The placenames of Wales derive in most cases from the Welsh language, but have also been influenced by linguistic contact with the Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, Anglo-Normans and modern English. The study of placenames (or toponymy) in Wales reveals significant features of the country's history and geography, as well of the development of the Welsh language.
- See: History of Wales
During the 4th to 11th centuries, while Anglo-Saxon and other invaders from Europe settled adjoining areas of Great Britain, Wales developed as a distinctive entity, keeping its own language, culture, legal code, and political structures. By stages between the 11th and 16th centuries, Wales was then subdued, conquered and eventually incorporated into the Kingdom of England, while still retaining many distinct cultural features, most notably its language. Since then, there has been a mixing of cultures in Wales, with the English language dominant in industry and commerce, but with Welsh remaining as a living language, particularly in its stronghold, Y Fro Gymraeg in north-west, mid and west Wales. Welsh culture and political autonomy has been reasserted increasingly since the mid 19th century.
 Language characteristics
The Welsh language developed from the Brythonic languages spoken throughout southern Britain in the centuries before the Anglo-Saxon invasions which led to the creation of England. Many placenames in England, particularly of natural features such as rivers and hills, derive directly from this proto-Welsh language. Obvious examples are the numerous rivers named Avon, from the Welsh afon ("river"), and placenames such as Penrith. The Cornish language is closely related to Welsh, and many placenames in Cornwall (and to a lesser extent neighbouring Devon, Somerset and Dorset) therefore have similar origins to names in Wales. This is also true of Cumbria, where there are numerous examples of Brythonic placenames.
Welsh remains a living language, spoken by over 20% of the country's population. Like all languages, it has changed over time and continues to do so, for instance by accepting loan words from other languages such as Latin and English. The Welsh language itself has many characteristics which are unfamiliar to most speakers of English, and can make it confusing and difficult to understand. For example, it uses a number of mutations in different circumstances, so that, depending on how they are placed in relation to other words, initial consonants of words may change. In relation to place names, for example, this means that a church (llan) dedicated to Mary (Mair) becomes Llanfair, the initial m of Mair changing to f. Other changes can apply to internal vowels. There are also differences between Welsh and English in how some letters are pronounced, and this has affected how placenames are spelled in the two languages. For instance, a single f in Welsh is always pronounced "v", while ff is pronounced "f"; thus, the Welsh word for river, afon, is pronounced with a "v" sound.
 Development of placenames in Wales
Early inhabitants of Wales gave names first to noteworthy natural features, such as rivers, hills, mountains, harbours and shores. However, before the Roman occupation in the 1st century AD, there seems to have been little tradition in Wales of people coming together in organised settlements, and so little reason to give names to such places. The Roman towns which were established were generally fortified, and were given the generic name of castra, which in Welsh became caer, originally with the meaning of "fortified enclosure". Many of these continued as towns after the Romans left, and included Caernarfon, Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin), Caerleon, and Caerwent.
Elsewhere, many villages and later towns took their names from natural features. For example, Abergele refers to the "mouth of the [river] Gele", Harlech means "fair rock", Rhuddlan "red bank", and Porthcawl "harbour with sea-kale". Aberystwyth means "mouth of the Ystwyth", a river a mile or so away from the town centre, and was apparently so named as a result of confusion by the English over the different castles in the area.
Many others took their name from churches established from the 5th century onwards, many of which use the prefix llan for "church". For example, the many examples of Llanfihangel refer to a church dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel; Llangefni refers to a "church on the [river] Cefni"; and Betws-y-Coed refers to a "prayer-house (betws) in the wood". The word llan is believed to have originally had the meaning of a family, or tribal, enclosure. It later came to mean a sacred enclosure for worship, and hence a church.
Over the centuries, Welsh placenames have been variously affected by social and economic changes in the country. The Industrial Revolution saw the development of many new towns and villages, particularly in south Wales. Some of these used already existing place names, while others acquired new names. For example, the towns of Port Talbot and Tredegar took the names of their main landowners and developers. In north Wales, Porthmadog was originally named "Portmadoc" by its developer William Madocks, to commemorate both his own name and that of the possibly mythical sailor Madoc. An early example of a publicity stunt saw the village of Llanfairpwllgwyngyll ("St Mary's church beside the hollow with white hazels") renaming itself in the 1860s with an even longer title, in an attempt to keep its railway station open.
Common elements of Welsh placenames thus include both words for topographical features and words reflecting human influence. Some of the most frequently encountered placename elements in Wales are shown in the table below. The Welsh version shown is the original, unmutated reference form.
|aber||confluence of water bodies, 'outpouring' of water|
|blaen, blaenau||source(s) of stream, high land|
|bwlch||gap in hills, pass|
|caer||fort, fortified camp|
|carn, carnedd||cairn (a heap of stones)|
|clog, clogwyn||steep cliff|
|llan||church, sacred enclosure|
|nant||brook, small valley|
 Relationship between Welsh and English placenames
In the majority of cases in Wales, the Welsh and English names for a place are identical, almost always because the Welsh name is used. So, for example, Aberystwyth, Blaenau Ffestiniog, Bangor, Machynlleth and Llandudno all have the same spelling in Welsh and English, although it is also often the case that most English people do not pronounce the name in the same way as the Welsh.
There are also many instances where the Welsh and English names are very similar, both in spelling and pronunciation. Examples include Caerphilly (Caerffili), Raglan (Rhaglan), Treorchy (Treorci), Barry (Y Barri) and Merthyr Tydfil (Merthyr Tudful). In most of these cases, English usage adopted and anglicised the Welsh name, although there are some cases, especially close to the English border, where the English name was adopted by the Welsh. Examples include Flint (Y Fflint) and Wrexham (Wrecsam) in north east Wales, and Caldicot (Cil-y-coed) in south east Wales. A related case is the Norman French foundation of Beaumaris (Biwmares). In a few cases, such as Prestatyn (originally "priest's town", which elsewhere became "Preston") and Mostyn, the original name was wholly English but has gradually taken on a Welsh appearance. In one or two others, such as Caergwrle, the name combines Welsh (caer) and English elements - the village was originally the English settlement of Corley.
In some cases, the spelling formerly used in English has, over the past few decades, no longer become accepted — examples include Caernarfon (formerly, in English, Ca(e)rnarvon), Conwy (formerly Conway), and Llanelli (formerly Llanelly). Most of these examples are in predominantly Welsh-speaking areas of Wales. There are also places where there are ongoing disagreements over whether the Welsh spelling should be used exclusively or not, such as Criccieth (Cricieth), Rhayader (Rhaeadr), and Ruthin (Rhuthun).
In other cases, the Welsh and English names clearly share the same original form, but spellings and pronunciation have diverged over the years. One obvious example is Cardiff (Caerdydd). The medieval Welsh form was Caerdyf (with a final [v]) from which are derived the modern English Cardiff (with a final /f/) and the modern Welsh Caerdydd (with a final [ð]). Some examples of the anglicisation of placenames are the towns of Denbigh and Tenby, both derived from the Welsh name Dinbych ("little fort"); Pembroke (from Penfro, literally "land's end"); Lampeter (from Llanbedr, in full Llanbedr Pont Steffan); Skenfrith (from Ynysgynwraidd); and Barmouth (in modern Welsh Y Bermo, but originally Aber-mawdd, meaning "mouth of the [river] Mawdd(ach))".
Finally, there are a number of places, listed in the table below, where the English and Welsh names have, or may appear to have, different origins. These have developed for a variety of reasons. Brecon and Cardigan both took their English names from their surrounding historic kingdoms, but their Welsh names from local rivers; almost the reverse process occurred at Usk. Names given by Norse settlers, such as Swansea, Fishguard and Anglesey, tended to be adopted in English usage but not by the Welsh. Again, there are exceptions such as the island of Skomer (from Norse words meaning "cloven island"). English names for the Great Orme and Worm's Head both derive from the Norse word orm, referring to their shape resembling a serpent's head.
 Places in Wales where the Welsh and English placenames appear to differ
|English name||Welsh name||Notes|
|Anglesey||Ynys Môn||English name derived from Norse meaning "Ongull's island", Welsh name related to (but probably predated) Roman Latin Mona|
|Bangor-on-Dee||Bangor Is-coed||English name name refers to the village's proximity to the River Dee. Welsh name means "Bangor (i.e. a settlement within a wattle fence) below the wood/trees"|
|Bardsey||Ynys Enlli||English name derived from Norse meaning "Bard's island" ("Bard" probably being a person's name), Welsh name probably originally Ynys Fenlli, "Benlli's island".|
|Blackwood||Coed-duon||Both English and Welsh names mean "black woodland"|
|Brecon||Aberhonddu||English name derived from Brycheiniog, Welsh from local river Honddu|
|Bridgend||Pen-y-bont (ar Ogwr)||Both English and Welsh names mean "end of the bridge"|
|Builth (Wells)||Llanfair-ym-Muallt||Both English and Welsh names derive from the original Welsh Buellt, meaning "cow pasture", with the Welsh name mutating with the additional reference to "St Mary's church"|
|Cardigan||Aberteifi||English name derived from Ceredigion, Welsh from local river Teifi|
|Chepstow||Cas-gwent||English name meaning "place with market", Welsh meaning "castle of Gwent"|
|Chirk||Y Waun||English name derived from Norse "Kirk", which at some point became mixed with the modern English translation "Church," Welsh meaning "the heath"|
|Cowbridge||Y Bont-faen||English name meaning "bridge used by cows", Welsh meaning "the stone bridge"|
|Fishguard||Abergwaun||English name derived from Norse meaning "fish yard", Welsh from local river Gwaun|
|Hawarden||Penarlâg||English name meaning "high enclosure", Welsh meaning "high ground rich in cattle"|
|Hay (-on-Wye)||Y Gelli||Both English and Welsh names mean "enclosed forest"|
|Holyhead||Caergybi||English name meaning "holy headland", Welsh meaning "St. Cybi's fort"|
|Knighton||Tref-y-clawdd||English name meaning "town of the knights", Welsh meaning "town beside [Offa's] dyke"|
|Menai Bridge||Porthaethwy||English name applied after bridge over Menai Strait opened in 1826, Welsh meaning "ferry of Daethwy people"|
|Milford (Haven)||Aberdaugleddau||English name derived from Norse meaning "sandy inlet", Welsh from local river estuary Daugleddau (i.e. the two rivers Cleddau)|
|Mold||Yr Wyddgrug||English name from Norman French "mont hault" or "high hill", Welsh meaning "the mound with burial cairn"|
|Monmouth||Trefynwy||Both names derive from the local river Mynwy or Monnow, the English name meaning "mouth of the Monnow" and the Welsh meaning "town on the Mynwy", the initial m mutating to f|
|Montgomery||Trefaldwyn||English name from that of Norman lord who built castle, Welsh meaning "Baldwin's town"|
|Mountain Ash||Aberpennar||English name from inn around which industrial development took place, Welsh from local river Pennar|
|Neath||Castell-nedd||English name from the river Neath, an anglicised version of Nedd; Welsh meaning "fort of (the river) Neath"|
|Newport (-on-Usk)||Casnewydd (-ar-wysg)||English name meaning "new borough", Welsh meaning "new castle (on the river Usk)"|
|Newport, Pembrokeshire||Trefdraeth||English name meaning "new borough", Welsh meaning "town by the shore"|
|New Radnor||Maesyfed||English name meaning "red bank" originally applied to Old Radnor, Welsh meaning "Hyfaidd's field"|
|Newtown||Y Drenewydd||Both English and Welsh names mean "(the) new town"|
|Presteigne||Llanandras||English name meaning "house of priests", Welsh meaning "St. Andreas' church"|
|Snowdon||Yr Wyddfa||English name meaning "snowy hill", Welsh meaning "the burial mound". The Welsh name for Snowdonia, attested since the Middle Ages, is Eryri, meaning "highlands" or "upland" - the traditional interpretation as "place of the eagles" (eryr, "eagle") has been shown to be etymologically incorrect|
|St. Asaph||Llanelwy||English name from dedication of cathedral, Welsh meaning "church on the river Elwy"|
|Swansea||Abertawe||English name derived from Norse meaning "Sveyn's island", Welsh from local river Tawe|
|Usk||Brynbuga||English name from local river Usk (originally Welsh Wysg), Welsh meaning "Buga's hill"|
|Welshpool||Y Trallwng||Both English and Welsh names mean "(the) boggy area", with the English name adding "Welsh", possibly to distinguish it from Poole in Dorset.|
 Official policy on placenames in Wales
The naming of places in Wales can be a matter of dispute and uncertainty. In some cases there is an issue of whether both the Welsh and English names should be used, or only one, and which should be given priority. In other cases it is because usage and style has changed over the years, and there is debate over which form or spelling of a placename should be used. Both the Welsh Government and the Ordnance Survey have policies on standardising placenames, drawing on advice from the Welsh Language Board and the Place-name Research Centre at the University of Wales, Bangor.
The policy of the Welsh Government on placenames as shown on road signs within its jurisdiction is set out in its Welsh Language Scheme. This states: "The signs for which we are responsible (mostly motorway and trunk road signs) will be bilingual. Signs which are in English only at the moment will be made bilingual when they are replaced.... When both languages are included on one sign with one language above the other, the order in which the languages appear will follow the practice adopted by the local authority where the sign is located." The latter proviso applies because local authorities have discretion over the forms used on local highway signs. In the predominantly Welsh-speaking areas of Wales, the Welsh form of the name is usually given first; in other areas, the English name is usually given first.
The guidance also states: "Signs containing place names in England will contain the Welsh and English versions of the name....". This proviso has led to new motorway signs in south Wales showing the names Llundain and Bryste as well as their English-language names, London and Bristol.
 Welsh names for other places in Britain and Ireland
The modern Welsh language contains names for many towns and other geographical features across Britain and Ireland. In some cases, these derive from the Brythonic names which were used during or before the Roman occupation: for example, Llundain (London), Cernyw (Cornwall), Dyfnaint (Devon), and Ebrauc/Efrog (York). The origin of the modern Welsh name for England itself, Lloegr [ɬɔiɡr], is disputed, but one widely believed theory — which, however, has no etymological foundation — is that it derives from purportedly poetic words meaning "lost land", and was originally applied to areas of Mercia after the Saxon conquest before being applied to the whole of England.
Many English county towns, founded as Roman castra and now having the English suffix "-c(h)ester", also have Welsh names, in most cases using the prefix Caer-. Examples include Caer or Caerlleon (for Chester), Caerloyw (Gloucester), Caerwrangon (Worcester), Caergrawnt (Cambridge), and Caerwynt (Winchester). In some other cases, Welsh names are translations of the English name, often influenced by the Welsh poetic tradition — for example, Rhydychen (literally, "oxen ford") for Oxford, and Gwlad-yr-haf ("land of summer") for Somerset. Some English cities which have developed more recently, but with which Welsh people have had commercial links through trading or other economic associations such as through population migration, have developed Welsh forms of their English names. Examples are Bryste (Bristol) and Lerpwl (Liverpool), although Liverpool is dubious given that there is a Welsh derivation possible from "Y Llif" a name for the Atlantic Ocean and meaning "the flood" together with "pwll" which represents the word Pool in English place names and is generally accepted as of Brythonic origin.
A final set of Welsh placenames are those for settlements in England which lie close to the modern border with Wales. In some cases, such as Ross-on-Wye (Rhosan-ar-Wy) and probably Leominster (Llanllieni), the English name seems to have derived from the Welsh name. In other cases, such as Llwydlo (Ludlow) and Henffordd (Hereford), the Welsh name derived from the English name of the settlement. The Welsh name for Shrewsbury, Yr Amwythig, means "the fort in scrubland", which is one theory of the origin of the English name. Oswestry ("Oswald's tree") is in Welsh Croesoswallt ("Oswald's cross").
 See also
- Aber and Inver as place-name elements
- Celtic onomastics
- Celtic toponymy
- Cumbrian toponymy
- Irish toponymy
- List of generic forms in place names in the United Kingdom and Ireland
- Llan place name element
- Scottish toponymy
- Toponymy in Great Britain
- Welsh place names in other countries
- Welsh surnames
- Wyn Owen, Hywel; Richard Morgan (2008). Dictionary of the Place-names of Wales. Llandysul: Gomer Press. pp. vii. ISBN 978-1-84323-901-7.
- Welsh Language Survey 2004
- Hywel Wyn Owen, The Place-names of Wales, 1998, ISBN 0-7083-1458-9
- BBC on naming of Aberystwyth
- Wales in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica'
- Welsh-English dictionary
- Lecture by Prof. Hywel Wyn Owen
- Britainnia History: Bardsey Island
- BBC on names of Swansea
- Welsh Assembly Government Welsh Language Scheme
- BBC Wales: What's in a name?
- Welsh Language Board: Placenames Advisory Service
- Place-names Standardisation Lecture by Prof. Hywel Wyn Owen
- Placenames Research Centre, University of Wales
- Ordnance Survey Welsh Language Scheme
- Ordnance Survey Guide to Welsh origins of place names in Britain
- Links to various English-Welsh dictionaries
- An unusual, county by county, themed look at Welsh Place Names
- A comprehensive list of US towns with Welsh place names