|14th Edo Shogun|
August 14, 1858 – August 29, 1866
|Preceded by||Tokugawa Iesada|
|Succeeded by||Tokugawa Yoshinobu|
July 17, 1846|
Minato, Tokyo, Japan
|Died||August 29, 1866
Osaka Castle, Japan
Tokugawa Iemochi (徳川 家茂?) (July 17, 1846 – August 29, 1866) was the 14th shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, who held office from 1858 to 1866. During his reign there was much internal turmoil as a result of Japan's first major contact with the United States, which occurred under Commodore Perry in 1853 and 1854, and of the subsequent "re-opening" of Japan to western nations. Iemochi's reign also saw a weakening of the shogunate.
Iemochi, known in his childhood as Kikuchiyo, was the eldest son of the 11th generation Wakayama domain lord Tokugawa Nariyuki (1801-1846) and was born in the domain's residence in Edo (modern-day Minato-ku in Tokyo). Nariyuki was a younger son of the 11th shogun, Tokugawa Ienari.
In 1847, at age 1, he was adopted as the heir of the 12th generation daimyo Tokugawa Narikatsu, and succeeded him in 1850, taking the name Tokugawa Yoshitomi following his coming of age in 1851. However, in 1858 he was named as the successor to the main Tokugawa house due to his cousin the 13th shogun, Iesada, being heirless. The choice of Yoshitomi was not without conflict; there were other factions in the government who supported Tokugawa Yoshinobu or Matsudaira Naritami for shogun; it must be said that both of them, as opposed to Iemochi, were adults. It was upon assuming the office of shogun that Yoshitomi changed his name to Iemochi.
On April 22, 1863 (Bunkyū 3, 5th day of the 3rd month), Shogun Iemochi travelled in a great procession to the capital. He had been summoned by the emperor, and had 3,000 retainers as escort. This was the first time since the visit of Iemitsu in the Kan'ei era, 230 years before, that a shogun had visited Kyoto.
As part of the Kōbu Gattai ("Union of Court and Bakufu") movement, Iemochi was married to Imperial Princess Kazu-no-Miya Chikako daughter of Emperor Ninkō, and younger sister of Emperor Kōmei, but his early death, at the age of 20, put an end to the short marriage. The cause of death is widely reported as heart failure due to beriberi, a disease caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency.
Eras of Iemochi's bakufu
His child self is featured in the novel 'Kazunomiya, Prisoner of Heaven', by Kathryn Lasky, a fictional diary written by Iemochi's wife.
Iemochi is also mentioned in 'The Last Concubine' by Lesley Downer.
He is parodied in the manga and anime series Gintama as 'Tokugawa Shige-Shige' (徳川 茂茂).
- "Japan:Memoirs of a Secret Empire". PBS. Retrieved 2007-08-11.
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869, p. 325.
- Rekishi Dokuhon Jan. 2006 issue: Tokugawa Shōgun-ke to Matsudaira Ichizoku
- Tokugawa Iemochi to sono jidai: wakaki shōgun no shōgai 徳川家茂とその時代: 若き将軍の生涯. Tokyo: Tokugawa kin'en zaidan 徳川記念財団, 2007.
- Totman, Conrad. (1980). The Collapse of the Tokugawa Bakufu, 1862-1868. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. 10-ISBN 0-8248-0614-X; 13-ISBN 978-0-8248-0614-9
- Digitized woodblock print: Shogun Iemochi in procession towards Kyoto in Bunkyū 3