The earliest portion of Towosahgy State Historic Site is in the southern half where a Late Woodland village once stood. Wilkie dates this component to about 400 to 700 CE. Later the site became a fortified Mississippan site with seven mounds, most surrounding a central plaza. During this time, the site was surrounded by a palisade wall and moat. Like other Mississippian mound centers, Towosahgy also had a borrow pit, where earth was removed to create the mounds. The largest remaining mound is Mound 2, also known as the "temple mound". Excavations on this part of the site were conducted by James Price in 1989. The site was abandoned during the late fourteenth century for unknown reasons, like many other sites in the region.