The Bacchae

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For the 2002 film, see The Bacchae (film).
The Bacchae
Death Pentheus Louvre G445.jpg
Pentheus being torn apart by Agave and Ino, Attic red-figure vase.
Written by Euripides
Chorus Bacchae, female followers of Dionysus
Characters Dionysus
Second Messenger
Date premiered 405 BC
Place premiered Athens
Original language Ancient Greek
Genre Tragedy
Setting Thebes

The Bacchae (/ˈbæk/; Greek: Βάκχαι, Bakchai; also known as The Bacchantes /ˈbækənts, bəˈkænts, -ˈkɑːnts/) is an ancient Greek tragedy by the Athenian playwright Euripides, during his final years in Macedonia, at the court of Archelaus I of Macedon. It premièred posthumously at the Theatre of Dionysus in 405 BC as part of a tetralogy that also included Iphigeneia at Aulis and Alcmaeon in Corinth, and which Euripides' son or nephew probably directed.[1] It won first prize in the City Dionysia festival competition.

The tragedy is based on the mythological story of King Pentheus of Thebes and his mother Agave, and their punishment by the god Dionysus (who is Pentheus' cousin) because he refuses to worship him.


The Dionysus in Euripides' tale is a young god, angry that his mortal family, the royal house of Cadmus, has denied him a place of honor as a deity. His mortal mother, Semele, was a mistress of Zeus, and while pregnant she was killed, through trickery, by Hera, jealous of her husband's affair. When she died, her sisters said it was the will of Zeus that she should die, accusing her of lying about her son's paternity and accusing their father Cadmus of using Zeus as a cover up. Most of Semele's family, including her sisters Ino, Autonoe, and Agave, refuse to believe that Dionysus is the son of Zeus, and the young god is spurned in his home. He has traveled throughout Asia and other foreign lands, gathering a cult of female worshipers (Bacchantes), and at the start of the play has returned to take revenge on the house of Cadmus, disguised as a stranger. He has driven the women of Thebes, including his aunts, into an ecstatic frenzy, sending them dancing and hunting on Mount Kithaeron, much to the horror of their families. Complicating matters, his cousin, the young king Pentheus, has declared a ban on the worship of Dionysus throughout Thebes.


The play begins with Dionysus explaining the story of his origin and his purpose in traveling to Thebes. Many years prior, Zeus came down from Mount Olympus to lie with Dionysus’ mother, Semele. When she revealed to her friends and family that she was pregnant, no one believed that Zeus was the father of her child. Hera, furious with Zeus for his infidelity, disguised herself as an old nurse and convinced Semele to ask Zeus to appear to her in his true, divine form. When Zeus obliged Semele’s request, and she looked on him in his divine form, she was incinerated. At the moment of her death, Hermes came down quickly to save the unborn Dionysus. Zeus proceeded to sew the baby Dionysus into his thigh to hide him from the wrath of Hera until the young god was fully grown. Meanwhile, Semele’s family – her sisters Autonoe, Agave, and Ino – still believed that Semele had, with Cadmus help, lied about the identity of the baby’s father and her lies were the direct cause of her death. Dionysus arrives in Thebes to vindicate his mother and to establish his cult of followers.

The next scene begins in Thebes where it is revealed that the women of the city, including Cadmus’ daughters Ino, Autonoe and Agave, have been driven mad and run into the mountains to take part in the Bacchic rituals. Cadmus, the founder of Thebes, and Tiresias, the old, blind Theban prophet, are just about to go and join the festivities when Cadmus’ grandson Pentheus enters the scene. He has just returned to Thebes and is disgusted to find the two in the festive Bacchic clothing. He scolds them and then orders his soldiers to arrest anyone engaging in Dionysian worship.

The guards return with Dionysus himself, disguised as his priest and the leader of the Asian maenads. Pentheus begins to question him, his words showing his skepticism that Dionysus is a god. He feigns interest in the Dionysiac rites in order to find information to discredit them, attempting to trap the priest in his own words, but Dionysus' answers keep the meaning hidden, only hinting at the truth that Pentheus is too blind too see and infuriating Pentheus. Pentheus is greatly angered by his incompliance and has him locked up. Being a god, Dionysus is quickly able to break free and create more havoc, razing the palace of Pentheus to the ground in a giant earthquake and fire. Word arrives via a herdsman that the Bacchae on Cithaeron are behaving strangely and performing incredible feats, such as putting snakes in their hair, suckling wild wolves and gazelle, and making wine, milk, honey and water spring up from the ground. He continues to explain that when they went to capture the women, they saw them descend upon a herd of cows, ripping them to shreds with their bare hands. When the armed guards tried to capture them they were defeated off by the women who used only their ceremonial fennel staffs.

Dionysus plans on punishing Pentheus for not worshipping him or paying him libations. He persuades Pentheus into forgoing his plans to defeat the Bacchae with military force, telling him it would be better to spy first, and convincing him to dress as a female Maenad to avoid detection and then attend the rites.

Stranger: Ah! Would you like to see them in their gatherings upon the mountain?
Pentheus: Very much. Ay, and pay uncounted gold for the pleasure.
Stranger: Why have you conceived so strong a desire?
Pentheus: Though it would pain me to see them drunk with wine-
Stranger: Yet you would like to see them, pain and all.[2]

Dionysus dresses Pentheus as a woman, giving him a thyrsus and fawn skins, and then leads him out of the house. At this point, Pentheus appears to be not wholly sane, he thinks he sees two suns in the sky, and believes that he now has the strength to rip up the mountains with his bare hands. He has begun to see through the mortal disguise of Dionysus and believes he can see horns coming out of the god's head (Dionysus often took the form of a bull).

A messenger arrives at the palace to report that once they reached Cithaeron, Pentheus wanted to climb up an evergreen tree to get a better view of the Bacchants. The blond stranger, Dionysus in disguise, used his divine power to bend the tall tree and place the king at its highest branches. However, once Pentheus was safely at the top, Dionysus called out to his followers and pointed out the man sitting atop the tree. This drove the Bacchants wild and they tore the trapped Pentheus down. Led by Agave, his mother, who rips off his head, the group of women surround0 him and tear his body apart, piece by piece.

After the messenger has relayed this news, Agave arrives carrying the head of her son. In her possessed state, she believes that she is carrying the head of a mountain lion. She proudly displays her son's head to her father, Cadmus, believing it to be a hunting trophy. She is confused when he does not delight in her trophy, as his face contorts in horror. Agave begins calling out for her son, wanting him to come marvel at her feat and nail the head above her door so she could show all of Thebes. However, as Dionysus' possession begins to wear off and Cadmus forces her too look at what she's done, Agave slowly realizes what has happened. By the conclusion of the play the family is completely destroyed. Agave and her sisters are sent into exile for their acts, and Dionysus had decreed that Cadmus and his wife Harmonia will be turned into snakes that will lead an army against Greece. Tiresias is the only one not to suffer by the end of the play.

Modern interpretations[edit]

Dramatic versions[edit]

  • Joe Orton's play The Erpingham Camp (television broadcast 27 June 1966; opened at the Royal Court Theatre on 6 June 1967) relocates The Bacchae to a British Butlin's-style holiday camp. An author's note at the beginning of the text of the play states: "No attempt must be made to reproduce the various locales in a naturalistic manner. A small, permanent set of Erpingham's office is set on a high level. The rest of the stage is an unlocalised area. Changes of scene are suggested by lighting and banners after the manner of the Royal Shakespeare Company's productions of Shakespeare's histories."[3]
  • Wole Soyinka adapted the play as The Bacchae of Euripides: A Communion Rite with the British Royal National Theatre in London in 1973, incorporating a second chorus of slaves to mirror the civil unrest in his native Nigeria.[5]
  • Famed Swedish director Ingmar Bergman directed the Bacchae three times: as an opera (1991) for the Royal Swedish Opera, as a TV-film (1993) for Sveriges Television and as a staged play (1996) for the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm. These three versions received great acclaim amidst some mixed reviews.[6]
Ramona Reeves and Lynn Odell (as Agave) in director Brad Mays' stage production of Euripides' The Bacchae, 1997, Los Angeles.
  • Luigi Lo Cascio's multimedia adaptation La Caccia (The Hunt) won the Biglietto d' Oro del Teatro prize in 2008. The free adaptation combines live theater with animations by Nicola Console and Desideria Rayner's video projections. A revised 2009 version is currently on tour and features original music by Andrea Rocca.

Operatic versions[edit]

  • Giorgio Federico Ghedini composed an opera in Italian based on The Bacchae and called Le Baccanti. The libretto was by playwright and screenwriter Tullio Pinelli. The opera was composed in 1941–1944 and first performed at La Scala opera house in Milan on February 22, 1948. It was revived in Milan in 1972.[15]
  • John Buller composed an opera Bakxai (The Bacchae) which was produced at the English National Opera in London in 1992.[16]

Musical versions[edit]

In Summer 2009, the Public Theater (of New York City) produced a version of The Bacchae' with music by Philip Glass.

  • Gustav Holst's "Hymn to Dionysus" (Op. 31, No.2) is a setting for female voices and orchestra of the parodos from The Bacchae in the translation by Gilbert Murray. It was composed in 1913 and premiered in 1914.[17]

Significant quotations[edit]

Dionysus: "It's a wise man's part to practise a smooth-tempered self-control."
Dionysus: "Your [Pentheus'] name points to calamity. It fits you well." (The name "Pentheus" derives from πένθος, pénthos, grief)
Messenger: "Dionysus' powers are manifold; he gave to men the vine to cure their sorrows."
Dionysus: "Can you, a mortal, measure your strength against a god?"

Religious significance[edit]

Plays such as The Bacchae existed primarily for the purpose of religious practice and worship. Religion was connected closely with everyday life, and cities and local communities would come together to celebrate the worship of different deities.[18] Through plays, gods such as Dionysus could be celebrated. The Bacchae re-enacts how Dionysus had come to be a god and in ancient Greek theatre, "role-playing is a well-known feature of ritual liminality." [19] The Bacchae is a tribute to Dionysus and it is written in a way that favours him. It is a common understanding that worship is the play's main function. Deities were found in every locality of everyday life.[20] The play also highlights what Dionysus represents; he is the god of wine, and creative nature.[21] With this in mind, the play incorporates these aspects to depict how Dionysus is present in ancient Greek life. As an actor, religious worship is a direct experience. The actor would have experienced a "stepping out" of himself to become a representation of Dionysus. As a spectator, the experience comes from what is acted onstage, arousing emotions that sympathize with Dionysus. Collectively, through Dionysiac acting, there is a reintegration of the "other" into the "self," that is to say that Dionysus has been accepted and will be worshipped by the Greek people.[19]

Dramatic structure[edit]

In a play that follows a climactic plot construction, Dionysus the Protagonist, instigates the unfolding action by simultaneously emulating the play's author, costume designer, choreographer and artistic director.[22] Helen P. Foley wrote of the links between the importance of Dionysus as the central character and his effect on the play's structure, she writes: "the poet uses the ritual crisis to explore simultaneously god, man, society, and his own tragic art. In this protodrama Dionysus, the god of the theatre, stage-directs the play."[23]

At the start of the play, Dionysus gives us the exposition and from which we can highlight the play's central conflict; the invasion of Greece by an Asian religion.[24]

Critical review[edit]

Up until the late 19th century, the play's themes were considered far too gruesome to be studied and appreciated. It was Nietzsche's "Birth of Tragedy" in 1872 that re-posed the question of Dionysus's relation with the theatre that elevated interest in The Bacchae. In the 20th century, performances of The Bacchae had become quite fashionable, particularly so in the opera due to the dramatic choruses found throughout the story.[25] R.P Winnington-Ingram's review in 1948 praises the work of Euripides, he writes: "On its poetical and dramatic beauties he writes with charm and insight; on more complex themes he shows equal mastery."[26]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Rehm (1992, 23).
  2. ^ Euripides. Ten Plays by Euripides. Trans. Moses Hadas and John Mclean. New York: Bantam Books, 1981, p.299
  3. ^ Orton, Joe. 1976. The Complete Plays. London: Methuen. p.278. ISBN 0-413-34610-2.
  4. ^ Dionysus in 69 at the Internet Movie Database
  5. ^ "Performing the Bacchae", The Open University.
  6. ^ See: Rolandsson, Ottiliana, Pure Artistry: Ingmar Bergman, the Face as Portal and the Performance of the Soul, PhD dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2010; especially Chapter 4: "The Embodiment of Ritual and Myth as Text and as Performance."
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ The Bacchae 2.1 on the web.
  13. ^ "A Greek God and His Groupies are Dressed to Kill", New York Times theater review by Charles Isherwood, July 5, 2008
  14. ^
  15. ^ Waterhouse, John C.G. "Baccanti, Le". Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved February 28, 2011. 
  16. ^
  17. ^ Taylor, Kenric. "Compositions: The Music of Gustav Holst". The Gustav Holst Website. Kenric Taylor. Retrieved March 1, 2011. 
  18. ^ "Religion." Oxford University Press, 2011. Web. 25 October 2011. <
  19. ^ a b Lada-Richards, Ismene. Initiating Dionysus: Ritual and Theatre in Aristophanes' Frogs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. 159-164. Print.
  20. ^ "Religion." Oxford University Press, 2011. Web. 25 October 2011. <
  21. ^ Henrichs, Albert. Dionysus. Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth. Oxford University Press, 1998. Web. 25 October 2011. <
  22. ^ Teevan (2001, 4)
  23. ^ Scully (1987, 321)
  24. ^ Johnston (2001)
  25. ^ Morwood (2008, x-xi)
  26. ^ Norwood (1949, 317)
  27. ^ Bryn Mawr Classical Review


External links[edit]