Urbanisation in India
Urbanisation in India was mainly caused after independence, due to adoption of mixed system of economy by the country which gave rise to the development of private sector. Urbanisation is taking place at a faster rate in India. Population residing in urban areas in India, according to 1901 census, was 11.4%. This count increased to 28.53% according to 2001 census, and crossing 30% as per 2011 census, standing at 31.16%. According to a survey by UN State of the World Population report in 2007, by 2030, 40.76% of country's population is expected to reside in urban areas. As per World Bank, India, along with China, Indonesia, Nigeria and the United States, will lead the world's urban population surge by 2050.
Mumbai saw large scale rural-urban migration in the 21st century.[see main] Mumbai accommodates 12.5 million people, and is the largest metropolis by population in India, followed by Delhi with 11 million inhabitants. Witnessing the fastest rate of urbanisation in the world, as per 2011 census, Delhi's population rose by 4.1%, Mumbai's by 3.1% and Kolkata's by 2% as per 2011 census compared to 2001 census. Estimated population, at the current rate of growth, by year 2015, Mumbai stands at 25 million, Delhi and Kolkata at 16 million each, Bangalore and Hyderabad at 10 million.
The first appearance of cities and urban development in India was around 2600 BCE with the advent of the Indus Valley Civilisation. The settlement displayed a level of sophistication superior to contemporary development with its unique Grid plan city layout. During its peak, the city had a novel sanitation system with a water supply and sewerage system in place. Trading helped the city to flourish and it had significant trade routes with Central Asia and the Middle East. The city had its unique system of weights and measures, script, religion and a flourishing crafts industry.
The decline of the Indus Valley Civilisation due to climate change and drought led to a migration towards northern India in the advent of the Iron Age better known for the Vedic Civilisation. The epic Mahabharata of this time describes the city of Indraprastha which stood at the present location of Delhi and served as capital for the Pandavas. This period and its later years saw the rise of various powerful city kingdoms or republics, known in popular literature as the 16 Mahajanapadas, such as Kashi, Magadha and Avanti, whose capital cities became powerful through trade and being notable centres of learning. The prominent among them being Varanasi, Pataliputra (modern day Patna) and Ujjayini among others.
The later period, from 399 BCE, became famous with the Maurya empire. A detailed account of life during the time of Chandragupta Maurya is given by the Greek ethnographer Megasthenes in his book the Indica. The book describes the caste system prevalent at the time that has been deeply rooted in the present day Indian community, both rural and urban. Cities like Takshashila became renowned in the old world as a centre for higher learning, probably best known for its association with the strategist and adviser Chanakya who aided the emperor. Takshashila was the terminus of several major inlands, connecting India and Central Asia. In the south, the Pandyan Dynasty established its capital at Madurai, one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, and boasting a rich cultural and architectural heritage. Port cities such as Muziris and Tyndis thrived with trade with the Roman empire.
The transition period
After independence, India faced poverty, unemployment and economic backwardness. The first Prime Minister of India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, focused on the domain of science and technology, for economic development. The mixed economy system was adopted, resulting in the growth of the Public sector in India.
Largest urban agglomerations in India by population
|Rank||City Name||State/Territory||Population||Rank||City Name||State/Territory||Population|
|4||Chennai||Tamil Nadu||8,696,010||14||Ghaziabad||Uttar Pradesh||2,358,525|
|6||Hyderabad||Andhra Pradesh||7,749,334||16||Coimbatore||Tamil Nadu||2,151,466|
The contribution of the agricultural sector to the GDP of India started to decline and the percentage contribution from secondary sector increased. The period after 1941, witnessed rapid growth of four metropolitan cities in India, which were Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, and Chennai. The nation's economy saw a rise due to industrial revolution and the invention of new technologies increased the standard of living of people living in urban areas. The growth of public sector resulted in development of public transport, roads, water supply, electricity, and hence the infrastructure of urban areas.
Maharashtra was the most urbanised state in India till 1991, stood behind Tamil Nadu in 2001 and third after it in 2011, with Kerala being first, with the urban-total state population ratio. However, Maharashtra's urban population of 41 million, far exceeds that of Tamil Nadu which is at 27 million, as per the 2001 census.
Causes of urbanisation in India
The main causes of urbanisation in India are:
- Expansion in government services, as a result of Second World War
- Migration of people from Pakistan after partition of India
- The Industrial Revolution
- Eleventh five year plan that aimed at urbanisation for the economic development of India
- Economic opportunities are just one reason people move into cities
- Infrastructure facilities in the urban areas
- Growth of private sector after 1990 .
Consequences of urbanisation
The Industrial Revolution in the 18th century caused countries like United States and England to become superpower nations but the present condition is worsening. India's urban growth rate is 2.07% which seems to be significant compared to Rwanda with 7.6%. India has around 300 million people living in metropolitan areas. This has greatly caused slum problems, with so many people over crowding cities and forcing people to live in unsafe conditions which also includes illegal buildings. Water lines,roads and electricity are lacking which is causing fall of living standards. It is also adding to the problem of all types of pollution.
Urbanisation also results in a disparity in the market, owing to the large demands of the growing population and the primary sector struggling to cope with them.
The unemployment rates (UR) according to usual status (ps+ss) as obtained from NSS 68th round (survey period: July 2011- June 2012) for different categories of persons in urban areas of the country are:
|Category of persons||Male||Female||Person|
|Unemployment rate (per 1000 persons in the labour force)||30||52||34|
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