|OS grid reference||HY461461|
|Meaning of name||Old Norse for 'west island'|
|Area and summit|
|Area||47.13 square kilometres (18.2 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||Fitty Hill 169 metres (554.5 ft)|
|Pop. density||12.5 people/km2 |
|Local Authority||Orkney Islands|
Westray is one of the Orkney Islands in Scotland, with a usual resident population of just under 600 people. Its main village is Pierowall, with a heritage centre, the ruined Lady Kirk and ferries to Papa Westray.
Geography and geology
With an area of 18.2 square miles (47 km2), it is the sixth largest of the Orkney Islands. The underlying geology is Rousay type Middle Old Red Sandstone, the flagstones of which make excellent building materials. There is very little peat and the soil is noted for its fertility.
At the time of the earliest known settlements, c. 3500 BC, in Westray and neighbouring Papa Westray, it is believed that the two islands were joined. A Neolithic and Bronze Age site at the Links of Noltland is in the care of Historic Scotland. Collins Encyclopedia of Scotland says that "A larger settlement at Noltland on Westray is less well preserved" than the one on neighbouring Papa Westray. The Westray Wife is a 4 cm carved Neolithic figurine discovered there during a dig there in the summer of 2009. It is the only Neolithic carving of a human form archaeologists have found in Scotland to date, and is the earliest depiction of a face found in the United Kingdom. In 2010 some local businesses reported a 45% increase in turnover since the discovery of the figurine.
Westray constituted a major family estate during the saga period.
And it was at Noltland on Westray too, that one of the most impressive castles in Orkney, and indeed the Northern Isles, was built, Noltland Castle. The castle was commissioned in the 1560s by Gilbert Balfour, who probably played the leading role in the murder of Lord Darnley, consort of Mary, Queen of Scots. Balfour married Margaret Bothwell, the sister of Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney who endowed him with Westray, when it was episcopal property. The Castle is situated above the Bay of Pierowall, was built in the 1560s. It is notable for an unusually large spiral staircase, "second only to Fyvie Castle, while its triple tiers of gunloops are without parallel in Scotland, if not Europe". However, Balfour was executed by the Swedes before he could use it.
Economy and infrastructure
Flights leave the island's Westray Airport at Aikerness for Kirkwall on the Orkney Mainland, and to Papa Westray (known as Papay to the locals) in the world's shortest scheduled flight, of two minutes. The main ferry terminal is at Rapness with regular sailings by Orkney Ferries to Kirkwall.
The island's main industries are fishing, fish farming and cattle farming. Tourism is also important to the island economy. The Westray Development Trust is well known for its renewable energy and recycling initiatives and plans to make the island self-sufficient in energy by 2012. A 900 kW community-owned wind turbine was erected in October 2009, the third large-scale such project in Scotland. “When the community realised it was their turbine, not someone else’s, there was no objection,” stated Alasdair McVicar of Westray Renewable Energy.
The spectacular sea cliffs around Noup Head are home to thousands of seabirds including 60,000 Common Guillemot and Black-legged Kittiwake, 30,000 Razorbill and numerous Atlantic Puffin and Black Guillemot. During the 1990s the Black Rat (Rattus rattus) may have been present although they have not been recorded since. Mice, and the Orkney Vole are present however, as are European Otters.
- Pálsson and Edwards (1978) p. 251
- Area and population ranks: there are c. 300 islands >20ha in extent and 93 permanently inhabited islands were listed in the 2011 census.
- National Records of Scotland (15 August 2013) (pdf) Statistical Bulletin: 2011 Census: First Results on Population and Household Estimates for Scotland - Release 1C (Part Two). "Appendix 2: Population and households on Scotland’s inhabited islands". Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- Haswell-Smith, Hamish. (2004) The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh. Canongate.
- Orkney Placenames
- Ordnance Survey. Get-a-map (Map). 1:25,000. Leisure. http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/getamap/. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Pedersen, Roy (January 1992) Orkneyjar ok Katanes (map, Inverness, Nevis Print)
- Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins.
- Lewis, Caroline (December 2007) "Archaeologists Find Mysterious Neolithic Structure in Orkney Links of Noltland Dig" culture24.org.uk. Retrieved 23 November 2009
- "Orkney Venus closes in on key prize 5,000 years after Neolithic creation". The Scotsman. 16 June 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- "Orkney Venus". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
- Briefing: (15 July 2010) "Boom for Orkney after Venus find". Glasgow: The Herald.
- The Heritage of Westray
- NLB website
- DTA Scotland members
- "Westray Development Trust". Scottish Government. Retrieved 22 August 2010. The first two projects were on Gigha and at Findhorn Ecovillage.
- "Westray: Powerful community". Senscot. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
- An Audit Of Alien Species In Scotland (May 2004) (Microsoft Word). Edinburgh. Scottish Natural Heritage.
- Orkneyinga Saga: The History of the Earls of Orkney. Trans. Pálsson, Hermann and Edwards, Paul (1978). London: Hogarth Press. ISBN 0-7012-0431-1. Republished 1981, Harmondsworth: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-044383-5.
Westray from Papa Westray