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I with Diaeresis.svg

Ï, lowercase ï, is a symbol used in various languages written with the Latin alphabet; it can be read as the letter I with diaeresis or I-umlaut.

Initially in French and also in Afrikaans, Catalan, Dutch, Galician, Southern Sami, Welsh, and occasionally English, ⟨ï⟩ is used when ⟨i⟩ follows another vowel and indicates hiatus in the pronunciation of such a word. It indicates that the two vowels are pronounced in separate syllables, rather than together as a diphthong or digraph. For example, French maïs (IPA: [ma.is], maize); without the diaeresis, the ⟨i⟩ is part of the digraph ⟨ai⟩: mais (IPA: [mɛ], but). The letter is also used in the same context in Dutch, as in Oekraïne (pronounced [ukraːˈinə], Ukraine), and English naïve (/nɑːˈv/ or /nˈv/).

In German and Hungarian, ï or I-umlaut does not belong to the alphabet.

In scholarly writing on Turkic languages, ⟨ï⟩ is sometimes used to write the close back unrounded vowel /ɯ/, which, in the standard modern Turkish alphabet, is written as the dotless i ⟨ı⟩.[1] The back neutral vowel reconstructed in Proto-Mongolic is sometimes written ⟨ï⟩.[2]

In the transcription of Amazonian languages, ï is used to represent the high central vowel [ɨ].

It is also a transliteration of the rune .


Lowercase ï occurs in the sequence , which is the Unicode byte order mark in UTF-8 misinterpreted as ISO-8859-1 or CP1252 (both common encodings in software configured for English-language users). Thus, it tends to indicate that any following mojibake can be corrected by reinterpreting the data as UTF-8.

Character information
Preview Ï ï
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 207 U+00CF 239 U+00EF
UTF-8 195 143 C3 8F 195 175 C3 AF
Numeric character reference Ï Ï ï ï
Named character reference Ï ï
EBCDIC family 119 77 87 57
ISO 8859-1/2/3/4/9/10/14/15/16 207 CF 239 EF

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Marcel Erdal, A Grammar of Old Turkic, Handbook of Oriental Studies 3, ISBN 9004102949, 2004, p. 52
  2. ^ Juha Janhunen, ed., The Mongolic Languages ISBN 0415681545, p. 5