage of 1.2 million Indo-Mauritians[4]
 Trinidad and Tobago 468,524 (2011) Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonians[citation needed]
 Guyana A sizeable percentage of 752,940 East Indians[citation needed]
 Fiji 313,798 (2007)[citation needed]
 Suriname 180,000 approx. (2010)[citation needed]
Languages
Bihari (Angika, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Magahi and Maithili); Hindi; Urdu
Religion
Mostly Hinduism, a large minority of Islam and small minorities of Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, and Bahá'í

The Biharis (Devanagari: बिहारी; Nastaʿlīq: بِہاری; Latin: Bihārī About this sound listen ) are an Indo-Aryan speaking Indian ethnic group originating from the present state of Bihar with a history going back three millennia. Biharis speak Bihari languages such as Magahi, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Maithili, amongst other local dialects, as well as Hindi or Urdu.

Besides the state of Bihar, Biharis can be found throughout Eastern Uttar Pradesh, North India, West Bengal, Assam, Maharashtra and also in the neighbouring countries of Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. A large number of Biharis travelled to various parts of the world in the 19th century to serve as indentured labour on sugarcane and rubber plantations in Guyana, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, Fiji, Mauritius and Natal, South Africa. During the partition of India in 1947, many Biharis of the Islamic faith migrated to East Bengal (later East Pakistan and subsequently Bangladesh).[5][6] Bihari people are also well represented in Pakistan's (formerly West Pakistan) Muhajir population as a result of the partition of India,[7] as well as the recent repatriation of some Bihari refugees from Bangladesh to Pakistan.[8]

Pre-history[edit]

Bihar, the state in northern India where majority of Bihari People live
The Magadha state circa 600 BC, before it expanded

Mythological stories claim that Bihar was the place where King Satyavrata (सत्यव्रत) or Manu (मणु) resided after the great flood, with the help of Vishnu-Avatar Matsya.[9] A king of the Yadavs, nicknamed "Mahabali" ruled over this last in ancient times. He was impotent. His guru was Maharishi Dirghatamas. Mahabali had many wives and so Maharishi Dirghatamas with the permission of his king impregnated Mahabali's chief queen Sudeshna.[10] Queen Sudeshna bore five children or "Kshetrajas" (rulers of lands), one of them was King Anga, which is modern-day Bihar. From Anga sprang Anapana.[11]

According to the historian Asim Maitra, the history of Magadha from the earliest times to the dawn of the Buddhist age is not well known. Before the discovery of the ruins of Mohenjodaro and Harappa, the cyclopen walls on the hills of Rajagriha were an ancient archaeological remains in India.[12]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Bihar

Modern Bihar is a combination of two great ancient kingdoms "Magadha" and "Mithila". From Magadha arose two traditions, Jainism and Buddhism. The first Indian empire, the Maurya empire, originated from Magadha, with its capital at Patliputra (modern Patna) in 325 BC.

Mithila is known for its literary traditions, education and culture.Four of the six orthodox systems of Indian philosophy, Nyaya, Vaiseshika, Mimamsa, and Sankalya, were developed in the Mithila Region. Vidyapati and his work shaped the language and culture of the entirety of eastern India, comprising Bengal, Assam, Odisha and even up to some extent Nepal.

The Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka, is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of India and the world. After seeing all the carnage that war causes he was placed on the path of Lord Buddha by his spiritual guide Manjushri.[13]

According to indologist A.L. Basham, the author of the book The Wonder that was India,

The age in which true history appeared in India was one of great intellectual and spiritual ferment. Mystics and sophists of all kinds roamed through the Ganges Valley, all advocating some form of mental discipline and asceticism as a means to salvation; but the age of the Buddha, when many of the best minds were abandoning their homes and professions for a life of asceticism, was also a time of advance in commerce and politics. It produced not only philosophers and ascetics, but also merchant princes and men of action.

[14]

Bihar remained an important place of power, culture and education during the next one thousand years. The Gupta Empire, which again originated from Magadha in 240CE, is referred to as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, religion and Indian philosophy. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavours. Historians place the Gupta dynasty alongside with the Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty and Roman Empire as a model of a classical civilisation. The capital of Gupta empire was Pataliputra, present day Patna. A number of monasteries grew up during the Pāla period in Magadha and ancient Bengal. According to Tibetan sources, five great Mahaviharas stood out: Nalanda University were among the oldest and best centres of education in ancient India, Vikramashila, the premier university of the era was established by the second Pala king Dharmapala (783 to 820); Somapura Mahavihara (now in Bangladesh) was built by king Dharmapala of Pala dynasty, Odantapurā Mahavihara was established by king Dharmapala in the 8th century, and Jaggadala Mahavihara was founded by the later kings of the Pāla dynasty, Ramapala (c.1077–1120) (now in the north-west Bangladesh). Some writers believe the period between the 400 CE and 1000 CE saw gains by Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.[15][16][17][18] Although the Hindu kings gave much grants to the Buddhist monks for building Brahmaviharas. A National Geographic edition[19] reads, "The essential tenants of Buddhism and Hinduism arose from similar ideas best described in the Upanishads, a set of Hindu treatises set down in India largely between the eighth and fourth centuries B.C."

The Buddhism of Magadha was finally swept away by the Islamic invasion under Muhammad Bin Bakhtiar Khilji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramshila were destroyed, and thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred in 12th century C.E.[20][21][22][23] The region saw a brief period of glory for six years (1540 -1546 CE) during the rule of Sher Shah Suri, who built the longest road of the Indian subcontinent, the Grand Trunk Road. The economic reforms carried out by Sher Shah, like the introduction of Rupee and Custom Duties, are still used in the Republic of India. He revived the city of Patna, where he built up his headquarters.[24][25] During 1557–1576, Akbar, the Mughal emperor, annexed Bihar and Bengal to his empire.[26] With the decline of the Mughals, Bihar passed under the control of the Nawabs of Bengal. During 1742 to 1751 Marathas under the two Maratha chiefs, the Peshwa and Raghuji attacked eastern India (Bihar, Bengal & Orissa). The Marathas defeated the Nawab Alivardi Khan (1740–1756) and took charge of these provinces. Thus, the medieval period was mostly one of anonymous provincial existence.

The 10th and the last Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna.

Coin of Samudragupta

After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. From this point, Bihar remained a part the Bengal Presidency of the British Raj until 1912, when the province of Bihar and Orissa was carved out as a separate province. In 1935, certain portions of Bihar were reorganised into the separate province of Orissa.

Babu Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur and his army, as well as countless other persons from Bihar, contributed to the India's First War of Independence (1857), also called the Sepoy Mutiny by some historians. Resurgence in the history of Bihar came during the struggle for India's independence. It was from Bihar that Mahatma Gandhi launched his pioneering civil-disobedience movement, Champaran Satyagraha. Raj Kumar Shukla drew the attention of Mahatma Gandhi to the exploitation of the peasants by European indigo planters. Champaran Satyagraha received the spontaneous support from many Biharis, including Sri Krishna Sinha, the first Chief Minister of Bihar, Rajendra Prasad, who became the first President of India and Anugrah Narayan Sinha who ultimately became the[27] first Deputy Chief Minister <expletive> Finance Minister of Bihar.

In North and Central Bihar, a peasant movement was an important side effect of the independence movement. This movement aimed at overthrowing the feudal (zamindari) system instituted by Britishers. It was being led by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati and his followers Pandit Yamuna Karjee, Rahul Sankrityayan, Pandit Karyanand Sharma, Baba Nagarjun and others. Pandit Yamuna Karjee along with Rahul Sankritayan and a few others started publishing a Hindi weekly Hunkar from Bihar, in 1940. Hunkar later became the mouthpiece of the peasant movement and the agrarian movement in Bihar and was instrumental in spreading the movement.

Bihar's contribution in the Indian independence struggle has been immense with outstanding leaders like Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Sri Krishna Sinha, Dr.Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Brajkishore Prasad, Mulana Mazharul Haque, Jayaprakash Narayan, Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinha, Ram Dulari Sinha, Satyendra Narayan Sinha, Basawon Singh, Rameshwar Prasad Sinha, Yogendra Shukla, Baikuntha Shukla, Sheel Bhadra Yajee, Pandit Yamuna Karjee and many others who worked for India's independence.[28]

The state of Jharkhand was carved out of Bihar in the year 2000.[29] 2005 Bihar assembly elections ended the 15 years of continuous RJD rule in the state, giving way to NDA led by Nitish Kumar. Bihari migrant workers have faced violence and prejudice in many parts of India, like Maharashtra, Punjab and Assam.[30][31][32]

Cuisine[edit]

Main article: Cuisine of Bihar

The food culture of Bihar is both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Most of the people are non vegetarian. Among all the varieties of food eaten by the Bihari people, Litti-Chokha is the most famous. Maithili Cuisine has a unique flavour and is akin to Bengali cuisine though having an individuality of its own.

Clothing[edit]

The traditional dress of Bihari people includes the dhoti-kurta for men and Ghagra-Choli for women but ghagra choli is limited to folk dances or celebrations and is considered the ancient or historical dress of women of Bihar. In everyday life women wear saree or Kameez-Salwar. The saree is worn in "Seedha Aanchal" style traditionally.[33] Nevertheless, Western shirts and trousers are becoming popular among the both rural and urban male population.[33] And Salwar-Kameez for women in urban Bihar. Jewelery such as rings for men and bangles for women are popular.However, there are some traditional Bihari jewelries like "Chhara", "Hansuli", "Kamarbandh",etc. j[33]

Language and literature[edit]

Hindi and Urdu are the official languages of the state, whilst the majority of the people speak one of the Bihari languagesBajjikaa, Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Maithili or Angika. Bihari languages were once mistakenly thought to be dialects of Hindi. However that does not hold true as they have been more recently shown to be descendant of the language of the erstwhile Magadha kingdom – Magadhi Prakrit, along with Bengali, Assamese, and Oriya. Bhojpuri is spoken throughout the Bhojpuri region by the Bhojpuri Biharis. Maithili is used by the Maithils in the Mithila region.

The number of speakers of Bihari languages is difficult to indicate because of unreliable sources. In the urban region most educated speakers of the language name Hindi as their language because this is what they use in formal contexts and believe it to be the appropriate response because of unawareness. The uneducated and the rural population of the region regards Hindi as the generic name for their language.[34]

Despite of the large number of speakers of Bihari languages, they have not been constitutionally recognised in India. Hindi is the language used for educational and official matters in Bihar.[35] These languages was legally absorbed under the subordinate label of HINDI in the 1961 Census. Such state and national politics are creating conditions for language endangerments.[36] The first success for spreading Hindi occurred in Bihar in 1881, when Hindi displaced Urdu as the sole official language of the province. In this struggle between competing Hindi and Urdu, the potential claims of the three large mother tongues in the region – Magahi, Bhojpuri and Maithili were ignored. After independence Hindi was again given the sole official status through the Bihar Official Language Act, 1950.[37] Urdu became the second official language in the undivided State of Bihar on 16 August 1989. Bihar also produced several eminent Urdu writers including Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, Manazir Ahsan Gilani, Abdul Qavi Desnavi, Paigham Afaqui, Jabir Husain, Sohail Azimabadi, Hussain Ul Haque, Dr. Shamim Hashimi,[38] Wahab Ashrafi[39] etc.

Bihar has produced a number of writers of Hindi, including Raja Radhika Raman Singh, Shiva Pujan Sahay, Divakar Prasad Vidyarthy, Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar', Ram Briksh Benipuri, Phanishwar Nath 'Renu', Gopal Singh "Nepali" and Baba Nagarjun. Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan, the great writer and Buddhist scholar, was born in U.P. but spent his life in the land of Lord Buddha, i.e., Bihar.Hrishikesh Sulabh is the prominent writer of the new generation. He is short story writer, playwright and theatre critic. Arun Kamal and Aalok Dhanwa are the well-known poets. Different regional languages also have produced some prominent poets and authors. Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay, who is among the greatest writers in Bengali, resided for some time in Bihar. The writer in English, Birbal Jha, who has created a revolution in English writing, training and teaching was born 1972 in the district Madhubani in Bihar.[40] Of late, the latest Indian writer in English, Upamanyu Chatterjee also hails from Patna in Bihar. Devaki Nandan Khatri, who rose to fame at the beginning of the 20th century on account of his novels such as Chandrakanta and Chandrakanta Santati, was born in Muzaffarpur, Bihar. Vidyapati Thakur is the most renowned poet of Maithili (c. 14–15th century). Satyapal Chandra[41] has written a lot of English bestsellers and he is one of India's emerging young writer.

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Bihar

Hinduism is the majority religion of the Bihari people although a large Muslim and a negligible Christian minority exists among the ethnic group.[42]

Among the Hindus: Brahmin(including Maithil Brahmin, Kanyakubja Brahmin, Sakaldwipiya), Bhumihar, Rajput, Dusadh, Koiri, Kurmi, Yadav, Banias,and Kayastha castes are well represented.[43]

In India, Bihari Muslims are found in the Kishanganj, Katihar, Araria, Siwan, Purnia, Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur, Bhagalpur and Champaran districts of Bihar.[44] The Bihari population living in Pakistan and Bangladesh is also predominantly Muslim as well.[45]

Christian Biharis are significant in the Ranchi, Singhbhum, and Santhal districts of the Indian state of Jharkhand.[46]

Hindu castes in Bihar[47][citation needed]
Tribes Population
Rajput 12,000,000
Ahir 10,000,000
Bhumihar 4,000,000
Brahman 7,000,000
Kurmi 4,000,000
Koiri 3,900,000
Dosadh 3,200,000
Kahar 2,600,000
Teli 2,600,000
Koiri 1,800,000
Kumhar 1,800,000
Pasi 1,700,000
Bhar 1,700,000
Badhai 1,600,000
Nai 1,600,000
Bania 1,400,000
Lohar 1,300,000
Mallah 1,300,000
Bhuiya 1,200,000
Kalwar 1,200,000
Bharbhunjaegu 1,180,000
Mal 1,120,000
Dhanuk 1,090,000
Kayastha 1,000,000
Kanu 990,000
Sunar 955,000
Lunia 940,000
Dhobi 920,000
Ghatwar 660,000
Devhar 50,000

Bihari diaspora[edit]

Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh[edit]

Since, the place of origin of Bihari people of India has been identified as Terai in present day Nepal, they have moved to Bihar on 14th Century and Settled in Bihar, hence known as Bihari. But ,Most of the Bihari people are again moving towards Nepal for Job opportunity, better facilities and economy. The first Bihari settlement in Nepal started since the 18th century due to similar language and lifestyle to that of Nepali People of Madhesi ethnicity. They got mixed in their category and became permanent Nepali people with patroitism towards Nepal, not a Bihari or Indian People. In 1947, at the time of Partition, many Muslim Biharis moved to what was then East Bengal adjacent to their Bihar province in eastern India. In 1971, when war broke out between West Pakistan and East Pakistan (or Bangladesh), the Biharis sided with the military of West Pakistan.[citation needed]

However, when East Pakistan became the independent state of Bangladesh in December 1971, the Biharis were left behind as the Pakistani army and civilians evacuated and the Bihari population in Bangladesh found themselves unwelcomed in both countries. Pakistan feared a mass influx of Biharis could destabilise a fragile and culturally mixed population, and Bangladeshis scorned the Biharis for having supported and sided with the West during the war.

With little or no legal negotiation about offering the Biharis Pakistani citizenship or safe conduit back home to their native Bihar in India, the Biharis (called "stranded Pakistanis" by some Bangladeshi politicians) have remained stateless for 33 years. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has not addressed the plight of the Biharis. An estimated 600,000 Biharis live in 66 camps in 13 regions across Bangladesh, and an equal number have acquired Bangladeshi citizenship. In 1990, a small number of Biharis were allowed to immigrate to Pakistan.

Pakistan has reiterated that as the successor state of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), as well as having greater cultural and linguistic similarities with Bengalis, Bangladesh should accept the Biharis as full citizens. Pakistani politicians and government officials have refused to accept these nearly 300,000 stranded Pakistanis of Bihari origin due to inability to absorb such a large number of immigrants at the moment.

In May 2008, a Bangladeshi court ruled that Biharis who were either minors in 1971 or born after 1971 are Bangladeshi citizens and have the right to vote.[49][50] As a result of the ruling, an estimated 150,000 of the 300,000 Biharis living in Bangladesh are eligible for Bangladeshi citizenship.[50] Although the court ruling explicitly said that the Biharis are eligible to register to vote in the December 2008 elections, the Election Commission closed its rolls in August 2008 without enrolling them.[51]

Mauritius[edit]

A large number of people from Bihar travelled to various parts of the world in the 19th century to serve as indentured labour on sugarcane and rubber plantations in Mauritius and Natal-South Africa.

A majority of Indo-Mauritians are Bihari Mauritians.[4] Most of the Mauritian Prime Ministers were Indo-Mauritians of Bihari descent.[52]

Bihari sub-nationalism[edit]

Bihari sub-nationalism is a sentiment which unites people speaking Bihari languages.

According to social scientist Dr. Shaibal Gupta, the beating of students from Bihar in Mumbai in October 2008, has consolidated Bihari sub-nationalism.[53]

Bihar Movement[edit]

Bihar Movement was a movement initiated by students in the Indian state of Bihar in 1974 and led by the veteran Gandhian Socialist Jayaprakash Narayan against misrule of and corruption in the government. By 1975 it had attracted a mass following amongst all sections of the population in Bihar and in some other states. It is also called "total revolution". It led to giving up of surnames by many Biharis in the 1970s.

Discrimination faced by the Bihari community[edit]

Although racial differentiation in India is almost non-existent, they practice some form discrimination based on caste among themselves. During recent times, the people from Bihar have been the major victims of it, often resulting in violence directed against them, and even their social outcasting at times.

The uneven economic development in India has resulted in mass migration of Bihari workers, and middle class professionals, to seek work in more developed states of India like Maharashtra, the North East region, Delhi, western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab. The free movement of Indians to settle and work anywhere inside the Indian Union has been guaranteed by the constitution of India.[54] Bihari settler communities living in other states have been subjected to a growing degree of xenophobia,[55][56] racial discrimination,[57][58] prejudice[59][60][61] and violence.[62] Biharis are often looked down upon in Delhi[63] and their accent is ridiculed.[64] In 2000 and 2003, anti-Bihari violence led to the deaths of up to 200 people[62] and created 10,000 internal refugees. Again in 2008, anti-Bihari violence in Maharashtra, notably in Nashik, Mumbai, and Pune, created a record 40,000 to 60,000 internal refugees.[65][66][67]

Attacks against Marathis[edit]

After the October 2008 anti-Bihari attacks in Maharashtra, members of the Bharatiya Bhojpuri Sangh (BBS) vandalised the official residence of Tata Motors Jamshedpur plant head S.B. Borwankar, a Maharashtrian. Armed with lathis and hockey sticks, more than 100 BBS members trooped to Borwankar’s Nildih Road bungalow around 3.30 pm. Shouting anti-MNS slogans, they smashed windowpanes and broke flowerpots. BBS president Anand Bihari Dubey called the attack on Borwankar’s residence unfortunate, and said that he knew BBS members were angry after the attack in Maharashtra on Biharis, but did not expect a reaction. Fear of further violence gripped the 4,000-odd Maharashtrians settlers living in and around the city.[68][69]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Destination Bihar the land of Buddha". Indtravel.com. 2000-11-14. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  2. ^ "The Muhajirs of Pakistan". One World South Asia. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  3. ^ Joshua Project. "Joshua Project – Bihari Muslim of Bangladesh Ethnic People Profile". Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  4. ^ a b Mauritians will be able to track Bihar roots more easily - Thaindian News. Thaindian.com (2008-02-19) Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  5. ^ "Bangladesh: Stateless Biharis Grasp for a Resolution and Their Rights". Refugees International. Archived from the original on 21 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  6. ^ "Stateless in Bangladesh and Pakistan". Stateless People in Bangladesh Inc. Archived from the original on 21 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  7. ^ "Pakistan under attack!". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  8. ^ "Assessment for Biharis in Bangladesh". Center for International Development and Conflict Management. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  9. ^ P. 1543 Encyclopaedia of Hinduism By Nagendra Kumar Singh
  10. ^ Chakravarti, P. 99 The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through the Ages
  11. ^ Political History of Pre-Buddhist India By Asim Kumar Chatterjee
  12. ^ Maitra Asim, Magahi culture, Cosmo Publication, 1983, pp. 45
  13. ^ A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, by Fa-hsien (chapter27)
  14. ^ Bashan A.L., The Wonder that was India, Picador, 2004, pp. 46
  15. ^ Online BBC News Article: Religion & Ethics – Hinduism, BBC News, 2 January 2007
  16. ^ Pathak Prabhu Nath,Society and Culture in Early Bihar, Commonwealth Publishers, 1988, pp. 134–140
  17. ^ Thakur U., Studies in Jainism and Buddhism in Mithila, pp. 150
  18. ^ Chaudhary R. K., Bihar the Home-land of Buddhism, Patna, 1956, pp. 87
  19. ^ January 2008, VOL. 213, #1
  20. ^ Gopal Ram, Rule Hindu Culture During and After Muslim, pp. 20, "Some invaders, like Bakhtiar Khilji, who did not know the value of books and art objects, destroyed them in large numbers and also the famous Nalanda ..."
  21. ^ The Maha-Bodhi By Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta (page 8)
  22. ^ Omalley L.S.S., History of Magadha, Veena Publication, Delhi, 2005, pp. 35, "The Buddhism of Magadha was finally swept away by the Muhammadan invasion under Bakhtiyar Khilji, In 1197 the capital, Bihar, was seized by a small party of two hundred horsemen, who rushed the postern gate, and sacked the town. The slaughter of the "shaven-headed Brahmans," as the Muslim chronicler calls the Buddhist monks, was so complete that when the victor searched for someone capable of explaining the contents of the monastic libraries, not a living man could be found who was able to do so. "It was discovered," it was said, "that the whole fort and city was a place of study." A similar fate befell the other Buddhist institutions, against which the combined intolerance and rapacity of the invaders was directed. The monasteries were sacked and the monks slain, many of the temples were ruthlessly destroyed or desecrated, and countless idols were broken and trodden under foot. Those monks who escaped the sword flied to Tibet, Nepal and southern India; and Buddhism as a popular religion in Bihar, its last abode in Northern India, was finally destroyed. Then forward Patna passed under Muhammadan rule."
  23. ^ Smith V. A., Early history of India
  24. ^ Omalley L.S.S., History of Magadha, Veena Publication, Delhi, 2005, pp. 36, "Sher Shah on his return from Bengal, in 1541, came to patna, then a small town dependent on Bihar, which was the seat of the local government. He was standing on the ban of the Ganges, when, after much reflection, he said to those who were standing by – 'If a fort were to be built in this place, the waters of the Ganges could never flow far from it, and Patna would become one of the great towns of this country. The fort was completed. Bihar for that time was deserted, and fell to ruin; while Patna became one of the largest cities of the province. In 1620 we find Portuguese merchants at Patna; and Tavernier's account shows that a little more than a century after its foundation it was the great entrepot of Northern India "the largest town in Bengal and the most famous for trade..."
  25. ^ Elliot, History of India, Vol 4
  26. ^ Omalley L.S.S., History of Magadha, Veena Publication, Delhi, 2005, pp. 37
  27. ^ Indian Post. "First Bihar Deputy CM <expletive> Finance Minister; Dr. A N Sinha". official Website. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  28. ^ Kamat. "Great freedom Fighters". Kamat's archive. Archived from the original on 20 February 2006. Retrieved 2006-02-25. 
  29. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica. Britannica.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  30. ^ Kumod Verma (14 February 2008). "Scared Biharis arrive from Mumbai". The Times of India. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  31. ^ Wasbir Hussain. "30 Killed in Northeast Violence in India". Washington Post. Retrieved 2006-02-25. 
  32. ^ Patnadaily. "40 Bihari Workers Killed by ULFA Activists in Assam". Patnadaily.com. Retrieved 2006-01-06. [dead link]
  33. ^ a b c "Bihari Clothing". Web India 123. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  34. ^ Jain Dhanesh, Cardona George, The Indo-Aryan Languages, pp500, "..the number of speakers of Bihari languages are difficult to indicate because of unreliable sources. In the urban region most educated speakers of the language name either Hindi or Urdu as their language because this is what they use in formal contexts and believe it to be the appropriate response because of unawareness. The uneducated and the rural population of the region regards Hindi or Urdu as the generic name for their language."
  35. ^ History of Indian languages, "Bihari is actually the name of a group of three related languages—Bhojpuri, Maithili, and Magahi—spoken mainly in northeastern India in Bihar. Despite its large number of speakers, Bihari is not a constitutionally recognized language of India. Even in Bihar, Hindi is the language used for educational and official matters."
  36. ^ Verma, Mahandra K. "Language Endangerment and Indian languages: An exploration and a critique". Linguistic Structure and Language Dynamics in South Asia. 
  37. ^ Brass Paul R., The Politics of India Since Independence, Cambridge University Press, pp. 183
  38. ^ DR.Shamim Hashimi. Urdu Literature (1947-08-14). Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  39. ^ Professor Dr. Syed Abdul Wahab Ashrafi, Sahitya Academy Award winner, brought to you by Bihar Anjuman, the largest online group from Bihar or Jharkhand. Biharanjuman.org (1936-06-02). Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  40. ^ English empowerment project in Bihar. Post.jagran.com (2011-11-29). Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  41. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/patna/After-11-novels-Bihar-lad-set-for-Bollywood-debut/articleshow/20938614.cms
  42. ^ "Religion of Biharis". Web India 123. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  43. ^ "The People". Web India 123. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  44. ^ "Muslim Biharis". Web India 123. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  45. ^ "Stateless in Bangladesh and Pakistan". Stateless People in Bangladesh Inc. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  46. ^ "Christian Biharis". Web India 123. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  47. ^ http://www.uscwm.info/op1040/pdfs/16.pdf
  48. ^ riseofhindustan.blogspot.com/2011/02/yadavs-population-in-bihar.html
  49. ^ "Court rules that young Biharis are Bangladesh citizens". Reuters. 19 May 2008.
  50. ^ a b "Citizenship for Bihari refugees". BBC News. 19 May 2008.
  51. ^ "Bangladesh fails to register its Urdu-speaking citizens as voters". Indo-Asian News Service. Yahoo! News. 16 August 2008.
  52. ^ The Indian Diaspora. Pinkpigeonpress.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  53. ^ Ahmad Faizan, "Bihar violence: Raj the gainer", The times of India, Pune, 27 October 2008, pp. 6
  54. ^ Constitution of India-Part III, Article 19, Fundamental Rights, Government of India, 1950
  55. ^ ‘Outsiders’ must be welcomed, but Manipur is not alone in these isolationist excesses. In neighbouring Assam, six migrant workers have been killed in two attacks this year, and as many as 88 were killed, and 33 injured in 12 such incidents in 2007. Indeed, waves of xenophobic violence have swept across Assam repeatedly since 1979, variously targeting Bangladeshis, Bengalis, Biharis and Marwaris."
  56. ^ A clash of cultures, "..In the rest of India people tut-tuted this latest exhibition of the Sena's xenophobia ...the media led the charge holding opinion polls and debates.."
  57. ^ Vir Sanghvi, The Bhaiyya Effect, Hindustan Times, 27 September 2008 "The roots of Raj Thackeray's attack on the Bhaiyyas lie in India's economic transformation. Through a combination of poor planning and worse politics, Bihar and UP have been left out of the economic revolution. When people from those states travel outside to find work, those who have benefited from the recent prosperity treat them with the kind of snobbery and disdain with which the British treated Indians when we went to England to find employment in the 1950s. Then, we were seen as losers from a place that would never manage to prosper. But, of course, Indians ignored the racism and rose to the top of the economic pyramid."
  58. ^ CNN-IBN, State of neglect: Deluged Bihar falls off Govt map, 28 Aug 2008, "Does it hurt when Goa minister Ravi Naik said that people of Bihar are coming across and bringing poverty, when Raj Thackeray said that the people of Bihar must get out of Maharashtra? When racism and prejudice is directed against the people of Bihar, does it hurt and one feel that there is something that one must do for the state?"
  59. ^ AM, Calcutta Diary, Economic and Political Weekly, 21 July 2001 "..How come Bihar has such a negative image in the rest of the country? Fingers will be pointed at the obscurantism characterizing the state, but are things any better in Rajasthan? Bihar is supposed to be riven by caste dissensions; can it however hold a candle in this regard to Tamil Nadu? Feudalism and social oppression are hallmarks of Bihar's daily existence; what about Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Chhattisgarh though? According to some snooty people Biharis are by and large crude. Some others would prefer to say that the people of Bihar are rooted to the soil and hate to hide their natural instincts behind pretensions; they cannot be any cruder than those populating the backwaters of Punjab."
  60. ^ It's Bal Thakrey's turn now, says 'Ek Bihari Sau Beemari', Maharastra CM assures of action against him in reply | eWeekdays.com Shiv Sena Supremo Balasahab Thakrey has come hard once again on Biharis. Bal Thakrey, in his latest article in Samna has written that Bihari's are like dieses. He said that Ek Bihari,Sau Bimari. Do Bihari Ladai ki taiyari, Teen Bihari train hamari and paanch Bihari to sarkar hamaari. Earlier it was Raj Thakrey and his party Maharashtra Nav Nirman Sena who had launched an agitation against the North Indians. But this time it's Bal Thakrey who has asked Biharis and Bihari Politician to improve their behavior."
  61. ^ Biharis are an affliction, says Bal Thackeray" Shiv Sena chief Bal Thackeray, in an attempt to overtake his estranged nephew Raj Thackeray's campaign against people from north India, termed Biharis as an affliction, and said they were unwanted in all other parts of the country. The ageing leader warned that the so-called Bihari leaders, by accusing people of Mumbai of harbouring "anti-national sentiments, were attempting to again breathe fire into the anti-north Indian feelings in Maharashtra." They must realize this would only put their brethren here at the receiving end, he added."
  62. ^ a b 40 Bihari Workers Killed by ULFA -  PatnaDaily News[dead link]
  63. ^ India struggles to tame its heart of darkness "Biharis are often looked down upon in Delhi, and blamed for rising crime – the city's chief minister Sheila Dikshit publicly wonders how to turn back the tide."
  64. ^ MAYANK RASU, Musings of a Bihari, The Hindu, "Biharis" have now usurped the place of "Sardarjis" as a favourite butt of jokes. It is not just the jokes; there are other ways of embarrassing them too. Making fun of the Bihari accent and projecting it as the most rustic one is one of them."
  65. ^ AMSU against influx of Biharis to Manipur "In the wake of the ongoing violence in Assam, the All Manipur Students' Union on Wednesday appealed to the state government to curb the influx of Biharis into the state."
  66. ^ "10,000 Hindi-speakers relocated in Assam amid separatist attacks. | Europe Intelligence Wire (November, 2003)". Accessmylibrary.com. 2003-11-27. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  67. ^ Print Article: Hundreds flee ethnic violence "Hundreds of Hindi speakers in India's north-eastern state of Assam have started fleeing ethnic violence which has claimed 29 lives in the past week, they and officials said yesterday.... With police reporting another six people killed by mobs and separatist rebels overnight, a sense of panic began to spread through members of the Hindi-speaking community, many of whom hail from the eastern state of Bihar."
  68. ^ Thaker, Jayesh (22 October 2008). "Hate campaign spills over – House of Tata official attacked". The Telegraph (Calcutta, India). 
  69. ^ Tata officer's bungalow ransacked in Jamshedpur[dead link]