Open-mid front unrounded vowel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Open-mid front unrounded vowel
ɛ
IPA number 303
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɛ
Unicode (hex) U+025B
X-SAMPA E
Kirshenbaum E
Braille ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
Sound

The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is a Latinized variant of the Greek lowercase epsilon, ɛ.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Akan pɛ [pʰɛ] 'to like/love'
Albanian tre [tɾɛ] 'three'
Arabic كريب [kɾɛp] 'crêpe' Only in loanwords (used by few number of speakers depending on their country of origin)
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[1] [example needed] May be transcribed /æ/.[1]
Catalan[2] mel [mɛɫ] 'honey' See Catalan phonology
Armenian Eastern[3] էջ [ɛd͡ʒ] 'page'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic mes [mɛːs] 'table' Used predominantly in the Tyari, Barwari and Chaldean Neo-Aramaic dialects.
Corresponds to [i] in other varieties.
Chinese Cantonese se4 [sɛː˩] 'snake' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin xié [ɕjɛ˧˥] 'tilted' See Mandarin phonology
Wu ngae [ŋɛ˥˨] 'face'
Czech Amerika [ˈämɛrɪkä] 'America' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[4][5][6][7] frisk [ˈfʁ̞ɛsɡ̊] 'fresh' Most often transcribed /æ/. See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard bed About this sound [bɛt]  'bed' See Dutch phonology
Leiden jij About this sound [jɛ̞ː]  'you' Corresponds to [ɛi] in standard Dutch.
Nijmegen
The Hague[8]
Southern Some dialects, corresponds to [ɛi] in standard Dutch.
English Canadian bed About this sound [bɛd]  'bed'
General American[9]
Irish
Northern English[10] May be somewhat lowered.[11]
Received Pronunciation[12][13] Older RP speakers pronounce a closer vowel []. See English phonology
Scottish[14]
Southern English
Broad Australian fat [fɛt] 'fat' Lower [æ] for other speakers.
Cockney[15]
Malaysian These accents have a met-mat merger.
Singaporean[16]
New Zealand[17]
South African[18] Some broad speakers. Others pronounce [æ ~ a].
Southern English Some dialects. Other speakers pronounce a more open vowel [æ ~ a].
Belfast[19] days [dɛːz] 'days' Pronounced [iə] in closed syllables; corresponds to [eɪ] in RP.
Zulu[20] mate [mɛt] 'mate' Speakers with a met-mate merger.
Faroese elska [ɛlska] 'love'
French[21] bête About this sound [bɛt̪]  'beast' See French phonology
Galician pé [pɛ] 'foot'
Georgian[22] გედი [ɡɛdɪ] 'swan'
German Standard[23] Bett About this sound [bɛtʰ]  'bed' More like [ɛ̝̈] on the vowel chart in Kohler (1999). See German phonology
Hindustani شَہَر / शहर [ʃɛɦɛr] 'city' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian nem [nɛm] 'no' See Hungarian phonology
Icelandic[24][25][26] kenna [ˈcʰɛnːa] 'to teach' Often diphthongized to [eɛ] when long.[27] See Icelandic phonology
Italian[28] bene About this sound [ˈbɛːne]  'good' See Italian phonology
Korean 태도 [tʰɛː.do] 'attitude' See Korean phonology
Lithuanian mane [mɐˈnʲɛ] 'me' (acc.)
Luxembourgish[29] drécken [ˈdʀɛkən] 'to push' Allophone of /e/ before velar consonants; in free variation with [e].
Macedonian елен [ˈɛl̪ɛn̪] 'deer' See Macedonian phonology
Ngwe Njoagwi dialect [lɛ̀rɛ́] 'eye'
North Frisian tech [tɛx] 'closed'
Polish[30] ten About this sound [t̪ɛn̪]  'this one' (masc. nom.) See Polish phonology
Portuguese Most dialects[31][32] meleca [mɛˈl̪ɛ̞kə] 'goo' Stressed vowel might be lower [æ]. The presence and use of other unstressed ⟨e⟩ allophones, such as [ e ɪ i ɨ], varies according to dialect.
Some speakers[33] tempo [ˈt̪ɛ̃pu] 'time', 'weather' Stressed vowel, allophone of nasal vowel /ẽ̞/. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Transylvanian dialects[34] vede [vɛɟe][stress?] '(he) sees' Corresponds to mid [][in which environments?] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[35] это About this sound [ˈɛt̪ə]  'this' See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic aig [ɛk] 'at' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Seri me [mɛ] 'you'
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[36] las madres [læ̞ː ˈmæ̞ːð̞ɾɛː] 'the mothers' Corresponds to [] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[36]
Swedish Central Standard[37] ät [ɛ̠ːt̪] 'eat' (imp.) Somewhat retracted. See Swedish phonology
Turkish süre [syɾɛ] 'duration' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian береза About this sound [bɛˈrɛz̪ɐ]  'birch' See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese e [ɛ] 'to fear' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian têd [tɛːt] 'languid'
Yoruba sẹ̀ [ɛ̄sɛ] 'leg'

The vowel transcribed /ɛ/ in Standard Eastern Norwegian is actually mid.[38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  2. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:54)
  3. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  4. ^ Grønnum (1998:100)
  5. ^ Grønnum (2005:268)
  6. ^ Grønnum (2003)
  7. ^ Basbøll (2005:45)
  8. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:136)
  9. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a)
  10. ^ Lodge (2009:163), Watson (2007:357), Watt & Allen (2003:268)
  11. ^ Lodge (2009:163)
  12. ^ Schmitt (2007:322–323)
  13. ^ "Received Pronunciation". British Library. Retrieved 2013-05-26. 
  14. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  15. ^ Hughes & Trudgill (1979:35)
  16. ^ Bet Hashim & Brown (2000)
  17. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b)
  18. ^ Lanham (1967:9)
  19. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-26. [better source needed]
  20. ^ Rodrik Wade, MA Thesis, Ch 4: Structural characteristics of Zulu English at the Wayback Machine (archived May 17, 2008)
  21. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  22. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:261–262)
  23. ^ Mangold (2005:37)
  24. ^ Árnason (2011:60)
  25. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  26. ^ Haugen (1958:65)
  27. ^ Árnason (2011:57–60)
  28. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:119)
  29. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  30. ^ Jassem (2003:105)
  31. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  32. ^ Variação inter- e intra-dialetal no português brasileiro: um problema para a teoria fonológica – Seung-Hwa LEE & Marco A. de Oliveira
  33. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP
  34. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  35. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:41)
  36. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967:?)
  37. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)
  38. ^ Vanvik (1979:13)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922931-4 
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5 
  • Bet Hashim, Suzanna; Brown, Adam (2000), "The [e] and [æ] vowels in Singapore English", in Brown, Adam; Deterding, David; Ling, Low Ee Ling, The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 84–92, ISBN 981-04-2598-8 
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition (PDF), ISBN 9004103406 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Einarsson, Stefán (1945), Icelandic. Grammar texts glossary., Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, ISBN 978-0801863578 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 140, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278 
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290 
  • Grønnum, Nina (2003), Why are the Danes so hard to understand? 
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6 
  • Gussmann, Edmund (2011). "Getting your head around: the vowel system of Modern Icelandic" (PDF). Folia Scandinavica Posnaniensia 12: 71–90. ISBN 978-83-232-2296-5. 
  • Haugen, Einar (1958). "The Phonemics of Modern Icelandic". Language 34 (1): 55–88. doi:10.2307/411276. JSTOR 411276. 
  • Hughes, Arthur; Trudgill, Peter (1979), English Accents and Dialects: An Introduction to Social and Regional Varieties of British English, Baltimore: University Park Press 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Kohler, Klaus J. (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. 
  • Lanham, Len W. (1967), The pronunciation of South African English, Cape Town: Balkema 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, p. 37, ISBN 9783411040667 
  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009a), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009b), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Schmitt, Holger (2007), "The case for the epsilon symbol (ɛ) in RP DRESS", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (3): 321–328, doi:10.1017/S0025100307003131 
  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006), Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Traunmüller, Hartmut (1982), "Vokalismus in der westniederösterreichischen Mundart.", Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 2: 289–333, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006290 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Watson, Kevin (2007), "Liverpool English" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (3): 351–360, doi:10.1017/s0025100307003180 
  • Watt, Dominic; Allen, William (2003), "Tyneside English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 267–271, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001397 
  • Zamora Vicente, Alonso (1967), Dialectología española (2nd ed.), Biblioteca Romanica Hispanica, Editorial Gredos