|Region||San Joaquin Valley, California|
|Native speakers||25 (2000 census)|
Chukchansi, which is still spoken natively, has language classes and a preschool for children. It is also taught at a local elementary school. Though there are no longer any native speakers, Tachi has a Headstart language program.
Valley Yokuts is sometimes considered three languages, of which only Northern Valley Yokuts is still spoken.
- Far Northern Valley Yokuts (AKA Delta Yokuts) (†)
- Yachikumne (AKA Chulamni)
- Northern Valley Yokuts
- Southern Valley Yokuts (†)
- Chunut (AKA Sumtache)
Yawelmani will be taken as representative.
|Occlusive||Tenuis||p p||t t||ṭ ʈ||k k||ʼ ʔ|
|Aspirate||ph pʰ||th tʰ||ṭh ʈʰ||kh kʰ|
|Ejective||pʼpʼ||tʼtʼ||ṭʼ ʈʼ||kʼ kʼ|
|Fricative||s s||ṣ ʂ||x x||h h|
|Nasal||Plain||m m||n n|
|Glottalized||mʼ mʼ||nʼ nʼ|
|Approximant||Plain||w w||l l||y j|
|Glottalized||wʼ wʼ||lʼ lʼ||yʼ jʼ|
- There are 4 short-long vowel pairs.
- Short high vowels may become more centralized in fast speech: /i/ → [ɪ], /u/ → [ʊ].
- Long high vowels are almost always lower than their short counterparts: /iː/ → [ɛː], /uː/ → [ɔː].
- All long vowels may be shortened by a phonological process. Thus, a single long vowel has two different phonetic realizations:
- /iː/ → [ɛ, ɛː],
- /aː/ → [a, aː],
- /uː/ → [ɔ, ɔː],
- /ɔː/ → [ɔ, ɔː].
- Note that the high long vowel /uː/ is usually pronounced the same as /ɔ/ and /ɔː/.
As can be seen, Yawelmani vowels have a number of different realizations (phones) which are summarized below:
Syllable & phonotactics 
The Yawelmani syllables can be either a consonant-vowel sequence (CV), such as deeyi- 'lead', or a consonant-vowel-consonant sequence (CVC), such as xata- 'eat'. Thus the generalized syllable is the following:
Word roots are bisyllabic and have either one of two shapes:
Phonological processes 
vowel shortening 
When long vowels are in closed syllables, they are shortened:
/p’a.xaː.t’it/ → [p’axaːt’it] p̓axaat̕it 'mourn (passive aorist)' (/aː/ remains long) /p’a.xaːt’.hin/ → [p’axat’hin] p̓axat̕hin 'mourn (aorist)' (/aː/ is shortened) /ts’u.juː.hun/ → [ts’ujɔːhun] c̓uyoohun 'urinate (aorist)' (/uː/ remains long) /ts’u.juːt/ → [ts’ujɔt] c̓uyot 'urinate (passive aorist)' (/uː/ is shortened)
vowel harmony 
- Underspecified /I/ will appear as /u/ following the high rounded vowel /u/ and as /i/ following all other vowels /i, a, ɔ/:
/-hIn/ -hun/-hin (aorist suffix) /muʈhIn/ → [muʈhun] muṭhun 'swear (aorist)' /ɡij’hIn/ → [ɡij’hin] giy̓hin 'touch (aorist)' /ɡɔphIn/ → [ɡɔphin] gophin 'take care of infant (aorist)' /xathIn/ → [xathin] xathin 'eat (aorist)'
- Underspecified /A/ will appear as /ɔ/ following the non-high rounded vowel /ɔ/ and as /a/ following all other vowels /i, u, a/:
/-tAw/ -tow/-taw (nondirective gerundial suffix) /ɡɔptAw/ → [ɡɔptɔw] goptow 'take care of infant (nondir. ger.)' /ɡij’tAw/ → [ɡij’taw] giy̓taw 'touch (nondir. ger.)' /muʈtAw/ → [muʈtaw] muṭtaw 'swear (nondir. ger.)' /xattAw/ → [xatːaw] xattaw 'eat (nondir. ger.)'
vowel epenthesis 
Yawelmani adds vowels to stems, when suffixes with an initial consonant are affixed to word with two final consonants in order to avoid a triple-consonant-cluster.
|This section requires expansion. (May 2008)|
- deeyi 'to lead'
- deeyen 'he will lead'
- deyhin 'he led'
- diyhatinhin 'he wanted to lead'
- diyee’iy 'place where one got the lead' (subjective)
- diyaa’an 'he is leading'
- deydiyen 'he will lead repeatedly'
- diyidyiisaahin ’anam 'they led each other repeatedly'
- diyeediyic’ 'one who is leading repeatedly' (subjective)
- deyday 'act of leading repeatedly' (subjective)
- ’ɔɔṭ’hun 'he stole' - ’ɔɔṭ’uṭ’hun 'he stole often'
- ’ɔɔṭ’al 'he might steal' - ’ɔɔṭ’uṭ’al 'he might steal often'
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