Timeline of Yemeni history

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This is a timeline of Yemeni history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Yemen and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Yemen. See also the list of Kings of Yemen and list of Presidents of Yemen.

Millennia: 3rd BC · 2nd BC–1st BC · 1st–2nd · 3rd
Centuries: 25th BC · 24th BC · 23rd BC · 22nd BC · 21st BC

year 2591 december 7th[edit]

Year Date Event
2500 BC Ancient Arab tribes move North and South. Qahtan and A'ad settle South Arabia. The Akkadians and Amalek settle the North.

24th century BC[edit]

23rd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2300 BC According to some legends, the Arabs of the South unite under the leadership of Qahtan.

22nd century BC[edit]

21st century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2100 BC to the East of Qahtan A'ad settles Oman.

Centuries: 20th BC · 19th BC · 18th BC · 17th BC · 16th BC · 15th BC · 14th BC · 13th BC · 12th BC · 11th BC · 10th BC · 9th BC · 8th BC · 7th BC · 6th BC · 5th BC · 4th BC · 3rd BC · 2nd BC · 1st BC

20th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2000 BC the Qahtanis began building simple earth dams and canals in the Marib area in the Sayhad desert, this area will be the nucleus of the forthcoming Sabean Dam of Marib.

19th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1900 BC Ismail was found by the Qahtani tribe of Jurhum. They adopt him and of the lineage of Ismail (40 generations later Adnan will be the new lineage of the Adnani tribes that will branch out of Qahtan)

18th century BC[edit]

17th century BC[edit]

16th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1600 BC the Qahtanis began to move to the Tihama coasts and the lowlands. A tradeline began to flourish along the red Sea Tihama coasts. During this period the Qahtanis began to settle East Africa in small trading colonies in neighboring East Africa.

15th century BC[edit]

14th century BC[edit]

13th century BC[edit]

12th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1200 BC an order of High Priests who are referred to as the Mukkaribs of the "Sabeans" will rule South Arabia and some parts of East Africa.

11th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1100 BC the reign of the legendary Queen Bilqis mentioned in the Bible/Quran.

10th century BC[edit]

9th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
900 BC the Qahtanis began using a Variant of the Phoenician script, this will lead to the recording of the South Arabian history, from this point on.

8th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
800 BC Ma'een kingdom builds its capital in Baraqish.
the Sabeans build their capital on the edge of the mountains regions in Sirwah.
the Qatabanians rise as Sabean vassals in the region known now (AD 1990) as central and east Yemen.
Hadhramout / Hadhramawt rise as Sabean vassal kingdom in the region known now (AD 1990) as eastern Yemen.
Awsan appears as independent nation in a region that will partly controlled by the Qatabanians.
719 BC The temple of Marib is finished.
718 BC War between Ma'een and the Sabeans.
716 BC After securing their borders with Ma'een the Sabeans moved their capital to the more accessible Marib.
715 BC The Sabeans control the trade line and started recording diplomatic relationships with Assyria.
Sumhu`alay Yanuf and his son Yatha`amar Bayyin complete building the Marib Dam.

7th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
700 BC the Qatabanians build Timna and rebel against the authority of Saba
675 BC Kariba-il Watar defeats the rebellion and brings all of South Arabia under the Sabean rule.

6th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
600 BC Saba reaches its height of power and extends its hegemony across the Red sea establishing the Dam't Kingdom, this will be the nucleus of the Semitic culture of East Africa. Although its not the first attempt of the Qahtanis to expand their rule to the African coast.

5th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
500 BC the Dam of Marib breaks, Saba suffers from drought and rebellions.
the Ma'een kingdom allied with the Qatabanians and Hadramites rebel against Saba and gain their independence.
Ma'een establishes itself as the Dominat kingdom in the North of Yemen extending its authority on the Northern red sea coasts and establishes military/trading colonies as far as Sinai.

4th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
370 BC Qahtani tribes attack the Persians out of Musqat in the Eastern tip of the Arabian peninsula. From that time on Qahtanis replaced the Ancient Arabs 'Ad in Oman.

3rd century BC[edit]

2nd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
110 BC Himyar rises against Qataban.

1st century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
100 BC Ma'een declines gradually mainly due to the Roman control of the new sea trade routes.
Himyar starts expanding on the expense of the war-torn kingdom of Saba.
the remains of the Qhatani Jurhum tribe integrate their lineage under Nizar bin Ma'ad bin Adnan. From this point on they become the Adnanis.
Himyar allied itself with most of the Qahatni tribes of the lowlands and central highlands, annexing most of Saba and Southern Qataban, but Hadhramout repels them.
25 BC The Romans encouraged by the civil war in South Arabia attempt to invade the region, but fail to survive the Arabian desert.
Sabean civil war, Himyar closes in on Saba and takes over most of the Sabean central highlands, red sea coasts territory. Saba breaks into two smaller states in the northern highlands and the desert region around the capital Marib.

Centuries: 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th - 9th - 10th - 11th - 12th - 13th - 14th - 15th - 16th - 17th - 18th - 19th - 20th

1st century AD[edit]

Year Date Event
100 the kingdom of Aksum dominates East Africa and takesover the Sabean trading/military colonies.
the Kahlan tribes remain as the only tribes still loyal to the Sabean state at Marib, Kahlan tribes cornered to the area between Sana'a and Marib in the North of Yemen.

2nd century[edit]

Year Date Event
200 Jews settle Yemen.
Himyar captures most of Qataban.
Himyar annexes the Sabean state of Marib.
after the loss of Marib Saba Kahlans septs Azd, Hamdan, Lakhm, Tai headed north except for the Hashid and Bakil tribes of Hamdan of Gurat Saba and Kindah in the ramlah desert.

3rd century[edit]

Year Date Event
211 Hadhramout allies itself with Qataban and Aksum attacking Himyar from the West and the east.
217 while the Himyarites are fighting the Hadhramout/Qataban alliance in the east, the Aksumites capture the Himyarite capital Zafar, .
221 Hadhramout annexes Qataban and reaches its height of power.
222 the Aksumites attempt to capture Hadhramout from the coast.
225 during the reign of Sha`irum Awtar the Himyarites/Sabeans attack the Kingdom of Hadhramout from the East and capture their capital.
227 the Gurat Sabeans and Himyar ally themselves against the Aksumites and retake Zafar. The Aksumites lose all their territories in South Arabia except for Tihama.
229 Himyar recaptures Southern Tihama and controls the Major East African ports across from Muza'a. The Aksumites keep the Northern strip of Tihama.
The Kahlani Imran bin Azd branch expel the Persians from Oman.
231 The Kahlani Jifna bin Azd branch settles Syria and Lakhm settles Mesopotamia.
280 Himyar annexes the last Sabean enclave to its Kingdom.
300 Himyar annexes Hadhramout expanding its borders to Dhofar Oman. to the East of their borders the Azd bin Imran (Azd Uman).

4th century[edit]

Year Date Event
320 Himyar annexes Suqatra.
325 From AL Ramlah in Yemen Shiekh of Kindah Malikum makes alliances with Adnani tribes of Nejd.
390 Abu-Kariba Asad-Toban King of Himyar converts to Judaism and spreads the religion in the region.

5th century[edit]

Year Date Event
425 Himyar appoints Akil al-Murar ibn Amr as the first Hujr of its Northern Kindite colonies.
480 Amr al-Mansur ibn Hudjr rises his status to the king (vassal to Himyar) and bring the Northern part of the Arabian peninsula under Himyarite control.
500 Christianity spreads in Najran/Tihama strip an area still allied to the Christian Aksum kingdom.
two Jews from Yathrib travel to Himyar in hopes of converting the people of Himyar into Judaism.

6th century[edit]

Year Date Event
523 King Dhu Nawas converts to Judaism, he begins a campaign to convert the Himyarites into Judaism. Himyarites convert in big numbers except in Najran.
525 At this time Himyar included all the Arabian peninsula (via Kinda) and he was angered by the Najrani chief refusal to leave Christianity. Dhu Nawas took Najran and massacred 20,000 Najrani Christians.
The Christian Aksumites defeat Dhu Nawas and annex Himyar, starting a period of persecution against the Yemenite Jews. Third of the population of Yemenite Jews is exiled to Aksum.
570 The Dam of Marib broke for the third and final time, triggering another migration of Yemeni tribes. The Qur'an itself refers to the collapse of the Marib Dam as a punishment on the Sabaeans for their ungratefulness to God.
Under Khosrau I, Persian forces expel the Aksumites with the help of Dhu Yazin. Persians later assassinate Dhu Yazin and try to establish their rule over all Yemen. But they fail and a number of autonomous kingdoms are established.

7th century[edit]

Year Date Event
630 Islamic Caliphate expands into Yemen, which becomes one of its provinces.

8th century[edit]

9th century[edit]

Year Date Event
897 Yemen separates from the Abbasid caliphate and the Zaidi dynasty rules Yemen. First from Sada, then from Sana'a.

10th century[edit]

11th century[edit]

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1173 Yemen falls under the influence of the Egyptian Ayyubid.

13th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1229 The Rasuliden dynasty rules Yemen until 1453.

14th century[edit]

15th century[edit]

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1517 kjohjhkhuhhhir empire, mainly Aden and [[]]. Sana'a and the rest of Yemen continued to be ruled by the Zaidi dyasty.

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1635 The Ottomans are expelled from Yemen.

18th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1839 Aden comes under British rule and serves as a major refuelling port when the Suez Canal opens in 1869.
1872 Ottomans occupy the north of Yemen, but later face revolt.

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1918 Ottoman empire dissolves, North Yemen gains independence and is ruled by Imam Yahya.
1948 Yahya assassinated, but his son Ahmad beats off opponents of feudal rule and succeeds his father.
1962 Imam Ahmad dies, succeeded by his son but army officers seize power, set up the Yemen Arab Republic (YAR), sparking civil war between royalists supported by Saudi Arabia and republicans backed by Egypt.
1963 Commenced the revolution against the British colonialism, South Yemen
1968 Total independence of Southern Yemen.
1990 Yemeni unification.
1994 Civil war in Yemen

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2004 Shia insurgency.
2011 Revolution against Saleh government.

References[edit]