Famine in India
Famine had been a recurrent feature of life in the Indian sub-continental countries of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, and reached its numerically deadliest peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Historical and legendary evidence names some 90 famines in 2,500 years of history. There are 14 recorded famines in India between the 11th and 17th centuries. Famines in India resulted in more than 60 million deaths over the course of the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries. The last major famine was the Bengal famine of 1943. A famine occurred in the state of Bihar in December 1966 on a much smaller scale. The drought of Maharashtra in 1970–1973 is often cited as an example in which successful famine prevention processes were employed.[fn 1] Famines in British India were severe enough to have a substantial impact on the long term population growth of the country in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Indian agriculture is heavily dependent on climate: a favourable southwest summer monsoon is critical in securing water for irrigating crops. Droughts, combined with policy failures, have periodically led to major Indian famines, including the Bengal famine of 1770, the Chalisa famine, the Doji bara famine, the Great Famine of 1876–78, and the Bengal famine of 1943. Some commentators have identified British government inaction as contributing factors to the severity of famines during the time India was under British rule. The 1883 Indian Famine Codes, transportation improvements, and changes following independence have been identified as furthering famine relief. In India, traditionally, agricultural labourers and rural artisans have been the primary victims of famines. In the worst famines, cultivators have also been susceptible.
- 1 Ancient, mediaeval and pre-colonial India
- 2 British rule
- 3 Republic of India
- 4 See also
- 5 References
Ancient, mediaeval and pre-colonial India
One of the earliest treatises on famine relief goes back more than 2000 years. This treatise is commonly attributed to Kautilya, who recommended that a good king should build new forts and water-works and share his provisions with the people, or entrust the country to another king. Historically, Indian rulers have employed several methods of famine relief. Some of these were direct, such as initiating free distribution of food grains and throwing open grain stores and kitchens to the people. Other measures were monetary policies such as remission of revenue, remission of taxes, increase of pay to soldiers, and payment of advances. Yet other measures included construction of public works, canals, and embankments, and sinking wells. Migration was encouraged. Kautilya advocated raiding the provisions of the rich in times of famine to "thin them by exacting excess revenue." Information on famines from ancient India up to colonial times is found in four primary sources:
- Legendary tales passed down in oral tradition that keep alive the memory of famines
- Ancient Indian literature such as the Vedas, Jataka stories, and the Arthashastra
- Stone and metal inscriptions provide information on several famines before the 16th century
- Writings of Muslim historians in Mughal India
Legendary famines preserved in oral tradition are the Dvadasavarsha Panjam (Twelve-year Famine) of south India and the Durgadevi famine of the Deccan from 1396 to 1407. From Hindu literature, there is the 7th century famine due to failure of rains in Tanjore district mentioned in the Periya Puranam. According to the Purana, Lord Shiva helped the Tamil saints Sambandhar and Appar to provide relief from the famine. Another famine in the same district is recorded on an inscription with details such as "times becoming bad", a village being ruined, and cultivation of food being disrupted in Alangudi in 1054. However, the primary sources for famines in this period are incomplete and locationally based
The ancient Ashokan edicts of the Mauryan age around 269 BCE record emperor Ashoka's conquest of Kalinga, roughly the modern state of Odisha. The major rock and pillar edicts mention the massive human toll of about 100,000 due to the war. The edicts record that an even larger number later perished, presumably from wounds and famine. The Tughlaq dynasty under Muhammad bin Tughluq held power in Delhi during the famine in and around Delhi in 1335–42. The sultanate offered no relief to the starving residents of Delhi during this famine. The oldest famine in pre-colonial Deccan with well-preserved local documentation is the famine of 1791–92. Relief was provided by the ruler, the Peshwa Sawai Madhavrao II, in the form of imposing restrictions on export of grain and importing rice in large quantities from Bengal via private trading, however the evidence is often too scanty to judge the 'real efficacy of relief efforts' in the Mughal period. Other pre-colonial famines in the Deccan were the Damajipant famine of 1460 and the famines starting in 1520 and 1629. The famine in the Deccan and Gujarat, was another famine in India's history. An estimated 3 million perished in Gujarat and one million in the Deccan. In the second year the famine killed not only the poor but the rich as well. The Damajipant famine is said to have caused ruin both in the northern and southern parts of the Deccan. Famines hit the Deccan in 1655, 1682 and 1884. A further famine from 1702–1704 killed over two million people.
According to Mushtaq A. Kaw, measures employed by the Mughal and Afghan rulers to fight famine in Kashmir were insufficient due to geographic obstacles, corruption in the Mughal administration.[fn 2] Mughal officials took no long term measures to fight famines in Kashmir, and the land tax system of Mughal India often contributed to the scale of famines by depriving Indian peasants of much of their harvest in the goods years, denying them the opportunity to build up stocks.
The late 18th and 19th centuries saw increase in the incidence of severe famine.[fn 3] These famines in British India were bad enough to have a remarkable impact on the long term population growth of the country, especially in the half century between 1871–1921. The first, the Bengal famine of 1770, is estimated to have taken the lives of nearly one-third of the population of the region—about 10 million people. The impact of the famine caused East India Company revenues from Bengal to decline to £174,300 in 1770–71. The stock price of the East India Company fell sharply as a result. The company was forced to obtain a loan of £1 million from the Bank of England to fund the annual military budget of between £60,000–1 million. Attempts were later made to show that net revenue was unaffected by the famine, but this was possible only because the collection had been "violently kept up to its former standard".[fn 4] The 1901 Famine Commission found that twelve famines and four "severe scarcities" took place between 1765 and 1858.
Researcher Brian Murton states that the famines recorded after the arrival of the English, but before the establishment of the Indian Famine Codes of the 1880s, bear a cultural bias regarding the stated causes of the famine because they "reflect the view of a handful of Englishmen." These sources, however, contain accurate recordings of weather and crop conditions. Florence Nightingale made efforts to educate British subjects about India's famines through a series of publications in the 1870s and beyond. Evidence suggests that there may have been large famines in south India every forty years in pre-colonial India, and that the frequency might have been higher after the 12th century. These famines still did not approach the incidence of famines of the 18th and 19th centuries under British rule.
Florence Nightingale pointed out that the famines in British India were not caused by the lack of food in a particular geographical area. They were instead caused by inadequate transportation of food, which in turn was caused due to an absence of a political and social structure.
Nightingale identified two types of famine: a grain famine and a "money famine". Money was drained from the peasant to the landlord, making it impossible for the peasant to procure food. Money which should have been made available to the producers of food via public works projects and jobs was instead diverted to other uses. Nightingale pointed out that money needed to combat famine was being diverted towards activities like paying for the British military effort in Afghanistan in 1878–80.
Amartya Sen implies that the famines in the British era were due to a lack of a serious effort on the part of the British government to prevent famines. He links the lack of this serious effort to the absence of democracy in British India.[fn 5]
Tirthankar Roy suggests that the famines were due to environmental factors and inherent in India's ecology.[fn 6][fn 7] Roy argues that massive investments in agriculture were required to break India's stagnation, however these were not forthcoming owing to scarcity of water, poor quality of soil and livestock and a poorly developed input market which guaranteed that investments in agriculture were extremely risky. After 1947, India focused on institutional reforms to agriculture however even this failed to break the pattern of stagnation. It wasn't until the 1970s when there was massive public investment in agriculture that India became free of famine, although Roy is of the opinion that improvements in the market efficiency did contribute to the alleviation of weather-induced famines after 1900, an exception to which is the Bengal famine of 1943.[full citation needed]
Mike Davis regards the famines of the 1870s and 1890s as 'Late Victorian Holocausts'. This negative image of British rule is common in India.Davis argues that "Millions died, not outside the 'modern world system', but in the very process of being forcibly incorporated into its economic and political structures. They died in the golden age of Liberal Capitalism; indeed, many were murdered ... by the theological application of the sacred principles of Smith, Bentham and Mill."
Michelle Burge McAlpin has argued that economic changes in India during the 19th century contributed towards the end of famine. The overwhelmingly subsistence agriculture economy of 19th century India gave way to a more diversified economy in the 20th century, which, by offering other forms of employment, created less agricultural disruption (and, consequently, less mortality) during times of scarcity. The construction of Indian railways between 1860 and 1920, and the opportunities thereby offered for greater profit in other markets, allowed farmers to accumulate assets that could then be drawn upon during times of scarcity. By the early 20th century, many farmers in the Bombay presidency were growing a portion of their crop for export. The railways also brought in food, whenever expected scarcities began to drive up food prices. Similarly, Donald Attwood writes that by the end of the 19th century 'local food scarcities in any given district and season were increasingly smoothed out by the invisible hand of the market and that 'By 1920, large-scale institutions integrated this region into an industrial and globalising world—ending famines and causing a rapid decline in mortality rates, hence a rise in human welfare'.
The famines were a product both of uneven rainfall and British economic and administrative policies. Colonial polices implicated include rack-renting, levies for war, free trade policies, the expansion of export agriculture, and neglect of agricultural investment. Indian exports of opium, rice, wheat, indigo, jute, and cotton were a key component of the economy of the British empire, generating vital foreign currency, primarily from China, and stabilising low prices in the British grain market. Export crops displaced millions of acres that could have been used for domestic subsistence, and increased the vulnerability of Indians to food crises. Others dispute that exports were a major cause of the famine, pointing out that trade did have a stabilising influence on India's food consumption, albeit a small one
The Odisha famine of 1866–67, which later spread through the Madras Presidency to Hyderabad and Mysore, was one such famine. The famine of 1866 was a severe and terrible event in the history of Odisha in which about a third of the population died. The famine left an estimated 1,553 orphans whose guardians were to receive an amount of 3 rupees per month until the age of 17 for boys and 16 for girls. Similar famines followed in the western Ganges region, Rajasthan, central India (1868–70), Bengal and eastern India (1873–1874), Deccan (1876–78), and again in the Ganges region, Madras, Hyderabad, Mysore, and Bombay (1876–1878). The famine of 1876–78, also known as the Great Famine of 1876–78, caused a large migration of agricultural labourers and artisans from southern India to British tropical colonies, where they worked as indentured labourers on plantations. The large death toll—about 10.3 million—offset the usual population growth in the Bombay and Madras Presidencies between the first and second censuses of British India in 1871 and 1881 respectively.
The large-scale loss of life due to the series of famines between 1860 and 1877 was the cause of political controversy and discussion which led to the formation of the Indian Famine Commission. This commission would later come up with a draft version of the Indian Famine Code. It was the Great Famine of 1876–78, however, that was the direct cause of investigations and the beginning of a process that led to the establishment of the Indian Famine code. The next major famine was the Indian famine of 1896–97. Although this famine was preceded by a drought in the Madras Presidency, it was made more acute by the government's policy of laissez faire in the trade of grain. For example, two of the worst famine-afflicted areas in the Madras Presidency, the districts of Ganjam and Vizagapatam, continued to export grains throughout the famine. These famines were typically followed by various infectious diseases such as bubonic plague and influenza, which attacked and killed a population already weakened by starvation.
The first major famine that took place under British rule was the Bengal Famine of 1770. About a quarter to a third of the population of Bengal starved to death in about a ten-month period. East India Company's raising of taxes disastrously coincided with this famine and exacerbated it, even if the famine was not caused by the British colonial government. Following this famine, "Successive British governments were anxious not to add to the burden of taxation." The rains failed again in Bengal and Odisha in 1866. Policies of laissez faire were employed, which resulted in partial alleviation of the famine in Bengal. However, the southwest Monsoon made the harbour in Odisha inaccessible. As a result, food could not be imported into Odisha as easily as Bengal. In 1865–66, severe drought struck Odisha and was met by British official inaction. The British Secretary of State for India, Lord Salisbury, did nothing for two months, by which time a million people had died. The lack of attention to the problem caused Salisbury to never feel free from blame.[fn 8] Some British citizens such as William Digby agitated for policy reforms and famine relief, but Lord Lytton, the governing British viceroy in India, opposed such changes in the belief that they would stimulate shirking by Indian workers. Reacting against calls for relief during the 1877–79 famine, Lytton replied, "Let the British public foot the bill for its 'cheap sentiment,' if it wished to save life at a cost that would bankrupt India," substantively ordering "there is to be no interference of any kind on the part of Government with the object of reducing the price of food," and instructing district officers to "discourage relief works in every possible way.... Mere distress is not a sufficient reason for opening a relief work."
In 1874 the response from the British authorities was better and famine was completely averted. Then in 1876 a huge famine broke out in Madras. Lord Lytton's administration believed that 'market forces alone would suffice to feed the starving Indians.'[fn 9] The results of such thinking proved fatal (some 5.5 million starved), so this policy was abandoned. Lord Lytton established the Famine Insurance Grant, a system in which, in times of financial surplus, INR 1,500,000 would be applied to famine relief works. The result was that the British prematurely assumed that the problem of famine had been solved forever. Future British viceroys became complacent, and this proved disastrous in 1896. About 4.5 million people were on famine relief at the peak of the famine.
Curzon stated that such philanthropy would be criticised, but not doing so would be a crime.[fn 10] He also cut back rations that he characterised as "dangerously high," and stiffened relief eligibility by reinstating the Temple tests. Between 1.25 to 10 million people died in the famine. The famine during World War II lead to the development of the Bengal Famine Mixture (based on rice with sugar). This would later save tens of thousands of lives at liberated concentration camps such as Belsen.
British famine policy in India was influenced by the arguments of Adam Smith, as seen by the non-interference of the government with the grain market even in times of famines. Keeping the famine relief as cheap as possible, with minimum cost to the colonial exchequer, was another important factor in determining famine policy. According to Brian Murton, a professor of geography at the University of Hawaii, another possible impact on British policy on famine in India was the influence of the English Poor Laws of 1834, with the difference being that the English were willing to "maintain" the poor in England in normal times, whereas Indians would receive subsistence only when entire populations were endangered. Similarities between the Irish famine of 1846–49 and the later Indian famines of the last part of the 19th century were seen. In both countries, there were no impediments to the export of food during times of famines. Lessons learnt from the Irish famine were not seen in the correspondence on policy-making during the 1870s in India.
The Famine Commission of 1880 observed that each province in British India, including Burma, had a surplus of food grains, and that the annual surplus amounted to 5.16 million metric tons. The product of the Famine Commission was a series of government guidelines and regulations on how to respond to famines and food shortages called the Famine Code. These had to wait until the exit of Lord Lytton as viceroy, and were finally passed in 1883 under a subsequent more liberal-minded viceroy, Lord Ripon. They presented an early warning system to detect and respond to food shortages. Despite the codes, mortality from famine was highest in last 25 years of the 19th century. At that time, annual exports of rice and other grains from India was approximately one million metric tons. Development economist Jean Drèze evaluated the conditions before and after Famine Commission policy changes: "A contrast between the earlier period of frequently recurring catastrophes, and the latter period when long stretches of tranquility were disturbed by a few large scale famines" in 1896–97, 1899–1900, and 1943–44. Drèze explains these "intermittent failures" by four factors—failure to declare a famine (particularly in 1943), the "excessively punitive character" of famine restrictions such as wages for public works, the "policy of strict non-interference with private trade," and the natural severity of the food crises.
There was a threat of famine, but after 1902 there was no major famine in India until the Bengal famine of 1943. This famine was the most devastating; between 2.5 and 3 million people died during World War II. In India as a whole, the food supply was rarely inadequate, even in times of droughts. The Famine Commission of 1880 identified that the loss of wages from lack of employment of agricultural labourers and artisans were the cause of famines. The Famine Code applied a strategy of generating employment for these sections of the population and relied on open-ended public works to do so. The Indian Famine Code was used in India until more lessons were learnt from the Bihar famine of 1966–67. The Famine Code has been updated in independent India and it has been renamed "Scarcity Manuals." In some parts of the country, the Famine Code is no longer used, primarily because the rules embodied in them have become routine procedure in famine relief strategy.
Impact of rail transport
The failure to provide food to the millions who were hungry during the famines of the 1870s has been blamed both on the absence of adequate rail infrastructure and the incorporation of grain into the world market through rail and telegraph. Davis notes that, "The newly constructed railroads, lauded as institutional safeguards against famine, were instead used by merchants to ship grain inventories from outlying drought-stricken districts to central depots for hoarding (as well as protection from rioters)" and that telegraphs served to coordinate a rise in prices so that "food prices soared out of the reach of outcaste labourers, displaced weavers, sharecroppers and poor peasants." Members of the British administrative apparatus were also concerned that the larger market created by railway transport encouraged poor peasants to sell off their reserve stocks of grain.
Rail transport, however, also played an essential role in supplying grain from food-surplus regions to famine-stricken ones. The 1880 Famine Codes urged a restructuring and massive expansion of railways, with an emphasis on intra-Indian lines as opposed to the existing port-centred system. These new lines extended the existing network to allow food to flow to famine-afflicted regions. Jean Drèze (1991) also finds that the necessary economic conditions were present for a national market in food to reduce scarcity by the end of the 19th century, but that export of food continued to result from that market even during times of relative scarcity. The effectiveness of this system, however, relied on government provision of famine relief: "Railroads could perform the crucial task of moving grain from one part of India to another, but they could not assure that hungry people would have the money to buy that grain".
A famine weakens body resistance and leads to increases in infectious diseases, especially cholera, dysentery, malaria, and smallpox. Human response to famine could spread the disease as people migrated in search of food and work. On the other hand, railways also had a separate impact on reducing famine mortality by taking people to areas where food was available, or even out of India. By generating broader areas of labour migration and facilitating the massive emigration of Indians during the late 19th century, they provided famine-afflicted people the option to leave for other parts of the country and the world. By the 1912–13 scarcity crisis, migration and relief supply were able to absorb the impact of a medium-scale shortage of food. Drèze concludes, "In sum, and with a major reservation applying to international trade, it is plausible that the improvement in communication towards the end of the nineteenth century did make a major contribution to the alleviation of distress during famines. However, it is also easy to see that this factor alone could hardly account for the very sharp reduction in the incidence of famines in the twentieth century".
Bengal famine of 1943
The Bengal famine of 1943 reached its peak between July and November of that year, and the worst of the famine was over by early 1945. Famine fatality statistics were unreliable, and it is estimated up to two million died. Although one of the causes of the famine was the cutting off of the supply of rice to Bengal during the fall of Rangoon to the Japanese, this was only a fraction of the food needed for the region. According to the Irish economist and professor Cormac Ó Gráda, priority was given to military considerations, and the poor of Bengal were left unprovided for. The Famine Commission of 1948 and economist Amartya Sen found that there was enough rice in Bengal to feed all of Bengal for most of 1943. Sen claimed the famine was caused by inflation, with those benefiting from inflation eating more and leaving less for the rest of the population. and blamed. These studies, however, did not account for possible inaccuracies in estimates or the impact of fungal disease on the rice. De Waal states that the British government did not enforce the Famine Codes during the Bengal famine of 1943 because they failed to detect a food shortage. The Bengal famine of 1943 was the last catastrophic famine in India, and it holds a special place in the historiography of famine due to Sen's classic work of 1981 titled Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation.
Any imports to alleviate the famine would have had to come from Australia, North America or South America. Some supplies from Australia entered the region. The main constraint was shipping. The Battle of the Atlantic was at its peak from mid-1942 to mid-1943, with submarine wolf packs sinking so many ships that the Allies were on the verge of defeat, so shipping could not be spared for India.
Republic of India
Since the Bengal famine of 1943, there has been a declining number of famines which have had limited effects and have been of short durations. Sen attributes this trend of decline or disappearance of famines after independence to a democratic system of governance and a free press—not to increased food production. Later famine threats of 1984, 1988 and 1998 were successfully contained by the Indian government and there has been no major famine in India since 1943. Indian Independence in 1947 did not stop damage to crops nor lack of rain. As such, the threat of famines did not go away. India faced a number of threats of severe famines in 1967, 1973, 1979 and 1987 in Bihar, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Gujarat respectively. However these did not materialise into famines due to government intervention. The loss of life did not meet the scale of the 1943 Bengal or earlier famines but continued to be a problem. Jean Drèze finds that the post-Independence Indian government "largely remedied" the causes of the three major failures of 1880–1948 British famine policy, "an event which must count as marking the second great turning point in the history of famine relief in India over the past two centuries".
|Headquarters||Mumbai, Maharashtra, India|
|Established||12 July 1982|
|Reserves||1181.76 billion (US$19 billion) (31 March 2009)|
Deaths from starvation were reduced by improvements to famine relief mechanisms after the British left. In independent India, policy changes aimed to make people self-reliant to earn their livelihood and by providing food through the public distribution system at discounted rates. Between 1947–64 the initial agricultural infrastructure was laid by the founding of organisations such as the Central Rice Institute in Cuttack, the Central Potato Research Institute in Shimla, and universities such as the Pant Nagar University. The population of India was growing at 3% per year, and food imports were required despite the improvements from the new infrastructure . At its peak, 10 million tonnes of food were imported from the United States.
In the twenty-year period between 1965–1985 gaps in infrastructure were bridged by the establishment of The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD). During times of famines, droughts and other natural calamities, NABARD provides loan rescheduling and loan conversion facilitates to eligible institutions such as State Cooperative banks and Regional Rural Banks for periods up to seven years. In the same period, high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice were introduced. Steps taken in this phase resulted in the Green Revolution which led to a mood of self-confidence in India's agricultural capability. The Green Revolution in India was initially hailed as a success, but has recently been 'downgraded' to a 'qualified success'— not because of a lack of increased food production, but because the increase in food production has slowed down and has not been able to keep pace with population growth. Between 1985 and 2000, emphasis was laid on production of pulses and oilseed, as well as vegetables, fruits, and milk. A wasteland development board was set up, and rain-fed areas were given more attention. Public investment in irrigation and infrastructure, however, declined. The period also saw a gradual collapse of the cooperative credit system. In 1998–99, NABARD introduced a credit scheme to allow banks to issue short-term and timely credit to farmers in need via the Kisan Credit Card scheme. The scheme has become popular among issuing bankers and the recipient farmers with a total credit of 339.94 billion (US$5.6 billion) made available via the issuing of 23,200,000 credit cards as of November 2002[update]. Between 2000 and present day[update], land use for food or fuel has become a competing issue due to a demand for ethanol.
Since the time of Mahabharata, people in several regions of India have associated spikes in rat populations and famine with bamboo flowering. The northeastern state of Mizoram has bamboo as a dominant species over much of the state which experiences a cyclical phenomenon of bamboo flowering followed by bamboo death. The bamboo plants are known to undergo gregarious flowering once in their life cycle which can happen anywhere in a range of 7 to 120 years. A common local belief and observation is that bamboo flowering is followed by an increase in rats, famine and unrest amongst the people. The first such event in the Republic of India was reported in 1958 when the local Mizo District Council cautioned the Assam government of an impending famine which the government rejected on the grounds that it was not scientific. A famine did occur in the region in 1961.
In 2001 the Government of India began working on an emergency plan to address regional food shortages after reports that bamboo flowering and bamboo death would occur again in the near future. According to Forest Department Special Secretary K.D.R. Jayakumar, the relationship between famine and bamboo flowering, while widely believed to be true by the tribal locals, has not been scientifically proven. John and Nadgauda, however, strongly feel that such a scientific connexion exists, and that it may not simply be local myth. They describe a detailed mechanism demonstrating the relationship between the flowering and the famine. According to them, the flowering is followed by a large quantity of bamboo seeds on the forest floor which causes a spike in the population of the Rattus and Mus genus of rats who feed of these seeds. With the changing weather and onset of rains, the seeds germinate and force the mice to migrate to land farms in search of food. On the land farms, the mice feed on crops and grains stored in granaries which causes a decline in food availability. In 2001, the local administration tried to prevent the impending famine by offering local villagers the equivalent of $2.50 for every 100 rats killed. The botanist H. Y. Mohan Ram of the University of Delhi, who is one of the country's foremost authorities on bamboo, considered these techniques outlandish. He suggested that a better way of solving the problem was to teach the local farmers to switch to cultivating different varieties of crops such as ginger and turmeric during periods of bamboo flowering since these crops are not consumed by the rats.
Similar beliefs have been observed thousands of kilometres away in south India in the people of Cherthala in the Alappuzha district of Kerala who associate flowering bamboo with an impending explosion in the rat population.
The Bihar famine of 1966–7 was a minor famine with relatively very few deaths from starvation as compared to the famines of the British era. The famine demonstrated the ability of the Indian government to deal with the worst of famine related circumstances. The official death toll from starvation in the Bihar famine was 2353, roughly half of which occurred in the state of Bihar. No significant increase in the number of infant deaths from famine was found in the Bihar famine.
The annual production of food grains had dropped in Bihar from 7.5 million tonnes in 1965–66 to 7.2 million tonnes in 1966–1967 during the Bihar drought. There was an even sharper drop in 1966–67 to 4.3 million tonnes. The national grain production dropped from 89.4 million tonnes in 1964–65 to 72.3 in 1965–66 — a 19% drop. Rise in prices of food grains caused migration and starvation, but the public distribution system, relief measures by the government, and voluntary organisations limited the impact. On a number of occasions, the Indian-government sought food and grain from the United States to provide replacement for damaged crops. The government also set up more than 20,000 fair-price stores to provide food at regulated prices for the poor or those with limited incomes. A large scale famine in Bihar was adverted due to this import, although livestock and crops were destroyed. Other reasons for successfully averting a large scale famine were the employing various famine prevention measures such as improving communication abilities, issuing famine bulletins over the radio and offering employment to those affected by famine in government public works projects.
The Bihar drought of 1966–67 gave impetus to further changes in agricultural policy and this resulted in the Green Revolution.
1972 Maharashtra drought
After several years of good monsoons and a good crop in the early 1970s, India considered exporting food and being self-sufficient. Earlier in 1963, the government of the state of Maharashtra asserted that the agricultural situation in the state was constantly being watched and relief measures were taken as soon as any scarcity was detected. On the basis of this, and asserting that the word famine had now become obsolete in this context, the government passed the "The Maharashtra Deletion of the Term 'Famine' Act, 1963". They were unable to foresee the drought in 1972 when 25 million people needed help. The relief measures undertaken by the Government of Maharashtra included employment, programmes aimed at creating productive assets such as tree plantation, conservation of soil, excavation of canals, and building artificial lentic water bodies. The public distribution system distributed food through fair-price shops. No deaths from starvation were reported.
Large scale employment to the deprived sections of Maharashtrian society which attracted considerable amounts of food to Maharashtra. The implementation of the Scarcity Manuals in the Bihar and Maharashtra famines prevented the mortality arising from severe food shortages. While the relief programme in Bihar was poor, Drèze calls the one in Maharastra a model programme. The relief works initiated by the government helped employ over 5 million people at the height of the drought in Maharashtra leading to effective famine prevention. The effectiveness of the Maharashtra was also attributable to the direct pressure on the government of Maharashtra by the public who perceived that employment via the relief works programme was their right. The public protested by marching, picketing, and even rioting . Drèze reports a labourer saying "they would let us die if they thought we would not make a noise about it."
West Bengal drought
The drought of 1979–80 in West Bengal was the next major drought and caused a 17% decline in food production with a shortfall of 13.5 million tonnes of food grain. Stored food stocks were leveraged by the government, and there was no net import of food grains. The drought was relatively unknown outside of India. The lessons learnt from the Maharashtra and West Bengal droughts led to the Desert Development Programme and the Drought Prone Area Programme. The intent of these programmes was to reduce the negative effects of droughts by applying eco-friendly land use practices and conserving water. Major schemes in improving rural infrastructure, extending irrigation to additional areas, and diversifying agriculture were also launched. The lessons from the 1987 drought brought to light the need for employment generation, watershed planning, and ecologically integrated development.
2013 Maharashtra drought
In March 2013, according to Union Agriculture Ministry, over 11,801 villages in Maharashtra were declared drought affected. The drought was considered worst, next to the another one in Maharashtra in 1972.
Deaths from malnutrition on a large scale have continued across India into modern times. In Maharashtra alone, for example, there were around 45,000 childhood deaths due to mild or severe malnutrition in 2009, according to the Times of India. Another Times of India report in 2010 has stated that 50% of childhood deaths in India are attributable to malnutrition.
Growing export prices, the melting of the Himalayan glaciers due to global warming, changes in rainfall and temperatures are issues affecting India. If agricultural production does not remain above the population growth rate, there are indications that a return to the pre-independence famine days is a likelihood. People from various walks of life, such as social activist Vandana Shiva and researcher Dan Banik, agree that famines and the resulting large scale loss of life from starvation have been eliminated after Indian independence in 1947.[fn 11] However, Shiva warned in 2002 that famines are making a comeback and government inaction would mean they would reach the scale seen in the Horn of Africa in three or four years.
- Drought in India
- Famines, Epidemics, and Public Health in the British Raj
- Great Irish famine
- List of famines
- Timeline of major famines in India during British rule
- Bengal famine of 1943
- "India's great 'success story' of famine prevention is more justly dated in 1972-3, when another very severe drought hit large parts of the country. The worst affected state was that of Maharashtra..."
- 'the Mughal and Afghan rulers in Kashmir took measures to fight famines, but...their measures were too weak and in certain respects were even worse than those of their predecessors'.
- "Although all of India suffered to some extent in the early eighteenth century, without question the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were that country's time of famines."
- The Company was widely regarded as a pack of bloodsuckers; the Whig leader Lord Rockingham, called them guilty of "rapine and oppression" in Bengal.
- Famines are easy to prevent if there is a serious effort to prevent them, and a government of a democratic country-facing elections, criticisms from opposition parties and independent newspapers-cannot but make a serious effort to prevent famines. Not surprisingly, while India continued to have famines under British rule right up to independence (the last famine was in 1943, four years before independence, which I witnessed as a child), they disappeared suddenly, after independence, with the establishment of a multi-part democracy with a free press.
- 'For centuries, agriculture in the region had been characterised by dependence on monsoon rainfall, archaic techniques and crude tillage, low intensity of inputs, subsistence farming, proneness to famines, and the low productivity of land.'
- 'the prospect of a devastating famine every few years was inherent in India's ecology'
- "I did nothing for two months. Before that time the monsoon had closed the ports of Orissa-help was impossible—and—it is said—a million people died. The Governments of India and Bengal had taken in effect no precautions whatever... I never could feel that I was free from all blame for the result." --The British Secretary of State for India, Lord Salisbury.
- In the despatch addressed to the Duke of Buckingham, in which the Viceroy announced his intention of visiting the famine districts of Madras and Mysore, the general principles for the management of famine affairs were once more laid down. After stating that the Government of India, with approval of Her Majesty's Government, were resolved to avert death by starvation by the employment of all means available, the Viceroy first expressed his conviction that 'absolute non-interference with the operations of private commercial enterprise must be the foundation of their present famine policy.' This was based on the belief that 'free and abundant trade cannot co-exist with Government importation' and that more food will reach the famine-stricken districts if private enterprise is left to itself (beyond receiving every possible facility and information from the government) than if it were paralysed by Government competition.
- Any government which imperiled the financial position of India in the interests of prodigal philanthropy would be open to serious criticism; but any government which by indiscriminate alms-giving weakened the fibre and demoralised the self-reliance of the population, would be guilty of a public crime.
- There has not been a large-scale loss of life since 1947.
- Murton 2000, p. 1412.
- Lancaster 1990, p. 233.
- Mehta 2001, p. 43.
- Drèze 1991, p. 46.
- Nash 2003, pp. 22–23.
- Collier & Webb 2002, p. 67.
- Drèze 1991, p. 17.
- Drèze 1991, p. 19.
- Currey & Hugo 1984, pp. 71–74.
- Currey & Hugo 1984, p. 72.
- Bombay (India : State) 1883, p. 105.
- Currey & Hugo 1984, p. 73.
- Keay 2001, p. 91.
- Walsh 2006, pp. 71, 292.
- Bombay (India : State) 1885, p. 85.
- Drèze 1991, p. 12.
- Attwood 2005, p. 2070.
- Kaw 1996, p. 64.
- Kaw 1996, p. 59.
- Kaw 1996, p. 65.
- Kaw 1996, pp. 67–8.
- Singh 2002, p. 112.
- Visaria & Visaria 1983, p. 477.
- James 2000, pp. 49–52.
- Bowen 2002, p. 104.
- James 2000, pp. 51.
- Desai, Raychaudhuri & Kumar 1983, p. 477.
- Currey & Hugo 1984, p. 75.
- Gourlay 2003, p. 276.
- Nightingale, McDonald & Vallée 2006, p. 707.
- Iqbal & You 2001, pp. 12–14.
- Roy 2007, p. 240.
- Fergusson 2003, p. 23.
- Roy 2007, pp. 243–4.
- Roy 2007, p. 248.
- Roy 2006, p. 36.
- Ferguson 2004, p. 22.
- McAlpin 1979, p. 157.
- McAlpin 1979, pp. 153–155.
- Attwood 2005, p. 2071.
- Attwood 2005.
- Srivastava 1968.
- Sen 1982.
- Bhatia 1985.
- Mander 2009, p. 1.
- Davis 2001, p. 299.
- Davis 2001, pp. 299–300.
- Wong 1998.
- Martin Ravallion, Trade and stabilisation: Another look at British India's controversial foodgrain exports, Explorations in Economic History, Volume 24, Issue 4, October 1987, Pages 354–370
- Walsh 2006, p. 145.
- Samal 1990, p. 6.
- Samal 1990, p. 23.
- Roy 2006, p. 362.
- Roy 1999, p. 18.
- Roy 2006, p. 363.
- Currey & Hugo 1984, p. 91.
- Currey & Hugo 1984, p. 92.
- Ghose 1982, p. 380.
- Walsh 2006, p. 144-145.
- Ferguson 2004.
- Schama 2003.
- Johnson 2003, p. 30.
- Fiske 1869.
- Davis 2001, p. 32.
- Davis 2001, pp. 31, 52.
- Balfour 1899, p. 204.
- Keay 2001, p. 454.
- Gilmour 2007, p. 116.
- Davis 2001, p. 162.
- Davis 2001, p. 164.
- Davis 2001, p. 173.
- Nash 2003.
- Channel 4 Television 2007.
- Currey & Hugo 1984, p. 93.
- Donnelly 2005, p. 1.
- Bhatia 1970, p. 6.
- Walsh 2006, pp. 144–145.
- Thakur et al. 2005, p. 585.
- Desai 1984, p. 504.
- Drèze 1991, pp. 32–33.
- Portillo 2008.
- Drèze 1991, p. 98.
- Drèze 1991, p. 26.
- Davis 2001, pp. 26–27.
- McAlpin 1979, p. 148.
- McAlpin 1979, pp. 149–50.
- McAlpin 1979, p. 150.
- David Arnold, "Social Crisis and Epidemic Disease in the Famines of Nineteenth-Century India," Social History of Medicine (December 1993) 6#3 pp 385–404
- McAlpin 1979, pp. 155–57.
- Drèze 1991, p. 25.
- James 2000, p. 581.
- Nafziger, E. Wayne (2012). Economic Development (5th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-521-76548-0.
- Ó Gráda 2007, pp. 26.
- Ó Gráda 2007, p. 12.
- Ó Gráda 2007, p. 23.
- Waal 1997, p. 14.
- Ó Gráda 2007, pp. 20,37.
- Winston Churchill was later to state: 'The Battle of the Atlantic was the dominating factor all through the war. Never for one moment could we forget that everything happening elsewhere, on land, at sea or in the air depended ultimately on its outcome.' (Costello & Hughes, p.210.) The supply situation in Britain was such there was talk of being unable to continue the war, with supplies of fuel being particularly low. (Costello & Hughes, p.155)
- Iqbal & You 2001, p. 13.
- Devereux 2007, p. 5.
- Drèze & Sen 1991, p. 9.
- Drèze 1991, p. 35.
- Prabhu 2007, p. 1.
- National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development 2009, p. 30.
- Swaminathan 2007, p. 1.
- Somashekher 2004, p. 222.
- Singla et al. 2004, p. 376.
- Singla et al. 2004, p. 379.
- John & Nadgauda 2002, p. 261-2.
- John Nadgauda, p. 261.
- BBC 2004, p. 1.
- Maitreyi 2010, p. 1.
- John & Nadgauda 2002, p. 261.
- Bagla 2001, p. 1.
- John & Nadgauda 2002, p. 262.
- Bagla 2001, p. 2.
- Bagla 2001, p. 1-2.
- Drèze & Sen 1991, p. 59.
- American Association for the Advancement of Science et al. 1989, pp. 378–9.
- Cuny & Hill 1999, p. 54.
- London School of Economics and Political Science et al. Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, p. 61.
- American Association for the Advancement of Science et al. 1989, pp. 379.
- Sainath 2010, p. 1.
- Drèze 1991, p. 89.
- Waal 1997, p. 15.
- Drèze 1991, pp. 92–93.
- Drèze 1991, pp. 93.
- American Association for the Advancement of Science et al. 1989, pp. 380.
- Mehta, Ankita (26 March 2013). "Holi 2013: Mumbai Opts for Water-Free Celebration amid Maharashtra Drought". International Business Times. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Marpakwar, Prafulla (9 March 2013). "Maharashtra faces worst drought in 40 years". The Times of India (Mumbai). Times News Network. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- TNN 2010, p. 1.
- Dhawan 2010, p. 1.
- Massing 2003, p. 1.
- American Association for the Advancement of Science; Indian National Science Academy; International Rice Research Institute; Indian Council of Agricultural Research (1989), Climate and food security: papers presented at the International Symposium on Climate Variability and Food Security in Developing Countries, 5–9 February 1987 New Delhi, India, Climate and Food Security: Papers Presented at the International Symposium on Climate Variability and Food Security in Developing Countries, 5–9 February 1987 New Delhi, India 1987, Manila: The Institute, ISBN 978-971-10-4210-3
- Attwood, Donald W. (2005). "Big is ugly? How large-scale institutions prevent famines in Western India". World Development 33 (12): 2067–2083. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.07.009.
- Bagla, Pallava (22 June 2001), India Girds for Famine Linked With Flowering of Bamboo, National Geographic News, retrieved 28 October 2010
- Balfour, Lady Beatty (1899), The History of Lord Lytton's Indian Administration, 1876 to 1880: Compiled From Letters and Official Papers, London: Longmans, OCLC 633822136
- Banik, Dan (2007), Starvation and India's Democracy, London; New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-40729-8
- BBC (11 October 2004), Bamboo puts India on famine alert, British Broadcasting Corporation, retrieved 28 October 2010
- Bhatia, B.M (1970), India's Food Problem and Policy Since Independence, Bombay: Somaiya Publications, OCLC 97029
- Bhatia, B.M (1985), Famines in India: A Study in Some Aspects of the Economic History of India with Special Reference to Food Problem, Delhi: Konark Publishers, ISBN 978-81-220-0211-9
- Bhattaharyya, B (1973), A History of Bangla Desh. Dacca.
- Bombay (India : State) (1883), Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Nasik 16, Bombay: Printed at the Govt. Central Press
- Bombay (India : State) (1885), Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Poona, Printed at the Government Central Press
- Bose, Sudhindra (1918), Some aspects of British rule in India Monographs University of Iowa 5 (Issue 1 of Studies in the social sciences, University of Iowa), The University, pp. 79–81
- Bowen, H.V (2002), Revenue and Reform: The Indian Problem in British Politics 1757–1773, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-89081-6
- Channel 4 Television (2007), The Relief of Belsen, Channel 4 Television, retrieved 23 September 2010
- Chaudhari, B. B (1984), Desai, Meghnad; Rudolph, Susanne Hoeber; Rudra, Ashok, eds., Agrarian Power and Agricultural Productivity in South Asia 1, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-05369-4, retrieved 1 October 2010
- Collier, Michael; Webb, Robert H. (2002), Webb, Robert H., ed., Floods, Droughts, and Climate Change, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, ISBN 0-8165-2250-2
- Cuny, Frederick C; Hill, Richard B (1999), Famine, Conflict, and Response: a Basic Guide, West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press, ISBN 978-1-56549-090-1
- Currey, B; Hugo, G (1984), Famine as a Geographical Phenomenon, GeoJournal library, Boston: D. Reidel, ISBN 978-90-277-1762-7, LCCN 84009932
- Davis, Mike (2001), Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nino Famine and the Making of the Third World, London; New York: Verso Books, ISBN 978-1-85984-739-8
- Desai, Meghnad; Raychaudhuri, Tapan; Kumar, Dharma (1983), The Cambridge Economic History of India, Volume 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-22802-2
- Devereux, Stephen (2007), "Introduction", The New Famines: Why Famines Persist in an Era of Globalization, Routledge studies in development economics, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-36347-1, LCCN 2005032018
- Dhawan, Himanshi (11 May 2010), Malnutrition reason for 50% of child deaths, Times of India, retrieved 13 October 2010
- Donnelly, Jim (2005), The Irish Famine, Thrupp, Stroud, Gloucestershire: BBC, ISBN 0-7509-2632-5, retrieved 5 October 2010
- Drèze, Jean (2010), An Interview With Jean Dreze
- Drèze, Jean (1991), "Famine Prevention in India", in Drèze, Jean; Sen, Amartya, The Political Economy of Hunger: Famine prevention, Oxford: Oxford University Press US, pp. 32–33, ISBN 978-0-19-828636-3
- Drèze, Jean; Sen, Amartya Kumar (1991), Hunger and Public Action, Studies in Development Economics, Oxford; New York: Clarendon Press, ISBN 978-0-19-828365-2, LCCN 89025504
- Dyson, Tim, On the Demography of South Asian Famines: Part I, Population Studies 45 (1. (March 1991)), Taylor & Francis, pp. 5–25, OCLC 360749248
- Encyclopaedia Britannica (2010), Food-availability decline, retrieved 1 October 2010
- Ferguson, Niall (2004), Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power, New York: Basic Books, ISBN 978-0-465-02329-5
- Fergusson, Niall (April 2003), "British Imperialsim Revised: The Costs and Benefits of Anglobalization", Development Research Institute Working Paper Series (2): 23
- Fieldhouse, David (1996), "For Richer, for Poorer?", in Marshall, P. J., The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 400, pp. 108–146, ISBN 0-521-00254-0
- Fiske, John (1869), "IX. The Famine of 1770 in Bengal", The Unseen World, and Other Essays, Boston: James R. Osgood, ISBN 0-8370-3794-8, retrieved 23 September 2010
- Ghose, Ajit Kumar (July 1982), "Food Supply and Starvation: A Study of Famines with Reference to the Indian Sub-Continent", Oxford Economic Papers (Oxford: Oxford University Press), Vol. 34 (No. 2): 368–389, JSTOR 2662775
- Gilmour, David (2007), The Ruling Caste: Imperial Lives in the Victorian Raj, New York: Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-374-53080-8
- Gourlay, J (2003), Florence Nightingale and the Health of the Raj, Aldershot, Hants, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, ISBN 978-0-7546-3364-8, LCCN 2003045331
- Grove, Richard H. (2007), "The Great El Nino of 1789–93 and its Global Consequences: Reconstructing an Extreme Climate Even in World Environmental History", The Mediaeval History Journal 10 (1&2): 75–98, doi:10.1177/097194580701000203
- Heaven, Will (28 July 2010), The history of British India will serve David Cameron well – as long as he doesn't go on about it, London: The Telegraph, retrieved 15 October 2010
- Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. III (1907), "Chapter X: Famine, pp. 475–502", The Indian Empire, Economic, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxx, 1 map, 552.
- Iqbal, F; You, J.I (2001), "Ideas of Justice", Democracy, Market Economics, and Development: an Asian Perspective, Other World Bank Bks, Washington, D.C: World Bank, pp. 9–24, ISBN 978-0-8213-4862-8, LCCN 01017950
- James, Lawrence (2000), %7CNew York Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India, Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-312-26382-9
- John, C. K; Nadgauda, R. S (10 February 2002), Bamboo flowering and famine 82 (3), Current Science, retrieved 28 October 2010
- Johnson, Robert (2003), British Imperialism: Histories and Controversies, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-333-94725-8
- Katakam, Anupama (2005), The Roots of a Tragedy, Chennai, India: Frontline, retrieved 5 October 2010
- Kaw, Mushtaq A. (1996), Famines in Kashmir, 1586–1819: The policy of the Mughal and Afghan rulers 33 (1), Indian Economic Social History Review
- Keay, John (2001), India: a History, New York: Grove Press, ISBN 978-0-8021-3797-5
- Koomar, Roy Basanta (1920), The Labour Revolt in India, New York: Friends of Freedom for India, pp. 13–14
- Lancaster, H.O (1990), Expectations of life: a study in the demography, statistics, and history of world mortality, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-97105-6
- London School of Economics and Political Science; Gupta, S.P.; Stern, N.H.; Hussain, A.; Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (1995), Development patterns and institutional structures: China and India, Allied Publishers, ISBN 978-81-7023-419-7
- Maharatna, A (1996), The demography of famines: an Indian historical perspective, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-563711-3
- Maitreyi, M.L. Melly (20 April 2010), Gregarious bamboo flowering triggers famine fears, Chennai, India: The Hindu, retrieved 28 October 2010
- Mander, Harsh (13 September 2009), Barefoot: Colonial Legacy of Famine Codes, Chennai, India: The Hindu, retrieved 3 October 2010
- Mehta, S.M (2001), Population Challenge And Family Welfare, Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd, ISBN 978-81-261-0969-2
- Massing, Michael (1 March 2003), Does Democracy Avert Famine?, The New York Times, retrieved 27 September 2010
- McAlpin, Michelle Burge (1979), Dearth, Famine, and Risk: The Changing Impact of Crop Failures in Western India, 1870–1920 39 (1), The Journal of Economic History, pp. 143–157
- Mehta, S.M (2001), Population Challenge And Family Welfare, Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd, ISBN 978-81-261-0969-2
- Murton, Brian (2000), "VI.4: Famine", The Cambridge World History of Food 2, Cambridge; New York, pp. 1411–27, OCLC 44541840
- Nash, J. Madeleine (2003), El Niño: Unlocking the Secrets of the Master Weather-Maker, New York; London: Warner Books, ISBN 978-0-446-67992-3
- National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (2009), NABARD Profile
- Nightingale, Florence; McDonald, Lynn; Vallée, Gérard (2006), Florence Nightingale on Health in India, Waterloo, Ont: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, ISBN 978-0-88920-468-3
- Nobelprize.org (1998), The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998, retrieved 20 September 2010
- Ó Gráda, Cormac (2009), Famine: A Short History, Princeton: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-12237-3, retrieved 5 October 2010
- Ó Gráda, Cormac (March 2007), "Making Famine History", Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. XLV: 5–38
- Portillo, Michael (2008), Listen to The Bengal Famine, BBC, retrieved 21 September 2010
- Prabhu, Nagesh (4 July 2007), It is silver jubilee year for NABARD, Chennai, India: The Hindu, retrieved 27 October 2010
- Rai, Lajpat (1917), England's Debt to India: A Historical Narrative of Britain's Fiscal Policy in India, New York: B. W. Huebsch, pp. 263–281
- Roy, Tirthankar (1999), Traditional industry in the economy of colonial India, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-65012-0, LCCN 98044110
- Roy, Tirthankar (2006), The Economic History of India, 1857–1947, ISBN 978-0-19-568430-8
- Roy, Tirthankar (2007), "A delayed revolution: environment and agrarian change in India", Oxford Review of Economic Policy 23 (2): 239–250, doi:10.1093/oxrep/grm011
- Sainath, P (14 November 2007), Maharashtra: 'graveyard of farmers', Chennai, India: The Hindu, retrieved 5 October 2010
- Sainath, P (31 January 2008), 17,060 farm suicides in one year, Chennai, India: The Hindu, retrieved 5 October 2010
- Sainath, P (27 August 2010), Food security – by definition, Chennai, India: The Hindu, retrieved 5 October 2010
- Samal, J.K (1990), Economic history of Orissa, 1866–1912, Mittal Publications, ISBN 978-81-7099-218-9, LCCN 90905009
- Schama, Simon (2003), A history of Britain: The British wars 1603–1776 2, BBC, ISBN 978-0-563-48718-0
- Sen, Amartya (1982), Poverty and Famines : An Essay on Entitlements and Deprivation, Oxford, Clarendon Press
- Sen, Amartya (2009), The idea of justice, Harvard University Press, pp. 338–343, ISBN 978-0-674-03613-0
- Singh, N. (2002), Population And Poverty, Mittal, ISBN 978-81-7099-848-8
- Singla, R. K; Khanna, O. P; Grover, M. L; Jain, T. R (2004), Industrial Sociology, Economics \& Management, VK Publications, ISBN 978-81-88597-77-2
- Somashekher, Kumar Naveen (2004), Money Bank. Inter. Trade \& Public Fin, Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd, ISBN 978-81-261-1723-9
- Srivastava, H.C (1968), The History of Indian Famines from 1858–1918, Sri Ram Mehra and Co., Agra
- Swaminathan, M. S (2007), The crisis of Indian agriculture, The Hindu, retrieved 3 October 2010
- Thakur, Baleshwar; Sinha, V.N.P; Prasad, M; Pratap, Rana (2005), Thakur, Baleshwar, ed., Urban and regional development in India: essays in honour of Prof. L.N. Ram, Concept Publishing Company, ISBN 978-81-8069-199-7, retrieved 5 October 2010
- TNN (11 May 2010), 45000 child malnutrition deaths every yr in Maharashtra, Times of India, retrieved 13 October 2010[dead link]
- Visaria, Leela; Visaria, Pravin (1983), "Chapter V: Population (1757–1947)", in Kumar, Dharma; Desai, Meghnad, The Cambridge economic history of India 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 463–532, ISBN 978-0-521-22802-2
- Waal, Alexander De (1997), African Rights (Organization) and International African Institute, ed., Famine crimes: politics \& the disaster relief industry in Africa, African Rights \& the International African Institute, ISBN 978-0-253-21158-3, LCCN 97029463
- Walsh, Judith E (2006), A brief history of India, Facts on File, ISBN 978-0-8160-5658-3, LCCN 2005001892
- Wong, J.W. (1998), Deadly dreams: Opium, imperialism, and the Arrow War (1856–1860) in China, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-55255-4
- Arnold, David. "Social Crisis and Epidemic Disease in the Famines of Nineteenth-Century India," Social History of Medicine (Dec 1993) 6#3 pp 385–404
- Blix, Gunnar; Svensk näringsforskning, Stiftelsen (1971), Famine: A symposium dealing with nutrition and relief operations in times of disaster 9, Sweden: Almqvist & Wiksell
- Brewis, Georgina. "'Fill Full the Mouth of Famine': Voluntary Action in Famine Relief in India 1896–1901," Modern Asian Studies, (July 2010) 44#4 pp 887–918
- Brown, Lester Russell; Eckholm, Erik P (1974), By bread alone 864, Praeger, ISBN 978-0-275-63640-1
- CBC News (30 August 2010), The world's worst natural disasters, retrieved 25 September 2010
- Chaudhuri, B. B (2008), Peasant history of late pre-colonial and colonial India 8, Pearson Education India, ISBN 978-81-317-1688-5
- Dutt, R. Palme (2006), India Today (1940), Read Books, ISBN 978-1-4067-9846-3
- Dutt, Romesh C (1901), Indian Famines, Their Causes and Prevention
- Dutt, Romesh C (1900), Economic History of India, ISBN 81-85418-01-2
- Dutt, Romesh C (2001), The Economic History of India under early British Rule, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-24493-5
- Dutt, Romesh C (2005), Open Letters to Lord Curzon on Famines and Land Assessments in India, Adamant Media Corporation, Elibron Classics Series, ISBN 1-4021-5115-2
- Edgerton-Tarpley, Kathryn (2008), Tears from iron: cultural responses to famine in 19th-century China 15, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-25302-5, retrieved 5 October 2010
- Ferguson, Niall (2003), British Imperialism Revised: The Costs and Benefits of 'Anglobalization, retrieved 21 September 2010[dead link]
- Irish Famine Curriculum Committee (1998), The Great Irish Famine, retrieved 21 September 2010
- Lochan, Meeta; Lochan, Rajiv (2006), Farmers suicide: facts and possible policy interventions, Pune: Yashwantrao Chavan Academy of Development Administration, retrieved 5 October 2010
- Nelson, Dean (9 September 2010), Winston Churchill blamed for 1m deaths in India famine, London: The Daily Telegraph, retrieved 5 October 2010
- Ravallion, Martin (1996), Famines and economics (1693, Policy research working papers), World Bank, Policy Research Dept., Poverty and Human Resources Division, CiteSeerX: 10.1.1.18.1618
- Ray, James Arthur; Sivertsen, Linda (2008), Harmonic Wealth: The Secret of Attracting the Life You Want, Hyperion, ISBN 978-1-4013-2264-9
- Ritschel, Dan (1996), The Irish Famine: Interpretive & Historiographical Issues, Department of History, University of Maryland, retrieved 5 October 2010[dead link]
- Ross, David (2002), Ireland: History of a Nation, New Lanark: Geddes & Grosset, ISBN 1-84205-164-4
- Rubin, Olivier (2008), The Malawi 2002 Famine – Destitution, Democracy and Donors 17 (1), Nordic Journal of African Studies, pp. 47–65
- Rubin, Olivier (2009), "The Merits of Democracy in Famine Protection – Fact or Fallacy?", European Journal of Development Research 21 (5): 699–717, doi:10.1057/ejdr.2009.37, ISSN 0957-8811, retrieved 2010-09-21
- Sami, Leela. "Starvation, Disease and Death: Explaining Famine Mortality in Madras 1876–1878," Social History of Medicine, (December 2011) 24#3 pp 700–719
- Scrimshaw, Nevin S. (1987), Food protection in the Americas, National Academies
- Sharma, Sanjay (2001), Famine, Philanthropy and the Colonial State: North India in the early Nineteenth Century, Delhi: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-565386-6