Urbanisation in India

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Mumbai is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million.

Urbanisation in India was mainly caused after independence, due to adoption of mixed system of economy by the country which gave rise to the development of private sector. Urbanisation is taking place at a faster rate in India. Population residing in urban areas in India, according to 1901 census, was 11.4%.[1] This count increased to 28.53% according to 2001 census, and crossing 30% as per 2011 census, standing at 31.16%.[2][3] According to a survey by UN State of the World Population report in 2007, by 2030, 40.76% of country's population is expected to reside in urban areas.[4] As per World Bank, India, along with China, Indonesia, Nigeria and the United States, will lead the world's urban population surge by 2050.[2]

Mumbai saw large scale rural-urban migration in the 21st century.[see main] Mumbai accommodates 12.5 million people, and is the largest metropolis by population in India, followed by Delhi with 11 million inhabitants. Witnessing the fastest rate of urbanisation in the world, as per 2011 census, Delhi's population rose by 4.1%, Mumbai's by 3.1% and Kolkata's by 2% as per 2011 census compared to 2001 census. Estimated population, at the current rate of growth, by year 2015, Mumbai stands at 25 million, Delhi and Kolkata at 16 million each, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad at 10 million.[5]

History[edit]

The transition period[edit]

After independence, India faced poverty, unemployment and economic backwardness. The first Prime Minister of India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, focused on the domain of science and technology, for economic development.[6] The mixed economy system was adopted, resulting in the growth of the Public sector in India.[7]

Modern India[edit]

The contribution of the agricultural sector to the GDP of India started to decline and the percentage contribution from secondary sector increased. The period after 1941, witnessed rapid growth of four metropolitan cities in India, which were Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, and Chennai.[9] The nation's economy saw a rise due to industrial revolution and the invention of new technologies increased the standard of living of people living in urban areas.[10] The growth of public sector resulted in development of public transport, roads, water supply, electricity, and hence the infrastructure of urban areas.

Maharashtra was the most urbanised state in India till 1991, stood behind Tamil Nadu in 2001 and third after it in 2011, with Kerala being first,[11] with the urban-total state population ratio. However, Maharashtra's urban population of 41 million, far exceeds that of Tamil Nadu which is at 27 million, as per the 2001 census.[12]

Causes of urbanisation in India[edit]

The main causes of urbanisation in India are:

Consequences of urbanisation[edit]

A slum in Chennai

Rapid rise in urban population, in India, is leading to many problems like increasing slums, decrease in standard of living in urban areas, also causing environmental damage.[19]

The Industrial Revolution in the 18th century caused countries like United States and England to become superpower nations but the present condition is worsening. India's urban growth rate is 2.07% which seems to be significant compared to Rwanda with 7.6%. India has around 300 million people living in metropolitan areas.[20] This has greatly caused slum problems, with so many people over crowding cities and forcing people to live in unsafe conditions which also includes illegal buildings. Water lines,roads and electricity are lacking which is causing fall of living standards. It is also adding to the problem of all types of pollution.[21]

Urbanisation also results in a disparity in the market, owing to the large demands of the growing population and the primary sector struggling to cope with them.[22]

Urban unemployment[edit]

National Sample Survey Organisation reported the following urban unemployment rates for the period July 2011–June 2012:[23]

Category of persons Male Female Person
Unemployment rate (per 1000 persons in the labour force) 30 52 34

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kamaldeo Narain Singh (1 January 1978). Urban Development In India. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-81-7017-080-8. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Business Standard (15 June 2012). "Victims of urbanisation: India, Indonesia and China". Rediff.com. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  3. ^ Datta, Pranati. "Urbanisation in India" (PDF). Infostat.sk. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  4. ^ "Urbanisation in India faster than rest of the world". Hindustan Times. 27 June 2007. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  5. ^ Chauhan, Chetan (21 May 20122). "World’s fastest urbanisation is in India". Hindustan Times via HighBeam Research (New Delhi, India). Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  6. ^ N. M. Khilnani (1993). Socio-Political Dimensions of Modern India. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 96–. ISBN 978-81-85880-06-8. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  7. ^ TR Jain, Mukesh Trehan, Ranju Trehan. Indian Economy and Business Environment (for BBA). FK Publications. pp. 250=. ISBN 978-81-87344-71-1. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  8. ^ "Table 3: Urban agglomerations having population 1 Lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals. Government of India. Retrieved 2011-10-19. 
  9. ^ a b Viswambhar Nath; Surinder K. Aggarwal (1 January 2007). Urbanisation, Urban Development, and Metropolitan Cities in India. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-81-8069-412-7. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  10. ^ "The Indian Industrial Revolution". Srcindore.org. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  11. ^ "Rural-Urban distribution of population" (PDF). Census of India Press Release. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  12. ^ "Urbanization". Planning Commission (India). Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  13. ^ The Indian and Pakistan year book. Bennett, Coleman & Co. 1951. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  14. ^ Jonathan M. Harris; Tufts University. Global Development and Environment Institute (1 March 2001). A Survey of Sustainable Development: Social And Economic Dimensions. Island Press. pp. 142–. ISBN 978-1-55963-863-0. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  15. ^ N. T. K. Naik; S. Mansoor Rahman (1 January 2007). Urbanisation of India. Serials Publications. ISBN 978-81-8387-078-8. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  16. ^ Amitabh Kundu. Trends and processes of urbanisation in india. IIED. p. 1. GGKEY:NNAEQJ0WFTW. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  17. ^ Pradhan, Rudra Prakash. "Does infrastructure play role in urbanisation: evidence from India". Indian Journal of Economics and Business via HighBeam Research. 
  18. ^ "Role of private sector in India’s growth ~ Business News This Week". Businessnewsthisweek.com. 8 February 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  19. ^ K. C. Sivaramakrishnan; Biplab Dasgupta; Mahesh N. Buch (1 January 1993). Urbanisation in India: Basic Services and People's Participation. Concept Publishing Company. p. 2. ISBN 978-81-7022-480-8. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  20. ^ "AUICK Newsletter No.27". Auick.org. Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  21. ^ Niu, Tong (18 January 2011). "Problems of Urbanisation in India". YouthKiAwaaz. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  22. ^ Javir. "Problems of Urbanisation in India". Preserve Articles. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  23. ^ "Status of Urban Employment in the Country". PIB. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]