Timeline of Vietnamese history

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
History of Vietnam Map of Vietnam
2879–0258 Hồng Bàng dynasty
2879–1913 Early Hồng Bàng
1912–1055 Mid-Hồng Bàng
1054–258 Late Hồng Bàng
257–207 Thục dynasty
207–111 Triệu dynasty
11140 1st Chinese domination
40–43 Trưng Sisters
43–544 2nd Chinese domination
544–602 Early Lý dynasty
602–938 3rd Chinese domination
939–967 Ngô dynasty
968–980 Đinh dynasty
980–1009 Early Lê dynasty
1009–1225 Later Lý dynasty
1225–1400 Trần dynasty
1400–1407 Hồ dynasty
1407–1427 4th Chinese domination
1428–1788 Later Lê dynasty
1527–1592 Mạc dynasty
1545–1787 Trịnh lords
1558–1777 Nguyễn lords
1778–1802 Tây Sơn dynasty
1802–1945 Nguyễn dynasty
1858–1945 French imperialism
from 1945 Republic
Further subjects
Champa dynasties 192–1832
Historical capitals
Prehistoric and ancient cultures
List of monarchs
Country's names
Economic history
Military history

This is a timeline of Vietnamese history, comprising most legal and territorial changes and political events in Viet Nam and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Vietnam.

Predynastic[edit]

Date Event
25,000 BC Soi Nhụ culture.
23,000 BC Ngườm culture.
20,000 BC Sơn Vi culture.
12,000 BC Hòa Bình culture.
6,000 BC Bắc Sơn culture.
5,000 BC Cái Bèo culture.[1]
4000 - 2000 BC Excavations have yielded a number of rice remains.[2]
4000 BC Quỳnh Văn culture
Đa Bút culture
3500 BC The Red River Delta was first host to wet rice cultivation.[3]

Hồng Bàng Dynasty[edit]

Early Hồng Bàng[edit]

Date Ruler Events Other people/events
2879 BC King Lục Dương Vương (2879 - 2794 BC) Kinh Dương Vương groups all the vassal states within his territory into a unified nation, and calls his newly born nation Xích Quỷ.[4]

Martial arts start in the country for increased power to region.[5]
The capital is Phong Châu (in southern section of modern Hanoi).[4]
2793 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Hiền Vương (2793 - 2525 BC)
2637 BC The lunar calendar begins.[6]
2524 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Quốc Vương (2524 - 2253 BC) The country renamed Văn Lang. Capital Phong Châu is moved to the site of modern Phú Thọ.
? Administrative rule of the Lạc tướng, Bố chính, and Lạc hầu enforced.[7]
? Công Ba explores the Red River Delta region.[8]
~2500 BC The Hùng Vương expands rice cultivation.[9]
2254 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Diệp Vương (2254 - 1913 BC)
? Thiên Cương puts down the Xích quỷ Rebellion.[10]
~2200 BC Carved lines on stone tools, providing the first evidence for the Vietnamese calendar system.[11]
~2000 BC Phùng Nguyên culture.

Middle Hồng Bàng[edit]

Date Ruler Events Other people/events
1912 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Hy Vương (1912 - 1713 BC)
1712 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Huy Vương (1712 - 1632 BC)
~1700 BC Burial rituals and tomb building begins.[12]
? Recorded starting date for the process of making silk.[13]
? Vũ Hồng and Vũ Thị Lê Hoa's military campaign.[14][15]
1631 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Chiêu Vương (1631 - 1432 BC)
~1500 BC Đồng Đậu culture.[16] The coastal residents developed a sophisticated agricultural society.[17]
~1486 BC Shang invasion. Resistance led by Thánh Gióng.[18]
1431 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Vi Vương (1431 - 1332 BC)
1331 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Định Vương (1331 - 1252 BC)
1251 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Uy Vương (1251 - 1162 BC)
~1200 BC Development of bronze casting, which later led to the development of the Đông Sơn culture.[19] Development of irrigated[20] rice cultivation in the Ma River and Red River plains.[19]
1161 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Trinh Vương (1161 - 1055 BC)
~1045 BC Gò Mun culture.[21]

Late Hồng Bàng[edit]

Date Ruler Events Other people/events
1054 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Vũ Vương (1054 - 969 BC)
~1000 BC Đông Sơn culture, notable for its elaborate bronze drums.

Metal Age in Vietnam as copper casting begin to be used to make brass tools, weapons, and ornaments.[22]
Văn Lang's population is about 1 million people.[9]

Astronomical observation is known by the Vietnamese around this time.[23]
968 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Việt Vương (968 - 854 BC)
853 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Anh Vương (853 - 755 BC)
754 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Triệu Vương (754 - 661 BC)
~700 BC The process of migration of refugees from the Spring and Autumn period to Red River Delta begins.[24] This includes the Lạc Việt tribes who later become the dominant group within the country.[25]
660 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Tạo Vương (660 - 569 BC)
? General Thạch Tướng puts down the Man rebellion.[26]
~600 BC The metallurgical style invented the unique shape of drum which characterizes the style.[27] Appearance of the tidal irrigation of rice fields through an elaborate system of canals and dikes.[19]
568 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Nghị Vương (568 - 409 BC)
? Princess Nguyệt Cư's affair.[28]
~500 BC Artifacts suggest that Tết has been celebrated since this time.[29][30]
~470 BC King Goujian of Yue sends missions to Văn Lang demanding submission but the Hùng Vương refuses.[31]
408 BC Many kings named themselves Hùng Duệ Vương (408 - 258 BC)
~400 BC A mass migration to the Red River Delta takes place because of the Warring States period.[24]
~300 BC Proselytizing Buddhist delegations are sent from India, some of whom are thought to have reached Văn Lang.[32] The Âu Việt tribes reach the northern border of Văn Lang and start to trade with the Lạc Việt.[33]
? Phan Tây Nhạc's military campaign.[34]
258 BC Thục Phán, ruler of the neighboring upland Âu Việt, conquers Văn Lang and overthrows the last Hùng Duệ Vương.[35]

Thục Dynasty[edit]

Date Ruler Events Other people/events
257 BC King An Dương Vương (257 - 207 BC) The country renamed Âu Lạc. Cổ Loa established as capital.
250 BC The Hùng Vương National Altar is built.[36]
210 BC Battle of Tiên Du.[4]
208 BC Fall of Cổ Loa.

Triệu Dynasty[edit]

Date Ruler Events Other people/events
207 BC King Triệu Vũ Vương (207 - 137 BC) Former Âu Lạc divided into Giao Chỉ and Cửu Chân prefectures.[37]
206 BC Giao Chỉ and Cửu Chân merged with Guangdong and Guangxi.
204 BC Triệu Vũ Vương names the country Nam Việt Panyu becomes the capital.
203 BC After the Qin dynasty perished, Triệu army conquers Guilin.
198 BC Two delegates are assigned to oversee the affairs of Giao Chỉ and Cửu Chân.[37]
196 BC First tribute to Han dynasty after a Han envoy giving Triệu Vũ Vương a seal recognizing him as King of Nam Việt.[38]
183 BC In response to the economy suffered by Lü Zhi's blockade of trade, Triệu Vũ Vương sacks Changsha.[39] The kingdoms of Minyue, Yelang and Tongshi declare their allegiance to Nam Việt rule, greatly expanding Nam Việt's territory and control.
181 BC Han invasion stalled.[39]
180 BC The Han – Nam Việt military conflict ends as Lü Zhi dies. As the victor, Triệu Vũ Vương also extends his territory by conquering towns near the boundary.
179 BC Second tributary obeisance to Han dynasty. Luy Lẩu, a major Buddhist center in the region, founded.[40]
135 BC King Triệu Văn Vương (137 - 122 BC) Border war with Minyue.[39]
118 BC King Triệu Minh Vương (122 - 115 BC) Confucian ideas introduced.[41]
112 BC King Triệu Ai Vương (115 - 112 BC) Coup led by Lữ Gia.
111 BC King Triệu Dương Vương (112 - 111 BC) Second Han – Nam Việt War Tây Vu Vương Uprising.[42][43][44]

Han domination[edit]

Date Ruler Events Other people/events
111 BC Shi Dai (Thạch Đái) (111 - 86 BC) Nhật Nam prefecture set up after the conquest south of the Hoành Sơn Range.[45][46]
110 BC End of the Tây Vu Vương Uprising.[47]
106 BC Giao Chỉ Circuit established.[45][46]
Zhou Zhang (Chu Chương) (86 - 75 BC)
Chúc Lương (78 - 74 BC?)
Ngụy Lãng (69 - 60 BC?)
Ích Cư Xương (59? - 54 BC)
2 Tích Quang (2 - 31) Census counts 143,643 households and 981,755 people.[48]
Deng Rang (Đặng Nhượng) (8 - 23)
Ren Yan (Nhâm Diên) (29 - 34)
39 Su Ding (Tô Định) (34 - 40) Assassination of Thi Sách.
40 Trưng Sisters' Uprising against Han rule.[49]

Trưng Sisters[edit]

Date Ruler Events Other people/events
43 Queen Trưng Nữ Vương (40 - 43) Han general Ma Yuan crushed the Trưng sisters.[49]

Han to Liang domination[edit]

Anterior Lý Dynasty[edit]

Date Ruler Ruler Events Other people/events
544 Emperor Lý Nam Đế (544 - 548) Lý Nam Đế names the country Vạn Xuân.[50]
545 Defeated by the Liang army under Chen at Chu Diên and at the estuary of the Tô Lịch River, Lý Nam Đế flees to the Gia Ninh Citadel (in modern Việt Trì).[51]
546 As the Gia Ninh Citadel collapses, Lý Nam Đế retreats to Khuất Lạo Cave, reorganizes his army and cedes his military authorities to Triệu Việt Vương.
547 Defense of the Dạ Trạch swamp (Khoái Châu).[52]
548 Emperor Triệu Việt Vương (548 - 571) Emperor Lý Đào Lang Vương (548 - 555) After the death of Lý Nam Đế in Khuất Lão Cave, Chen besieges several times but failed to toppled Triệu Việt Vương.
550 Triệu Việt Vương defeats the Liang army and regains Vạn Xuân, building his capital at Long Biên. While Triệu Quang Phục leads his forces against Chen, Lý Đào Lang Vương defends Dã Năng (now in Laos).[53]
557 Emperor Later Lý Nam Đế (555 - 602) Later Lý Nam Đế moves his troops eastward clashing with Triệu Việt Vương but the two sides come up with a truce and create a boundary between their territories.
571 Later Lý Nam Đế breaks the truce and conquers an unpreparedness Triệu Việt Vương's domain. Later Lý Nam Đế now rules the entire country and builds the capital at Phong Châu.
602 Sui–Lý War.

Sui to Tang domination[edit]

Ngô Dynasty[edit]

Date Ruler Ruler Events Other people/events
King Tiền Ngô Vương (939 - 944)
King Dương Bình Vương (944 - 950)
King Nam Tấn Vương (950 - 965) King Thiên Sách Vương (951 - 954)
12 Warlords (965 - 968)

Đinh Dynasty[edit]

Date Ruler Events Other people/events
Emperor Đinh Tiên Hoàng (968 - 979)
979 Emperor Đinh Phế Đế (979 - 980) Đinh Điền Uprising. Nguyễn Bặc Uprising.

Prior Lê Dynasty[edit]

Date Ruler Events Other people/events
981 Emperor Lê Đại Hành (980 - 1005) Lê Hoàn defeats a Song invasion.[49]
982 Lê armies invade Champa and destroy its capital, Indrapura.[49]
Emperor Lê Trung Tông (1005)
Emperor Lê Ngọa Triều (1005 - 1009)

Posterior Lý Dynasty[edit]

Date Ruler Ruler Events Other people/events
1010 Emperor Lý Thái Tổ (1009 - 1028) Capital transferred from Hoa Lư to Đại La.
1038 Emperor Lý Thái Tông (1028 - 1054) Nùng Tồn Phúc Uprising.
1070 Emperor Lý Thánh Tông (1054 - 1072) Temple of Literature founded.[20]
1075 Emperor Lý Nhân Tông (1072 - 1127) Minor officials chosen by examination for the first time.[49]
1077 Nam quốc sơn hà, Vietnam's first proclamation of independence.
Emperor Lý Thần Tông (1127 - 1138)
Emperor Lý Anh Tông (1138 - 1175)
1209 Emperor Lý Cao Tông (1176 - 1210) Emperor Lý Thẩm (1209) Quách Bốc Uprising.[53]
Emperor Lý Huệ Tông (1211 - 1224) Emperor Lý Nguyên Vương (1214 - 1216)
Queen Lý Chiêu Hoàng (1224 - 1225)

Trần Dynasty[edit]

Date Ruler Events Other people/events
1258 Emperor Trần Thái Tông (1225 - 1258) First Mongol invasion defeated.[49]
Emperor Trần Thánh Tông (1258 - 1278)
1282 Emperor Trần Nhân Tông (1278 - 1293) Bình Than Conference.
1284 Diên Hồng Conference.
1285 Second Mongol invasion repelled. Resistance led by Trần Hưng Đạo.[49]
1288 Third Mongol invasion driven back.[49]
1306 Emperor Trần Anh Tông (1293 - 1314) Trần princess Huyền Trân marries Cham ruler Chế Mân in Huế; marriage politics.[20]
Emperor Trần Minh Tông (1314 - 1329)
Emperor Trần Hiến Tông (1329 - 1341)
1360 Emperor Trần Dụ Tông (1341 - 1369) Wars against Champa under Chế Bồng Nga (to 1390).[49]
Emperor Hôn Đức Công (1369 - 1370)
Emperor Trần Nghệ Tông (1370 - 1372)
Emperor Trần Duệ Tông (1372 - 1377)
Emperor Trần Phế Đế (1377 - 1388)
Emperor Trần Thuận Tông (1388 - 1398)
Emperor Trần Thiếu Đế (1398 - 1400)

Hồ Dynasty[edit]

Date Ruler Events Other people/events
1400 King Hồ Quý Ly (1400) The country renamed Đại Ngu. Tây Đô becomes the capital. Cham-Vietnamese War.
1406 King Hồ Hán Thương (1401 - 1407) Ming–Hồ War.

Ming domination[edit]

Later Lê Dynasty[edit]

Date Ruler Ruler Events Other people/events
1428 Emperor Lê Thái Tổ (1428 - 1433) Bình Ngô đại cáo, Vietnam's second proclamation of independence. The country renamed Đại Việt.[49]
Emperor Lê Thái Tông (1433 - 1442)
Emperor Lê Nhân Tông (1442 - 1459)
Emperor Lê Nghi Dân (1459 - 1460)
1479 Emperor Lê Thánh Tông (1460 - 1497) Ngô Sỹ Liên completes the Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư historical text.
1483 Hồng Đức legal code promulgated.[49]
Emperor Lê Hiến Tông (1497 - 1504)
Emperor Lê Túc Tông (1504)
Emperor Lê Uy Mục (1504 - 1509)
1511 Emperor Lê Tương Dực (1509 - 1516) Trần Tuân Uprising.
1516 Trần Cảo Rebellion. Portuguese seafarers arrive.[54]
Emperor Lê Quang Trị (1516)
Emperor Lê Chiêu Tông (1516 - 1522) Emperor Lê Bảng (1518 - 1519)
Emperor Lê Do (1519)
Emperor Lê Cung Hoàng (1522 - 1527)

Mạc Dynasty[edit]

Date Ruler Ruler Events Other people/events
King Mạc Thái Tổ (1527 - 1530)
King Mạc Thái Tông (1530 - 1540)
King Mạc Hiến Tông (1540 - 1546)
King Mạc Tuyên Tông (1546 - 1561) King Mạc Chính Trung
King Mạc Mậu Hợp (1562 - 1592)
King Mạc Toàn (1592 - 1593) King Mạc Kính Chỉ (1592 - 1593)
King Mạc Kính Cung (1592 - 1625)
King Mạc Kính Khoan (1623 - 1638)
King Mạc Kính Vũ (1638 - 1677)

Restored Lê Dynasty[edit]

Tây Sơn Dynasty[edit]

Date Ruler Ruler Events Other people/events
1778 Emperor Thái Đức (1778 - 1793) Most of Nguyễn clan annihilated by the Tây Sơn.[49] Nguyễn Ánh's loyalists retake Gia Định. Thái Đức sets up the capital at Quy Nhơn.
1783 Nguyễn Ánh flees the country.
1785 Battle of Rạch Gầm-Xoài Mút.
1786 Phú Xuân Campaign. Thăng Long Campaign.
1787 Nguyễn Nhạc-Nguyễn Huệ split. French missionary Pigneau de Behaine persuades French court to assist in restoration of the Nguyễn.[49] Treaty of Versailles.
1788 Emperor Quang Trung (1788 - 1792) Nguyễn Ánh retakes Gia Định.
1789 Battle of Ngọc Hồi-Đống Đa.
1790 Battle of Bình Thuận.
1792 Death and funeral of Quang Trung.
1800 Emperor Cảnh Thịnh (1792 - 1802) Siege of Quy Nhơn.
1801 Battle of Thị Nại.
1802 Battle of Trấn Ninh The Nguyễn defeat last of Tây Sơn forces.

Nguyễn Dynasty[edit]

Date Ruler Events Other people/events
1802 Emperor Gia Long (1802 - 1820) Capital moved to Huế.[20]
1809 Nguyễn Du completes The Tale of Kiều.
1815 Hoàng Việt law enforced.
1821 Emperor Minh Mạng (1820 - 1841) Phan Bá Vành Uprising.[55]
1833 Nông Văn Vân Uprising. Lê Văn Khôi Revolt.
1845 Emperor Thiệu Trị (1841 - 1847) USS Constitution lands in Da Nang as a company of US Marines moves overland to Huế and rescues a French Bishop who had been captured by the Vietnamese.[56]
1847 French bombardment of Da Nang in response to persecution of Catholic missionaries.[56]
1854 Emperor Tự Đức (1847 - 1883) Cao Bá Quát Uprising.
1858 Cochinchina Campaign.
1859 Thủ Khoa Huân Uprising.
1861 Sinking of L'Esperance Trương Định Uprising.
1862 Treaty of Saigon.
1867 France establishes the colony of Cochinchina.
1883 Tonkin Campaign.
Emperor Dục Đức (1883)
Emperor Hiệp Hòa (1883)
Emperor Kiến Phúc (1883 - 1884)
1885 Emperor Hàm Nghi (1884 - 1885) Battle of the Huế Imperial City. Hàm Nghi leads resistance.[57]
1885 Emperor Đồng Khánh (1885 - 1889) Cần Vương Movement.
1888 Hàm Nghi captured and exiled to Algeria.[57]
1904 Emperor Thành Thái (1889 - 1907) Đông Du Movement.
Emperor Duy Tân (1907 - 1916)
1917 Emperor Khải Định (1916 - 1925) Thái Nguyên Uprising.
1930 Emperor Bảo Đại (1925 - 1945) Nghệ Tĩnh Revolt.
1945 August Revolution.

Socialist Republic[edit]

Date Ruler Events Other people/events
1976 President Tôn Đức Thắng (1976 - 1980) The National Assembly proclaims unification of the country as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.[49] Fourth National Party Congress. The Vietnamese Workers Party renamed the Vietnam Communist Party.[49]
1977 Admittance to United Nations.[49]
1978 Admittance to the Comecon.[49] 25-year "Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation" with the Soviet Union.[49]
1979 Border war with the PRC.
1980 President Nguyễn Hữu Thọ (1980 - 1981)
1982 Trường Chinh, Chairman of the State Council (1981 - 1987) Fifth National Party Congress.[49]
1986 Sixth National Party Congress.[49]
1988 Võ Chí Công, Chairman of the State Council (1987 - 1992) Johnson South Reef Skirmish.
1991 Seventh National Party Congress.
1995 President Lê Đức Anh (1992 - 1997) Admittance to ASEAN.
1996 Eighth National Party Congress.
2001 President Trần Đức Lương (1997 - 2006) Ninth National Party Congress.
2006 Tenth National Party Congress.
2007 President Nguyễn Minh Triết (2006 - 2011) Admittance to WTO.
2011 Eleventh National Party Congress. Mường Nhé Uprising.[58]
President Trương Tấn Sang (2011–present)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Importance of cultural history. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
  2. ^ Dao 1985
  3. ^ Vietnam Notebook: Early History, Nam Viet to Gia Long
  4. ^ a b c Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Issue 1
  5. ^ Iwona Czerwinska Pawluk and Walery Zukow, p. 21
  6. ^ Mark W. McLeod & Nguyen Thi Dieu, p. 153
  7. ^ Administration of Văn Lang - Âu Lạc
  8. ^ Lê Trung Vũ & Lê Hồng Lý, p. 95
  9. ^ a b Timeline of the Hùng Vương era
  10. ^ Lê Trung Vũ & Lê Hồng Lý, p. 414
  11. ^ Ancient calendar unearthed. Retrieved 2014-01-03.
  12. ^ Archaeologists unearth 3,200-year-old woman in Vietnam. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
  13. ^ according to Book of Han.
  14. ^ Lê Trung Vũ & Lê Hồng Lý, p. 852
  15. ^ Vũ Hồng - Vũ Thị Lê Hoa
  16. ^ Đồng Đậu archaeological site
  17. ^ Vietnam - History. Retrieved 2013-12-14.
  18. ^ Lê Trung Vũ & Lê Hồng Lý, p. 107
  19. ^ a b c Vietnam - HISTORY
  20. ^ a b c d Vietnamese History: A Chronological Outline
  21. ^ Gò Mun culture
  22. ^ Vietnam Handicrafts. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
  23. ^ World Beat: Vietnam. Retrieve 2014-01-01.
  24. ^ a b Hauptly, 1985, 4
  25. ^ Đào Duy Anh, Đất nước Việt Nam qua các đời, NXB VHTT, 2005, p. 21
  26. ^ Cao Xuân Đỉnh 1969, pp. 126–130
  27. ^ Tarling, p. 121
  28. ^ Lê Trung Vũ & Lê Hồng Lý, p. 267
  29. ^ McCrum, p. 171
  30. ^ Jeffrey, p. 8
  31. ^ Âu Lạc under An Dương Vương
  32. ^ Nguyễn Tài Thư (2008), p.13.
  33. ^ Vietnamese nationality timeline
  34. ^ Lê Trung Vũ & Lê Hồng Lý, p. 65
  35. ^ Lĩnh Nam chích quái
  36. ^ Death Anniversary of the Hùng kings. Retrieved 2013-11-30.
  37. ^ a b Vu Dinh Dinh. "Cochinchina: Reassessment of the Origin and Use of a Westernized Place Name". The Writers Post, vol. 9, Jan & Jul 2007.
  38. ^ Taylor, 1991, p. 24.
  39. ^ a b c Triệu Dynasty (207 – 111 BC)
  40. ^ Nguyễn Tài Thư (2008), p.20.
  41. ^ Doh Chull Shin, p. 34
  42. ^ History of Vietnam - From An Dương Vương to Trưng Vương
  43. ^ Vương Hùng.docx
  44. ^ 111 BC: Uprising shakes the rule of the Triệu Dynasty
  45. ^ a b Traces of material culture
  46. ^ a b Taylor, 1991, p. 30.
  47. ^ Taylor, 1991, p. 29.
  48. ^ Taylor, 1991, p. 33.
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Vietnam - a country study
  50. ^ Việt sử Thông giám cương mục.
  51. ^ Gia Ninh Citadel
  52. ^ 547: Triệu Quan Phục stations troops at Dạ Trạch swamp
  53. ^ a b Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Issue 4
  54. ^ A BRIEF HISTORY OF VIETNAM
  55. ^ Lịch sử chế độ phong kiến, Vol. 3, pp. 505–506.
  56. ^ a b Leadup to French Colonization
  57. ^ a b Vietnam’s Chronology
  58. ^ Thousands of Hmong stage rare Vietnam protest

References[edit]

  • Cao Xuân Đỉnh. Người anh hùng làng Dóng. NxbKHXH 1969.
  • Dao, T. T. 1985. Types of rice cultivation and its related civilization in Vietnam. East Asian Cultural Studies 24: 41—56.
  • Doh Chull Shin (2011). Confucianism and Democratization in East Asia. Cambridge University Press.
  • Hauptly, Denis J. (1985), In Vietnam, New York.
  • Iwona Czerwinska Pawluk and Walery Zukow (2011). Humanities dimension of physiotherapy, rehabilitation, nursing and public health. ISBN 978-83-61047-34-6. 
  • Jeffrey, Laura S. (2007). Celebrate Tet. Enslow Publishers, Inc.
  • Lê Trung Vũ & Lê Hồng Lý. Lễ hội Việt Nam. Hương Trang Cultural Company Ltd. & NXB Văn hóa Thông tin, 2005.
  • Mark W. McLeod & Nguyen Thi Dieu (2001). Culture and Customs of Vietnam. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • McCrum, Mark (2008). Going Dutch in Beijing: How to Behave Properly When Far Away from Home. Macmillan.
  • Nguyễn Tài Thư (2008), History of Buddhism in Vietnam, Cultural heritage and contemporary change: South East Asia, CRVP, ISBN 1565180984 
  • Tarling, Nicholas. The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia. Cambridge University Press, 1999.
  • Taylor, Keith Weller, The Birth of Vietnam. University of California Press, 1991.