Timeline of Lebanese history

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This is a timeline of Lebanese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Lebanon and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Lebanon. See also the list of Presidents of Lebanon and list of Prime Ministers of Lebanon.

Millennia: 2nd BC–1st BC · 1st–2nd · 3rd
Centuries: 14th BC · 13th BC · 12th BC · 11th BC · 10th BC · 9th BC · 8th BC · 7th BC · 6th BC · 5th BC · 4th BC · 3rd BC · 2nd BC · 1st BC

14th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1400 BC The height of the Canaanite town of Ugarit.

13th century BC[edit]

12th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1200 BC Phoenicians invent the alphabet and the Tyrian Purple which was a major component in their trade.
A crisis led to the Bronze Age collapse. Cities all around the eastern Mediterranean were sacked within a span of a few decades by assorted raiders.

11th century BC[edit]

10th century BC[edit]

9th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
842 BC Shalmaneser III devastates the territory of Damascus; Palestine and the Phoenician cities send tribute.
813 BC Carthage is founded by Phoenicians.

8th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
774 BC The reign of king Pygmalion of Tyre ends.
739 BC Hiram II becomes king of Tyre.
730 BC Mattan II succeeds Hiram II as king.
724 BC The Assyrians under king Shalmaneser V start a four-year siege of Tyre that ends in 720 BC.
710 BC Judah, Tyre and Sidon revolt against Assyria.
701 BC The Assyrian siege of Tyre by king Sennacherib.

7th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
663 BC The Assyrian siege of Tyre by king Ashurbanipal.

6th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
587 BC The region is annexed to the Babylonian empire, while Jerusalem fell into their hands.
586 BC The Babylonians under king Nebuchadnezzar II sieged Tyre for thirteen years without success. Later a compromise peace was made in which Tyre had to pay tribute to the Babylonians. (to 573 BC)
539 BC Cyrus the Great conquered Phoenicia.

5th century BC[edit]

4th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
350 BC A rebellion in Sidon led by Tennes was crushed by Artaxerxes III, and its destruction was dramatically described by Diodorus Siculus. (to 345 BC)
332 BC Alexander the Great took Tyre following the city's siege. After Alexander's death Phoenicia witnessed a succession of Hellenistic rulers: Laomedon (323 BC), Ptolemy I (320 BC), Antigonus II (315 BC), Demetrius (301 BC), and Seleucus (296 BC).
315 BC Alexander's former general Antigonus begins his own siege of Tyre, taking the city a year later.

3rd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
286 BC Phoenicia (except for Aradus) fell to the Ptolemies of Egypt.

2nd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
197 BC Phoenicia along with Syria reverted to the Seleucids, and the region became increasingly Hellenized, although Tyre actually became autonomous in 126 BC, followed by Sidon in 111 BC.
140 BC Beirut was taken and destroyed by Diodotus Tryphon in his contest with Antiochus VII Sidetes for the throne of the Seleucid monarchy. It was later named Laodicea in Phoenicia (Greek: Λαοδικεια ή του Φοινίκη).

1st century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
82 BC Syria, including Phoenicia, were seized by king Tigranes the Great who was later defeated by Lucullus. (to 69 BC)
65 BC Pompey finally incorporated Phoenicia as part of the Roman province of Syria.
64 BC Beirut was conquered by Agrippa and the city was renamed in honour of the emperor's daughter, Julia; its full name became Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Berytus.
27 BC the Pax Romana period, inhabitants of the principal Phoenician cities of Byblos, Sidon, and Tyre were granted Roman citizenship, while economic and intellectual activities flourished. (to AD 180)

Centuries: 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th

1st century[edit]

Year Date Event
20 Beirut's school of law was founded, it later became widely known in the surrounding region. Two of Rome's most famous jurists, Papinian and Ulpian (both natives of Phoenicia), were taught at the law school under the Severan emperors.
50 Saint Paul of Tarsus begins his third mission and preaches in Tyre.

2nd century[edit]

3rd century[edit]

4th century[edit]

5th century[edit]

Year Date Event
451 The Maronites, a Christian community named after Saint John Maron sought refuge in the mountains of Lebanon.

6th century[edit]

Year Date Event
551 Beirut is destroyed by an earthquake and tsunami. About 30,000 were killed in the city alone and, along the Phoenician coast, total casualties were close to 250,000.

7th century[edit]

Year Date Event
630 The Marada, a group of autonomous Maronite communities, settled in Mount Lebanon and the surrounding highlands following the conquest of Syria by the Arab caliphate.
632 Calling for a jihad against non-Muslims, Muhammad's successor, Caliph Abu Bakr, brought Islam to the area surrounding Lebanon. (to 634)
661 After the Battle of Yarmuk, Caliph Umar appointed the Arab Muawiyah I, founder of the Umayyad dynasty, as governor of Syria, an area that included present-day Lebanon.
667 Muawiyah negotiated an agreement with Constantine IV, the Byzantine emperor, whereby he agreed to pay Constantine an annual tribute in return for the cessation of Marada incursions.
670 Callinicus of Heliopolis, a Byzantine chemist from Heliopolis, invents the Greek fire in Constantinople.

8th century[edit]

Year Date Event
759 An abortive rebellion of Lebanese mountaineers against the Abbasid rule after the harsh treatment of people living in the Lebanese-Syrian region.

9th century[edit]

10th century[edit]

Year Date Event
960 Prince 'Allaqa of Tyre proclaimed his independence from the Abbasids and coined money in his own name.
970 The Fatimides settled in Egypt and extended their authority to the coastal region of Bilad al-Sham and Damascus.
986 Under the Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, a new religion was born and spread by a man called Ad-Darazi. This was the beginning of the Druze religion and its expansion in several Lebanese regions.

11th century[edit]

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1110 Beirut and Sidon are captured.
1124 Tyre resisted the raids but finally capitulated after a long siege.
1179 The Battle of Marj Ayyun took place on 10 June, where an Ayyubid army commanded by Saladin defeated a Crusader army led by King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem.
1182 The Battle of Belvoir Castle in which a Crusader force led by King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem sparred inconclusively with an Ayyubid army from Egypt commanded by Saladin. The theatre of operations included Eilat, the Transjordan, Galilee and Beirut (which witnessed a siege by Saladin that ended in August of the same year).
1187 Saladin conquers virtually all of the Kingdom of Jerusalem with the exception of Tyre, which held out under Conrad of Montferrat.
1192 Richard the Lionheart signed a treaty with Saladin, restoring the Kingdom of Jerusalem to a coastal strip between Jaffa and Beirut.

13th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1260 The county of Tripoli becomes a vassal state of the Mongol Empire.
1289 The county of Tripoli falls into the hands of the Mamluks after the attack of Egyptian Sultan Qalawun in March.
1291 The Shia Muslims and Druze, in Lebanon, rebelled against the Mamluks who were busy fighting the European Crusaders and Mongols.

14th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1308 The rebellion was crushed by the Mamluks.

15th century[edit]

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1516 The Ottoman Sultan Selim I grants Emir Fakhr ad-Din I a semi-autonomous reign in Lebanon.
1570 The Maanid period reaches its peak with the reign of Fakhr ad-Din II. (to 1635)

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1613 Fakhr ad-Din II is exiled to Tuscany after his inability to defeat the army of Ahmad al Hafiz, the governor of Damascus.
1618 Fakhr ad-Din II returns to Lebanon with the beginning of Muhammad Pasha's reign as the new governor of Damascus.
1622 The Battle of Anjar took place on 31 October, near Majdal Anjar between the army of Fakhr ad-Din II and an Ottoman army led by the governor of Damascus Mustafa Pasha.
1635 By the orders of Murad IV, Kutshuk, the governor of Damascus, defeats Fakhr ad-Din who was later executed in Constantinople.

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1799 Bashir II declines to assist the siege of Acre by Napoleon and Jezzar Pasha. Unable to conquer Acre, Napoleon returned to Egypt, and the death of Jezzar Pasha in 1804 removed Bashir's principal opponent in the area.

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1831 Bashir II breaks away from the Ottoman Empire, allies with Muhammad Ali of Egypt and assists Muhammad Ali's son, Ibrahim Pasha, in another siege of Acre. This siege lasted seven months, the city falling on 27 May 1832. The Egyptian army, with assistance from Bashir's troops, also attacked and conquered Damascus on 14 June 1832.
1840 After Muhammad Ali's rejection of the requests of the London treaty signed on 15 June 1840, Ottoman and British troops landed on the Lebanese coast on 10 September 1840. Faced with this combined force, Muhammad Ali retreated, and on 14 October 1840, Bashir II surrendered to the British and went into exile.
1841 Conflicts between the Druze and the Maronite Christians exploded. A Maronite revolt against the Feudal class erupted, and lasted until 1858.
1860 A full scale war erupted between Maronites and Druze. Napoleon III of France Napoleon III sent 7,000 troops to Beirut and helped impose a partition: The Druze control of the territory was recognised as the fact on the ground, and the Maronites were forced into an enclave, arrangements ratified by the concert of Europe in 1861.

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1914 After the abolishment of Lebanon's semiautonomous status, Jamal Pasha militarily occupies Lebanon.
1915 Jamal Pasha initiates a blockade of the entire eastern Mediterranean coast. Lebanon witnessed thousands of deaths from widespread famine and plagues.
1916 Turkish authorities publicly executed 21 Syrians and Lebanese in Damascus and Beirut, respectively, for alleged anti-Turkish activities.[1]
1918 British general Edmund Allenby and Faysal I, son of Sharif Hussein of Mecca, moved into Palestine with British and Arab forces, thus opening the way for the occupation of Lebanon.
1920 France takes control over Lebanese territory after the San Remo conference.
1943 On 22 November, Lebanon gains its independence after national and international pressure following the imprisonment of president Bechara El Khoury and other parliament members by the French.
1947 29 November The United Nations General Assembly recommended the adoption and implementation of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.[2]
1948 The state of Israel was declared. Palestinian refugees begin arriving in Lebanon.
1958 A civil war erupts but short lived after the intervention of 5,000 US Marines ordered by President Eisenhower upon the request of the Lebanese president Camille Chamoun.
1975 The Lebanese Civil War and Israeli Invasions. (to 1990)
1990 A period of fifteen years of Syrian occupation starts when Syrian troops invade the Baabda residential Palace on 13 October 1990 and overthrow then Prime Minister General Michel Aoun, and ends with the peaceful revolution of more than one million protesters in Beirut central district, following the assassination of the Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri and the withdrawal of the Syrian troops. (to 2005)

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2000 Israeli withdrawal from the South of Lebanon.
2006 July–August The July War takes place between Hezbollah and Israel, with Israel launching a major military attack, bombing the southern suburbs of Beirut, the Lebanese airport and parts of southern Lebanon, in response to the capture of 2 Israeli soldiers by Hezbollah on 12 July. The conflict ends with the acceptance of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 by both Israel and Lebanon. Israeli force withdraw back to the international borders. Even though the resolution calls for the disarmament of Hezbollah, both the Lebanese government and UNIFIL have stated that they will not disarm Hezbollah.[3][4][5]

References[edit]

See also[edit]