Timeline of Mongolian history

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This is a timeline of Mongolian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Mongolia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Mongolia. See also the list of Presidents of Mongolia.

Centuries: 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th · 21st

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1162 Temüjin was born in the Khentii mountains of today's Mongolia.
1189 Temüjin was given the title Chinggis Khaan by his followers in a Kurultai. Chinggis Khaan or Genghis Khan ((Чингис Хаан in Cyrillic though name has multiple variations in English))
1205 Chinggis Khaan united all of nomadic tribes at who were settled around at Baikal lake to China's Great Wall.
1227 Chinggis Khaan passed away after conquering Tanguud
1227 Mongolian Dynasty already had conquered vast landscape starting from Mandjouri to Caspian Sea.

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1619 Number of Mongol tribes defected from allegiance to Ligdan Khan to the Manchu people.
1632 Ligdan travelled to Tibet to evade the Manchus and conquer the Gelug.
1634 Ligdan died at Qinghai Lake.
1636 Most Mongolian tribes submitted to the new Manchu Qing Dynasty.
1640 Zanabazar, son of the Tüsheet Khan of the Khalkha, was recognized as the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu.
1688 The Dzungars conquered Khalkha and forced the nobility to flee.
1691 Khalkha nobles submitted to the Qing emperor.
1696 The Qing seized de facto control of Khalkha by defeating the Dzungars.

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1756 Chingünjav and Amursana led failed rebellions which ended in the destruction of the Dzungars.

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1907 The Qing government implemented sinification policies.
1911 1 December Outer Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty under the Bogd Khan.
29 December The Bogdo Khanate of Mongolia was proclaimed and Bogd Khan enthroned.
1912 3 November The Russian Empire recognized Mongolian independence and the rule of Bogd Khan.
1913 11 November Mongolia and Tibet concluded treaty on mutual recognition and mutual assistance.
1915 Russia, China and Mongolia signed a treaty at Kyakhta under which China was recognized as sovereign over an autonomous Mongolia.
1919 Outer Mongolia was occupied by the Republic of China.
1921 The Russian Red Army, with the support of Damdin Sükhbaatar, defeated the forces of Roman Ungern von Sternberg.
February Ungern drove Chinese troops out of Niislel Khuree.
March All remaining Chinese troops were defeated by Ungern and driven from Mongolia, allowing the reassertion of Mongolian independence under Bogd Khan.
18 March Communist guerrillas headed by Damdin Sükhbaatar, with the assistance of Red Army troops, defeated the Chinese garrison in the Mongolian settlement Maimachen near Kyakhta.
1924 26 November After the death of the Bogd Khan, the Mongolian People's Republic was declared in Outer Mongolia.
1928 Collectivization began.
1932 The failure of collectivization led to widespread uprisings and a temporary thaw.
1936 Prince Demchugdongrub formed the Mongol Military Government, a non-Communist state independent from China, in Inner Mongolia.
1937 The Mongol Military Government was renamed the Mongol United Autonomous Government.
Stalinist purges in Mongolia: A Stalinist terror began which would lead to the deaths of more than thirty thousand people in the Mongolian People's Republic.
1939 Stalinist purges in Mongolia: The terror ended.
May Battle of Khalkhyn Gol: Large scale fighting took place between Japanese and joint Soviet-Mongolian forces along Khalkhyn Gol on the border between Mongolia and Manchuria.
16 September Battle of Khalkhyn Gol: The battle ended in a Japanese defeat. A truce was negotiated between Japan and the Soviet Union.
1941 The Mongol United Autonomous Government was renamed the Mongolian Autonomous Federation, or Mengjiang.
1945 August The Republic of China requested Soviet help in the war against Japan, and offered recognition of the independence of Outer Mongolia in exchange according to the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance.
August The Mongolian People's Republic declared war on Japan, one day after the Soviet Union, and began to liberate Southern Mongolia from the China and the Japan.
October A plebiscite yielded a 100% pro-independence vote.
1946 January The Chinese government recognized the independence of Mongolian People's Republic.
1949 6 October The newly established People's Republic of China recognized Mongolia and agreed to establish diplomatic relations.
1950 Herds were successfully collectivized.
1952 The Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan renounced the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance.
1955 The ROC blocked the accession of the Mongolian People's Republic's entry to the United Nations.
1961 The Mongolian People's Republic entered the United Nations.
The Trans-Mongolian Railway was finished.
1962 Mongolia became a member of the Comecon.
Sino-Soviet split: The Communist Party leadership sided with the Soviet Union in a falling-out with China.
1965 Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal purged the intelligentsia.
1969 Sino-Soviet split: The Soviet Union stationed a large army on Mongolian territory in response to threats of Chinese aggression.
1981 March Zhugderdemidiyn Gurragcha became the first Mongolian in space.
1984 August Tsedenbal resigned.
1987 27 January Mongolia established diplomatic relations with the United States.
1989 July The first Mongolian member of the Bahá'í Faith entered the country.
December The first popular reform demonstrations took place; the Mongolian Democratic Association was organized.
1990 January Large-scale pro-democracy demonstrations were held in sub-zero weather.
2 March Mongolia and the Soviet Union announced that all Soviet troops would be withdrawn from Mongolia by 1992.
May The constitution was amended to provide for a multi-party system and new elections.
29 July The first democratic elections were held. The Communist Party, now the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), won.
3 September The first democratically elected People's Great Hural took office.
1992 13 January A new constitution went into effect.
8 April A new election law was passed.
28 June An election was held for the first unicameral legislature, the State Great Hural. The MPRP won.
1993 6 June The first direct presidential election took place. Opposition candidate Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat, a former MPRP member, won.
1996 30 June The first non-Communist government was elected.
1998 Sanjaasürengiin Zorig, Minister of Infrastructure and one of the leaders of the 1990 protests, was murdered.
2000 2 July The MPRP was elected; a new government was formed by Prime Minister Nambaryn Enkhbayar.

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2003 Mongolian troops begin taking part in peace keeping operations in Afghanistan, Iraq and Sudan.
2004 An election resulted in a draw. A coalition was formed between the MPRP and other parties which was headed by Tsakhia Elbegdorj.
2006 January The governing coalition was dissolved by the MPRP.
25 January A new coalition between the MPRP and smaller parties and defectors was formed under Miyeegombyn Enkhbold.
2007 October The governing coalition was led by the MPRP and replaced by a coalition headed by Sanjaagiin Bayar.
2009 June Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj from Democratic Party was selected President of Mongolia.
2009 October Sanjaagiin Bayar resigned from Primer Ministership due to declining healt conditions and was replaced with Sükhbaataryn Batbold.
2012 August After the 2012 Mongolian legislative election, a coalition headed by Norovyn Altankhuyag from Democratic party was formed.
2013 June Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, President of Mongolia, was re-elected in the 2013 Mongolian presidential election.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]