List of Latin-script digraphs
Letters with diacritics are arranged in alphabetic order according to their base: ⟨å⟩ is alphabetised with ⟨a⟩, not at the end of the alphabet, as it would be in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. Substantially-modified letters, such as ⟨ſ ⟩ (a variant of ⟨s⟩) and ⟨ɔ⟩ (based on ⟨o⟩), are placed at the end.
⟨ʼb⟩ (capital ⟨ʼB⟩) is used in Bari for /ɓ/.
⟨ʼd⟩ (capital ⟨ʼD⟩) is used in Bari for /ɗ/.
⟨ʼy⟩ (capital ⟨ʼY⟩) is used in Bari and Hausa (in Nigeria) for /ʔʲ/, but in Niger, Hausa ⟨ʼy⟩ is replaced with ⟨ƴ ⟩.
⟨aa⟩ is used in Dutch, Finnish and other languages with phonemic long vowels for /aː/. It is also used in some English and Scots dialects, such as Northumbrian and Shetlandic, to represent /aː/. It was formerly used in Danish and Norwegian (and still is in some proper names) to represent a single vowel, which in Danish is often [ɔ] or [ʌ], until it was replaced with the letter ⟨å⟩. There is a ligature ⟨Ꜳ⟩. In Cantonese Romanisations such as Jyutping or Yale, this is used to represent /a/, which contrasts with ⟨a⟩ /ɐ/.
- In Latin, ⟨ae⟩ originally represented the diphthong /ae/, before it was monophthongized in the Vulgar Latin period to /ɛ/; in medieval manuscripts, the digraph was frequently replaced by the ligature ⟨æ⟩.
- In Modern English, Latin loanwords with ⟨ae⟩ are generally pronounced with /iː/ (e.g. Caesar), prompting Noah Webster to shorten this to ⟨e⟩ in his 1806 spelling reform for American English.
- In German, ⟨ae⟩ is a variant of ⟨ä⟩ found in some proper names or in contexts where ⟨ä⟩ is unavailable.
- In Dutch, ⟨ae⟩ is an old spelling variant of the ⟨aa⟩ digraph but now only occurs in names of people or (less often) places and in a few loanwords from Greek and Latin.
- In Zhuang, ⟨ae⟩ is used for /a/ (⟨a⟩ is used for /aː/).
- In Revised Romanization of Korean, ⟨ae⟩ is used for /ɛ/.
⟨ãe⟩ is used in Portuguese for /ɐ̃ĩ̯/.
⟨ai⟩ is used in many languages, typically representing the diphthong /aɪ/. In English, as a result of the Great Vowel Shift, the vowel of ⟨ai⟩ has shifted from this value to /eɪ/ as in pain and rain, while it may have a sound of /ə/ in unstressed syllables like bargain and certain(ly), or /ɛ/ in the stressed syllable of again(st) (AmE), depending on the word; while in French, a different change, monophthongization, has occurred, resulting in the digraph representing /ɛ/. A similar change has also occurred during the development of Greek, resulting in ⟨αι⟩ and the ⟨ε⟩ both having the same sound; originally /ɛ/, later /e/. In German, it represents /aɪ/ as in Kaiser (which derived from Latin caesar). However, most German words use ⟨ei⟩ for /aɪ/. In the Kernowek Standard orthography of Cornish, it represents /eː/, mostly in loanwords from English such as paint.
⟨aí⟩ is used in Irish for /iː/ between a broad and a slender consonant.
⟨aî⟩ is used in French for /ɛː/, as in aînesse /ɛːnɛs/ or maître /mɛːtʁ/.
⟨ái⟩ is used in Irish for /aː/ between a broad and a slender consonant.
⟨ãi⟩ is used in Portuguese for /ɐ̃ĩ̯/. It has, thus, the same value as ⟨ãe⟩, but the latter is much more common.
⟨an⟩ is used in many languages to write a nasal vowel. In Portuguese it is used for /ɐ̃/ before a consonant, in French it represents /ɑ̃/, and in many West African languages it represents /ã/. In Breton this digraph represents /ɑ̃n/.
⟨ån⟩ is used in Walloon, for the nasal vowel /ɔ̃/.
⟨aŋ⟩ is used in Lakhota for the nasal vowel /ã/
⟨ao⟩ is used in the Irish for /iː/ or /eː/, depending on dialect, between broad consonants. In French, it is found in a few words such as paonne representing /a/. In Malagasy, it represents /o/, and in Piedmontese, /au̯/. In Wymysorys, it represents /a/ (also spelt ⟨å⟩). In Mandarin Pinyin, this is used to represent /au̯/.
⟨ão⟩ is used in Portuguese for /ɐ̃ũ̯/.
⟨au⟩ in English is a result of various linguistic changes from Middle English, having shifted from */au/ to /ɔː/. In a number of dialects, this has merged with /ɑː/. It occasionally represents the diphthong /aʊ/, as in flautist. Other pronunciations are /æ/ in North American English aunt and laugh, /eɪ/ in gauge, /oʊ/ as in gauche and chauffeur, and /ə/ as in meerschaum and restaurant. Due to historical reasons, this is used to transcribe /ɔ/ in several Romanizations of Wu Chinese.
In French, ⟨au⟩ represents /o/ or sometimes /ɔ/. It most frequently appears in the inflectional ending marking plurals of certain kinds of words like cheval ('horse') or canal ('channel'), respectively having a plural in chevaux and canaux.
In Icelandic, it represents /œy/.
⟨äu⟩ is used in German for the diphthong /ɔɪ/ in declension of native words with au; elsewhere, /ɔɪ/ is written as ⟨eu⟩. In words where ä|u is separated in two syllables, mostly of Latin origin, ⟨äu⟩ is pronounced as /ɛ.ʊ/, as in Matthäus (one German form for Matthew).
⟨aû⟩ was used in French but has been replaced by the trigraph eau.
⟨aw⟩ is used in English in ways that parallel English ⟨au⟩, though it appears more often at the end of a word. In Cornish,⟨aw⟩ represents the diphthong /aʊ/ or /æʊ/. In Welsh, ⟨aw⟩ represents the diphthong /au/.
⟨ay⟩ is used in English in ways that parallel English ⟨ai⟩, though it appears more often at the end of a word. Unlike ⟨ai⟩, ⟨ay⟩ functions almost the same as ⟨ey⟩ (the /i:/ sound in key) at the end of variant spellings of names like Lindsay and Ramsay.
In French, it is usually used to represent /ɛj/ before a vowel (as in ayant) and /ɛ.i/ before a consonant (as in pays).
⟨bb⟩ is used in Pinyin for /b/ in languages such as Yi, where b stands for /p/. In Hungarian, it represents geminated /bː/. In English, doubling a letter indicates that the previous vowel is short (so bb represents /b/). In ISO romanized Korean, it is used for the fortis sound /p͈/, otherwise spelled ⟨pp⟩; an example is hobbang. In Hadza it is the rare ejective /pʼ/. In several African languages it is implosive /ɓ/. In Cypriot Arabic it is /bʱ/.
⟨bd⟩ is used in English for /d/ in a few words of Greek origin, such as bdellatomy. When not initial, it represents /bd/, as in abdicate.
⟨bh⟩ is used in transcriptions of Indo-Aryan languages for a murmured voiced bilabial plosive (/bʱ/), and for equivalent sounds in other languages. In Juǀʼhoan, it's used for the similar prevoiced aspirated plosive /b͡pʰ/. In Irish, it stands for the phonemes /w/ and /vʲ/, for example mo bhád /mə waːd̪ˠ/ ('my boat'), bheadh /vʲɛx/ ('would be'). In the orthography used in Guinea before 1985, ⟨bh⟩ was used in Pular (a Fula language) for the voiced bilabial implosive /ɓ/, whereas in Xhosa, Zulu, and Shona, ⟨b⟩ represents the implosive and ⟨bh⟩ represents the plosive /b/. In some orthographies of Dan, ⟨b⟩ is /b/ and ⟨bh⟩ is /ɓ/.
⟨bm⟩ is used in Cornish for an optionally pre-occluded /m/; that is, it is pronounced either /m/ or /mː/ (in any position); /ᵇm/ (before a consonant or finally); or /bm/ (before a vowel); examples are mabm ('mother') or hebma ('this').
⟨cc⟩ is used in Andean Spanish for loanwords from Quechua or Aymara with /q/, as in Ccozcco (modern Qusqu) ('Cuzco'). In many European languages, ⟨cc⟩ before front vowels represents a sequence such as /ks/, e.g. English success, French occire, Spanish accidente (dialectally /ks/ or /kθ/); this is not the case of Italian, where a ⟨cc⟩ before a front vowel represents a geminated /tʃ/, as in lacci /ˈlat.tʃi/. In Piedmontese and Lombard, ⟨cc⟩ represents the /tʃ/ sound at the end of a word. In Hadza it is the glottalized click /ᵑǀˀ/. In English internet slang, ⟨cc⟩ can sometimes replace the letters ⟨ck⟩ or ⟨ct⟩ at the ends of words, such as with thicc, protecc, succ and phucc.
⟨cg⟩ was used for [ddʒ] or [gg] in Old English (ecg in Old E and nglish sounded like 'edge' in Modern English, while frocga sounded like 'froga'), where both are long consonants. It is used for the click /ǀχ/ in Naro, and in the Tindall orthography of Khoekhoe for the voiceless dental click /ǀ/.
⟨ch⟩ is used in several languages. In English, it can represent /tʃ/, /k/, /ʃ/, /x/ or /h/. See article.
⟨çh⟩ is used in Manx for /tʃ/, as a distinction from ⟨ch⟩ which is used for /x/.
⟨ci⟩ is used in the Italian for /tʃ/ before the non-front vowel letters ⟨a, o, u⟩. In English, it usually represents /ʃ/ whenever it precedes any vowel other than ⟨i⟩. In Polish, it represents /t͡ɕ/ whenever it precedes a vowel, and /t͡ɕi/ whenever it precedes a consonant (or in the end of the word), and is considered a graphic variant of ć appearing in other situations. In Romanian, it represents /tʃ/. The digraph is found at the end of a word (deci, atunci, copaci) or before the letters a, o, or u (ciorba, ciuleandra); the /tʃ/ sound made by the letter c in front of the letters e or i becomes /k/ in front of the three aforementioned vowels, making the addition of the letter i necessary.
⟨ck⟩ is used in many Germanic languages in lieu of ⟨kk⟩ or ⟨cc⟩ to indicate either a geminated /kː/, or a /k/ with a preceding (historically) short vowel. The latter is the case with English tack, deck, pick, lock, and buck (compare backer with baker). In German, ⟨ck⟩ indicates that the preceding vowel is short. Prior to the German spelling reform of 1996, it was replaced by ⟨k-k⟩ for syllabification. The new spelling rules allow only syllabification of the ⟨ck⟩ as a whole:
- Old spelling: Säcke: Säk-ke ('sacks')
- New spelling: Säcke: Sä-cke
- Among the modern Germanic languages, ⟨ck⟩ is used mainly in Alsatian, English, German, Luxembourgish, Scots, Swedish, and other West Germanic languages in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Similarly, ⟨kk⟩ is used for the same purpose in Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, Icelandic, Norwegian, and other West Germanic languages in the Netherlands and Belgium. Compare the word nickel, which is the same in many of these languages except for the customary ⟨ck⟩ or ⟨kk⟩ spelling. The word is nickel in English and Swedish, Nickel in German, and nikkel in Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, Icelandic and Norwegian.
- It was also used in the Tindall orthography of Khoekhoe for the voiceless dental click /ǀ/ (equivalent to ⟨cg⟩).
- It is also used in Cornish for /k/ at the end of a syllable after a short vowel; only in loanwords (mostly from English) in the Standard Written Form (SWF), more widely in Kernowek Standard.
⟨cr⟩ is used in the General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages for /ʈʂ/.
⟨cs⟩ is used in the Hungarian for a voiceless postalveolar affricate, /tʃ/. It is considered a distinct letter, named csé, and is placed between ⟨C⟩ and ⟨D⟩ in alphabetical order. Examples of words with cs include csak ('only'), csésze ('cup'), cső ('pipe'), csípős ('peppery').
⟨ct⟩ is used in English for /t/ in a few words of Greek origin, such as ctenoid. When not initial, it represents /kt/, as in act.
⟨cw⟩ is used in modern scholarly editions of Old English for the sound /kw/, which was spelled ⟨cƿ⟩, ⟨cuu⟩ or ⟨cu⟩ in manuscripts. In Middle English these were all replaced by Latin ⟨qu⟩.
⟨cz⟩ is used in Polish for /ʈ͡ʂ/ as in cześć (help·info) ('hello'). In Kashubian, ⟨cz⟩ represents /tʃ/. In French and Catalan, historical ⟨cz⟩ contracted to the ligature ⟨ç⟩, and represents the sound /s/. In Hungarian, it was formerly used for the sound /ts/, which is now written ⟨c⟩.
⟨dd⟩ is used in English to indicate a /d/ with a preceding (historically) short vowel (e.g. jaded /ˈdʒeɪdɨd/ has a "long a" while ladder /ˈlædər/ has a "short a"). In Welsh, ⟨dd⟩ represents a voiced dental fricative /ð/. It is treated as a distinct letter, named èdd, and placed between ⟨D⟩ and ⟨E⟩ in alphabetical order. In the ISO romanization of Korean, it is used for the fortis sound /t͈/, otherwise spelled ⟨tt⟩; examples are ddeokbokki and bindaeddeok. In Basque, it represents a voiced palatal plosive /ɟ/, as in onddo, ('mushroom'). In several African languages it is implosive /ɗ/. Latin delta (ẟ, lowercase only) is represented by "dd" in Modern Welsh.
⟨dg⟩ is used in English for /dʒ/ in certain contexts, such as with judgement and hedge
⟨dh⟩ is used in the Albanian, Swahili, and revived Cornish for the voiced dental fricative /ð/. The first examples of this digraph are from the Oaths of Strasbourg, the earliest French text, where it denotes the same sound /ð/ developed mainly from intervocalic Latin -t-. In early traditional Cornish ⟨ȝ⟩ (yogh), and later ⟨th⟩, were used for this purpose. Edward Lhuyd is credited for introducing the grapheme to Cornish orthography in 1707 in his Archaeologia Britannica. In Irish it represents the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ or the voiced palatal approximant /j/; at the beginning of a word it shows the lenition of /d̪ˠ/, for example mo dhoras /mˠə ɣoɾˠəsˠ/ ('my door' cf. doras /d̪ˠorˠəsˠ/ 'door').
- In the pre-1985 orthography of Guinea, ⟨dh⟩ was used for the voiced alveolar implosive /ɗ/ in Pular. It is currently written ⟨ɗ⟩. In the orthography of Shona it is the opposite: ⟨dh⟩ represents /d/, and ⟨d⟩ /ɗ/. In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages, ⟨dh⟩ represents a dental stop, /t̪/.
- In addition, ⟨dh⟩ is used in various romanization systems. In transcriptions of Indo-Aryan languages, for example, it represents the murmured voiced dental plosive /d̪ʱ/, and for equivalent sounds in other languages. In Juǀʼhoan, it's used for the similar prevoiced aspirated plosive /d͡tʰ/. In the romanization of Arabic, it denotes ⟨ﺫ⟩, which represents /ð/ in Modern Standard Arabic.
⟨dj⟩ is used in Faroese, French and many French-based orthographies for /dʒ/. In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages such as Warlpiri, Arrernte, and Pitjantjatjara, it represents a postalveolar stop such as /ṯ/ or /ḏ/; this sound is also written ⟨dy⟩, ⟨tj⟩, ⟨ty⟩, or ⟨c⟩. It is also formerly used in Indonesian as /d͡ʒ/.
⟨dł⟩ is used in Tlingit for /tɬ/ (in Alaska, ⟨dl⟩ is used instead).
⟨dn⟩ is used in Yélî Dnye for nasally released /tn/. In Cornish, it is used for an optionally pre-occluded /n/; that is, it is pronounced either /n/ or /nː/ (in any position); /ᵈn/ (before a consonant or finally); or /dn/ (before a vowel); examples are pedn ('head') or pednow ('heads').
⟨dq⟩ is used for the click /ᶢǃ/ in Naro.
⟨dx⟩ is used in some Zapotecan languages for a voiced postalveolar fricative /ʒ/. (It is placed between ⟨D⟩ and ⟨E⟩ in alphabetical order.) In Juǀʼhoan it is used for the prevoiced uvularized plosive /d͡tᵡ/.
⟨dy⟩ is used in Xhosa for /dʲʱ/. In Shona, it represents /dʒɡ/. In Tagalog it is used for /dʒ/. In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages such as Warlpiri, Arrernte, and Pitjantjatjara, it represents a postalveolar stop such as /ṯ/ or /ḏ/. This sound is also written ⟨tj⟩, ⟨dj⟩, ⟨ty⟩, ⟨c⟩, or ⟨j⟩.
⟨dz⟩ is used in several languages, often to represent /d͡z/. See article.
⟨dź⟩ is used in the Polish and Sorbian alphabets for /d͡ʑ/, the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate, as in dźwięk /d͡ʑvʲɛŋk/. ⟨Dź⟩ is never written before a vowel (⟨dzi⟩ is used instead, as in dziecko /d͡ʑɛt͡skɔ/ 'child').
⟨ea⟩ is used in many languages. In English, ⟨ea⟩ usually represents the monophthong /iː/ as in meat; due to a sound change that happened in Middle English, it also often represents the vowel /ɛ/ as in sweat. Rare pronunciations occur, like /eɪ/ in break, great, steak, and yea, and /ɔː/ in the archaic ealdorman. When followed by r, it can represent the standard outcomes of the previously mentioned three vowels in this environment: /ɪər/ as in beard, /ɜːr/ as in heard, and /ɛər/ as in bear, respectively; as another exception, /ɑr/ occurs in the words hearken, heart and hearth. It often represents two independent vowels, like /eɪ.ɑː/ (seance), /i.æ/ (reality), /i.eɪ/ (create), and /i.ɪ/ or /i.ə/ (lineage). Unstressed, it may represent /jə/ (ocean) and /ɪ/ or /ə/ (Eleanor). In Romanian, it represents the diphthong /e̯a/ as in beată ('drunk female'). In Irish, ⟨ea⟩ represents /a/ between a slender and a broad consonant. In Old English, it represents the diphthong /æɑ̯/. ⟨Ea⟩ is also the transliteration of the ⟨ᛠ⟩ rune of the Anglo-Frisian Futhorc.
⟨eá⟩ is used in Irish for /aː/ between a slender and a broad consonant.
⟨éa⟩ is used in Irish for /eː/ between a slender and a broad consonant.
⟨ee⟩ represents a long mid vowel in a number of languages. In English, ⟨ee⟩ represents /iː/ as in teen. In Dutch and German, ⟨ee⟩ represents /eː/ (though it is pronounced [eɪ] in majority of northern Dutch dialects). In the Cantonese Romanisation, it represents /iː/ as in English, or /ei/ for characters which might be pronounced as /iː/ in other dialects. In Bouyei, ⟨ee⟩ is used for plain /e/, as ⟨e⟩ stands for /ɯ/.
⟨eh⟩ is used in Taa for the murmured vowel /e̤/. In the Wade-Giles transliteration of Mandarin Chinese, it is used for /ɛ/ after a consonant, as in yeh /jɛ/. In German, ⟨eh⟩ represents /eː/, as in Reh.
⟨ei⟩ This digraph was taken over from Middle High German, where it represented /eɪ/. It usually represents a diphthong. In Modern German, ⟨ei⟩ is predominant in representing /aɪ/, as in Einstein, while the equivalent digraph ⟨ai⟩ appears in only a few words. In English, ⟨ei⟩ can represent many sounds, including /eɪ/, as in vein, /i/ as in seize, /aɪ/ as in heist, /ɛ/ as in heifer, /æ/ as in enceinte, and /ɪ/ or /ə/ as in forfeit. See also I before e except after c. In southern and western Faroese dialects, it represents the diphthong /aɪ/, while in northern and eastern dialects, it represents the diphthong /ɔɪ/. In Portuguese, ⟨ei⟩ represents /ɐj/ in Greater Lisbon, so do ⟨éi⟩ and ⟨êi⟩, but /ej ~ e/ or /ɛj/ in Brazil, East Timor, Macau, rest of Portugal, and Portuguese-speaking African countries,
⟨eî⟩ is used in French for /ɛː/, as in reître /ʁɛːtʁ/.
⟨éi⟩ is used in Irish for /eː/ between slender consonants.
⟨ej⟩ is used in Swedish in some short words, such as leja /leːja/ or nej /nɛj/.
⟨em⟩ is used in Portuguese for /ɐĩ̯ ~ ẽĩ̯/ at the end of a word and /ẽ/ before a consonant. In French orthography, it can represent /ɑ̃/.
⟨ém⟩ is used in Portuguese for /ɐĩ̯ ~ ẽĩ̯/ at the end of a word.
⟨êm⟩ is used in Portuguese for /ɐĩ̯ ~ ẽĩ̯/ at the end of a word and /ẽ/ before a consonant.
⟨én⟩ is used in Portuguese for /ɐĩ̯ ~ ẽĩ̯/ before a consonant.
⟨ên⟩ is used in Portuguese for /ẽ/ before a consonant.
⟨eo⟩ is used in Irish for /oː/ (/ɔ/ in 4 words) between a slender and a broad consonant. In the Jyutping romanization of Cantonese, it represents /ɵ/, an allophone of /œː/, while in the Cantonese Romanisation, it represents /œː/. In the Revised Romanization of Korean, ⟨eo⟩ represents the open-mid back unrounded vowel /ʌ/, and in Piedmontese it is /ɛu̯/. In English ⟨eo⟩ is a rare digraph without a single pronunciation, representing /ɛ/ in feoff, jeopardy, leopard and the given name Geoffrey, /iː/ in people, /oʊ/ in yeoman and /juː/ in the archaic feodary, while in the originally Gaelic name MacLeod it represents /aʊ/. However, usually it represents two vowels, like /iː.ə/ in leotard and galleon, /iː.oʊ/ in stereo and, /iː.ɒ/ in geodesy, and, uniquely, /uː.iː/ in geoduck.
⟨eu⟩ is found in many languages, most commonly for the diphthong /eu/. Additionally, in English, ⟨eu⟩ represents /juː/ as in neuter ( /uː/ in yod-dropping accents); however, the eu in "maneuver/manoeuvre" always represents /uː/ even in most non yod-dropping accents. In German, it represents /ɔʏ/ as in Deutsch; and in French, Dutch, Breton, and Piedmontese, it represents /ø/. In Cornish, it represents either long /øː ~ œː/ and short /œ/ or long /eː/ and short /ɛ/. In Yale romanization of Cantonese it represents /ɵ ~ œː/, while in the Cantonese Romanisation, it represents /œː/. In Wugniu romanization of Wu Chinese, it represents sounds ranging from /ɤ/ to /ʏ/, depending on the lect. In Sundanese and Acehnese, it represents /ɤ/ as in beureum ('red'). In the Revised Romanization of Korean, it represents /ɯ/.
⟨eû⟩ is used in French for /ø/, as in jeûne /ʒøn/.
⟨ew⟩ is used in English for /juː/ as in few and flew. An exception is the pronunciation /oʊ/ in sew, leading to the heteronym sewer,(/ˈsuːər/, 'drain') vs sewer (/ˈsoʊər/, 'one who sews'). In Cornish, it stands for /ɛʊ/.
⟨ey⟩ is used in English for a variety of sounds, including /eɪ/ in they, /iː/ in key, and /aɪ/ in geyser. In Faroese, it represents the diphthong /ɛɪ/. In Cornish, it represents the diphthong /ɛɪ/ or /əɪ/.
⟨ff⟩ which may be written as the single unit: ﬀ, is used in English and Cornish for the same sound as single ⟨f⟩, /f/. The doubling is used to indicate that the preceding vowel is (historically) short, or for etymological reasons, in latinisms. Very rarely, ⟨ff⟩ may be found word-initially in English, such as in proper names (e.g., Rose ffrench, Jasper Fforde). In Welsh, ⟨ff⟩ represents /f/, while ⟨f⟩ represents /v/. In Welsh, ⟨ff⟩ is considered a distinct letter, and placed between ⟨f⟩ and ⟨g⟩ in alphabetical order. In medieval Breton, vowel nasalisation was represented by a following ⟨ff⟩. This notation was reformed during the 18th century, though proper names retain the former convention, which leads to occasional mispronunciation. For ﬀ as a single unit see: Typographic ligature and Unicode FB00 (U+FB00) in Latin script in Unicode and Unicode equivalence
⟨fh⟩ is used in Irish and Scottish Gaelic for the lenition of ⟨f⟩. This happens to be silent, so that ⟨fh⟩ in Gaelic corresponds to no sound at all. For example, the Irish phrase cá fhad ('how long') is pronounced [kaː ˈad̪ˠ], where fhad is the lenited form of fad /fɑd/ ('long').
⟨ge⟩ is used in French for /ʒ/ before ⟨a o u⟩ as in geôle /ʒol/.
⟨gg⟩ is used in English for /ɡ/ before ⟨y⟩, ⟨i⟩ and ⟨e⟩ (exampleː doggy). It is also used in Pinyin for /ɡ/ in languages such as Yi. In Central Alaskan Yup'ik, it represents /x/. In Greenlandic , it represents /çː/. In the ISO romanization of Korean, it is used for the fortis sound /k͈/, otherwise spelled ⟨kk⟩ (e.g. ggakdugi). In Hadza it is ejective /kxʼ/. In Italian, ⟨gg⟩ before a front vowel represents a geminated /dʒ/, as in legge /ˈled.dʒe/. In Piedmontese and Lombard, ⟨gg⟩ is an etymological spelling representing an /tʃ/ at the end of a word which is the unvoicing of an ancient /dʒ/.
⟨gh⟩ is used in several languages. In English, it can be silent or represent /ɡ/ or /f/. See article.
⟨gj⟩ is used in Albanian for the voiced palatal plosive /ɟ/, though for Gheg speakers it represents /dʒ/. In the Arbëresh dialect, it represents the voiced velar plosive /ɡʲ/. In Norwegian and Swedish ⟨gj⟩ represents /j/ in words like gjorde ('did'). In Faroese, it represents /dʒ/. It is also used in the Romanization of Macedonian as a Latin equivalent of Cyrillic ⟨Ѓ⟩. Also, it's used in Friulian to represent /ɟ/ (whilst /dʒ/ is one of the pronunciations of the letter ⟨z⟩). It can be found in some local orthographies of Lombard to represent /dʒ/ derived from Latin ⟨gl⟩. Before the letter Đ was introduced into Gaj's Latin alphabet in 1878, the digraph ⟨gj⟩ had been used instead; and it remained in use till the beginning of the 20th century.
⟨gl⟩ is used in Italian and some African languages for /ʎ/.
⟨gm⟩ is used in English for /m/ in a few words of Greek origin, such as phlegm and paradigm. Between vowels, it simply represents /ɡm/, as in paradigmatic.
⟨gn⟩ is used in Latin, where it represented /ŋn/ in the classical period. Latin velar-coronal sequences like this (and also ⟨cl cr ct gd gl gr x⟩) underwent a palatal mutation to varying degrees in most Italo-Western Romance languages. For most languages that preserve the ⟨gn⟩ spelling (such as Italian and French), it represents a palatal nasal /ɲ/, and is similarly used in Romanization schemes such as Wugniu for /ȵ/. This was not the case in Dalmatian and the Eastern Romance languages where a different mutation changed the velar component to a labial consonant as well as the spelling to ⟨mn⟩.
- In English, ⟨gn⟩ represents /n/ initially (see /gn/ reduction) and finally (i.e. gnome, gnu, benign, sign). When it appears between two syllables, it represents /ɡn/ (e.g. signal). In Norwegian and Swedish, ⟨gn⟩ represents /ŋn/ in monosyllabic words like agn, and between two syllables, tegne. Initially, it represents /ɡn/, e.g. Swedish gnista /ˈɡnɪsta/.
⟨go⟩ is used in Piedmontese for /ɡw/.
⟨gr⟩ is used in Xhosa for /ɣ̈/.
⟨gu⟩ is used in English, Spanish, French, Portuguese and Catalan for /ɡ/ before front vowels ⟨i e⟩ (⟨i e y⟩ in English and French) where a "soft g" pronunciation (English /dʒ/; Spanish /x/; French, Portuguese and Catalan /ʒ/) would otherwise occur. In English, it can also be used to represent /ɡw/. In the Ossete Latin alphabet, it is used for /ɡʷ/.
⟨gw⟩ is used in various languages for /ɡʷ/, and in Dene Suline it represents /kʷ/.
⟨gy⟩ is used in Hungarian for a voiced palatal plosive /ɟ/. In Hungarian, the letter's name is gyé. It is considered a single letter, and acronyms keep the digraph intact. The letter appears frequently in Hungarian words, such as the word for "Hungarian" itself: magyar. In the old orthography of Bouyei, it was used for /tɕ/.
⟨hh⟩ is used in Xhosa to write the murmured glottal fricative /ɦ̤/, though this is often written h. In the Iraqw language, hh is the voiceless epiglottal fricative /ʜ/, and in Chipewyan it is a velar/uvular /χ/. In Esperanto orthography, it is an official surrogate of ⟨ĥ⟩, which represents /x/.
⟨hn⟩ is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /n̥/. It is also used in Icelandic to denote the same phoneme. See also reduction of Old English /hn/.
⟨hu⟩ is used primarily in the Classical Nahuatl language, in which it represents the /w/ sound before a vowel; for example, Wikipedia in Nahuatl is written Huiquipedia. After a vowel, ⟨uh⟩ is used. In the Ossete Latin alphabet, hu was used for /ʁʷ/, similar to French roi. The sequence hu is also found in Spanish words such as huevo or hueso; however, in Spanish this is not a digraph but a simple sequence of silent h and the vowel u.
⟨hv⟩ is used Faroese and Icelandic for /kv/ (often /kf/), generally in wh-words, but also in other words, such as Faroese hvonn. In the General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages it is used for the supposed fricative /ɣ͜β/.
⟨hw⟩ is used in modern editions of Old English for /hw/, originally spelled ⟨huu⟩ or ⟨hƿ⟩ (the latter with the wynn letter). In its descendants in modern English, it is now spelled ⟨wh⟩ (see there for more details). It is used in some orthographies of Cornish for /ʍ/.
⟨hx⟩ is used in Pinyin for /h/ in languages such as Yi (⟨h⟩ alone represents the fricative /x/), and in Nambikwara it is a glottalized /hʔ/. In Esperanto orthography, it is an unofficial surrogate of ⟨ĥ⟩, which represents /x/.
⟨ia⟩ is used in Irish for the diphthong /iə/.
⟨ie⟩ is used in English, where it usually represents the /aɪ/ sound as in pries and allied or the /iː/ sound as in priest and rallied. Followed by an r, these vowels follow the standard changes to /aɪə/ and /ɪə/, as in brier and bier. Unique pronunciations are /ɪ/ in sieve, /ɛ/ in friend and /eɪ/ in lingerie. Unstressed it can represent /jə/, as in spaniel and conscience, or /ɪ/ or /ə/ as in mischief and hurriedly. It also can represent many vowel combinations, including /aɪə/ in diet and client, /aɪɛ/ in diester and quiescent, /iːə/ in alien and skier, /iːɛ/ in oriental and hygienic, and /iːʔiː/ in British medieval.
- In Dutch and Afrikaans, ⟨ie⟩ represents the tense vowel /i/. In German, it may represent the lengthened vowel /iː/ as in Liebe (love) as well as the vowel combination /iə/ as in Belgien (Belgium). In Latvian and Lithuanian, the ⟨ie⟩ is considered two letters for all purposes and represents /iæ̯/, commonly (although less precisely) transcribed as /i̯e/. In Maltese, ⟨ie⟩ is a distinct letter and represents a long close front unrounded vowel, /iː/ or /iɛ/. In Pinyin it is used to write the vowel /e/ in languages such as Yi, where e stands for /ɛ/. In Old English ⟨ie⟩ was one of the common diphthongs, the umlauted version of "ea" and "eo". Its value is not entirely clear, and in Middle English it had become /e/.
⟨îe⟩ is used in Afrikaans for /əːə/.
⟨ih⟩, is used in Taa to represent the breathy or murmured vowel /i̤/. It is also used in Tongyong Pinyin and Wade-Giles transcription for the fricative vowels of Mandarin Chinese, which are spelled i in Hanyu Pinyin.
⟨ii⟩ is used in many languages such as Finnish (example:Riikka, Niinistö, Siitala, Riikkeli), Italian (example:Riina), Estonian (example:Riik), Scots (example:Auld Nii, Iisay), with phonemic long vowels for /iː/.
⟨il⟩ is used in French for /j/, historically /ʎ/, as in ail /aj/ "garlic".
⟨im⟩ is used in Portuguese for /ĩ/.
⟨ím⟩ is used in Portuguese for /ĩ/ before a consonant.
⟨ín⟩ is used in Portuguese for /ĩ/ before a consonant.
⟨în⟩ is used in French to write a vowel sound /ɛ̃/ that was once followed by a historical s, as in vous vîntes /vu vɛ̃t/ "you came".
⟨iŋ⟩ is used in Lakhota for the nasal vowel /ĩ/.
⟨io⟩ is used in Irish for /ɪ/, /ʊ/, and /iː/ between a slender and a broad consonant.
⟨ío⟩ is used in Irish for /iː/ between a slender and a broad consonant.
⟨iú⟩ is used in Irish for /uː/ between a slender and a broad consonant.
⟨ix⟩ is used in Catalan for /ʃ/ (Eastern Catalan) or /jʃ/ (Western Catalan) after a vowel.
⟨jh⟩ is used in Walloon to write a consonant that is variously /h/, /ʒ/ or /ç/, depending on the dialect. In Tongyong pinyin, it represents /tʂ/, written zh in standard pinyin. Jh is also the standard transliteration for the Devanāgarī letter झ /dʒʱ/. In Esperanto, it is an official surrogate of ⟨ĵ⟩, which represents /ʒ/.
⟨jr⟩ is used in the General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages for /ɖʐ/.
⟨kh⟩, in transcriptions of Indo-Aryan and Dravidian languages, represents the aspirated voiceless velar plosive (/kʰ/). For most other languages,[better source needed] it represents the voiceless velar fricative /x/, for example in transcriptions of the letter ḫāʾ (خ) in standard Arabic, standard Persian, and Urdu, Cyrillic Х, х (kha), Spanish j, as well as the Hebrew letter kaf (כ) in instances when it is lenited. When used for transcription of the letter ḥet (ח) in Sephardic Hebrew, it represents the voiceless pharyngeal fricative /ħ/. In Canadian Tlingit it represents /qʰ/, which in Alaska is written k. In the Ossete Latin alphabet, it was used for /kʼ/.
⟨kl⟩ is used in Zulu to write a sound variously realized as /kʟ̥ʼ/ or /kxʼ/.
⟨kr⟩ is used in Xhosa for /kxʼ/.
⟨kv⟩ is used for /kwh/ in some dialects of Zhuang.
⟨kw⟩ is used in various languages for the labialized velar consonant /kʷ/, and in Dene Suline (Chipewyan) for /kwh/. Used informally in English for phonemic spelling of qu, as in kwik (from quick), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European */ɡʷ/.
⟨ky⟩ is used in Tibetan Pinyin for /tʃʰ/.
⟨kz⟩ is used in Esperanto for /ɡz/, equivalent to Polish ⟨gz⟩.
⟨lh⟩, in Occitan, Gallo, and Portuguese, represents a palatal lateral approximant /ʎ/. In many Indigenous languages of the Americas it represents a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative /ɬ/. In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages it represents a dental lateral, /l̪/. In the Gwoyeu Romatzyh romanization of Mandarin Chinese, initial ⟨lh⟩ indicates an even tone on a syllable beginning in /l/, which is otherwise spelled ⟨l⟩. In Middle Welsh it was sometimes used to represent the sound /ɬ/ as well as ⟨ll⟩, in modern Welsh it has been replaced by ⟨ll⟩. In Tibetan, it represents the voiceless alveolar lateral approximant /ɬ/, as in Lhasa.
⟨lj⟩ is a letter in some Slavic languages, such as the Latin orthographies of Serbo-Croatian, where it represents a palatal lateral approximant /ʎ/. For example, the word ljiljan is pronounced /ʎiʎan/. Ljudevit Gaj first used the digraph ⟨lj⟩ in 1830; he devised it by analogy with a Cyrillic digraph, which developed into the ligature ⟨љ⟩. In Swedish it represents /j/ such as in Ljus.
- The sound /ʎ/ is written ⟨gl⟩ in Italian, in Castilian Spanish and Catalan as ⟨ll⟩, in Portuguese as ⟨lh⟩, in some Hungarian dialects as ⟨lly⟩, and in Latvian as ⟨ļ⟩. In Czech and Slovak, it is often transcribed as ⟨ľ⟩; it is used more frequently in the latter language. While there are dedicated Unicode codepoints, U+01C7 (Ǉ), U+01C8 (ǈ) and U+01C9 (ǉ), these are included for backwards compatibility (with legacy encodings for Serbo-Croatian which kept a one-to-one correspondence with Cyrillic Љљ) and modern texts use a sequence of Basic Latin characters.
⟨ḷḷ⟩ is used in Asturian for a sound that was historically /ʎ/ but which is now an affricate, [t͡s], [t͡ʃ], [d͡ʒ].
⟨lr⟩ is used in the General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages for /ɭ /.
⟨lw⟩ is used for /lʷ/ in Arrernte.
⟨mb⟩, in many African languages, represents /mb/ or /ᵐb/. It is used in Irish to indicate the eclipsis of b and represents /mˠ/; for example ár mbád /ɑːɾˠ mˠɑːdˠ̪/ 'our boat' (cf. /bˠɑːd̪ˠ/ 'boat'). The Irish digraph is capitalized mB, for example i mBaile Átha Cliath 'in Dublin'. In English, mb represents /m/ when final, as in lamb (see reduction of /mb/). In Standard Zhuang and in Bouyei, ⟨mb⟩ is used for /ɓ/.
⟨mh⟩, in Irish, stands for the lenition of ⟨m⟩ and represents /v/ or /w/; for example mo mháthair /mə ˈwɑːhəɾʲ/ or /mˠə ˈvˠɑːhəɾʲ/ 'my mother' (cf. máthair /ˈmˠɑːhəɾʲ/ 'mother'). In Welsh it stands for the nasal mutation of ⟨p⟩ and represents the voiceless /m̥/; for example fy mhen /və m̥ɛn/ 'my head' (cf. pen /pɛn/ 'head'). In both languages it is considered a sequence of the two letters ⟨m⟩ and ⟨h⟩ for purposes of alphabetization. In Shona, Juǀʼhoan and several other languages, it is used for a murmured /m̤/. In the Gwoyeu Romatzyh romanization of Mandarin Chinese, initial mh- indicates an even tone on a syllable beginning in /m/, which is otherwise spelled m-. In several languages, such as Gogo, it's a voiceless /m̥/.
⟨mm⟩ is used in Haida (Bringhurst orthography) for glottalized /ˀm/. It is used in Cornish for an optionally pre-occluded /m/; that is, it is pronounced either /m/ or /mː/ (in any position); /ᵇm/ (before a consonant or finally); or /bm/ (before a vowel); examples are mamm ('mother') or hemma ('this').
⟨mn⟩ is used in English to write the word-initial sound /n/ in a few words of Greek origin, such as mnemonic. When final, it represents /m/, as in damn or /im/ as in hymn, and between vowels it represents /m/ as in damning, or /mn/ as in damnation (see /mn/-reduction). In French it represents /n/, as in automne and condamner.
⟨mw⟩ is used for /mʷ/ in Arrernte.
⟨nd⟩, in many African languages, represents /nd/ or /ⁿd/, and capitalized ⟨Nd⟩. It is used in Irish for the eclipsis of ⟨d⟩, and represents /n/, for example in ár ndoras /ɑːɾˠ ˈnˠɔɾˠəsˠ/ "our door" (cf. doras /ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəsˠ/ "door"). In this function it is capitalized ⟨nD⟩, e.g. i nDoire "in Derry". In Standard Zhuang and in Bouyei, ⟨nd⟩ is used for /ɗ/.
⟨nf⟩, equivalent to ⟨mf⟩ for /mf/ or /ᵐf/. In Rangi nf is /ᵐf/ while mf is /m.f/.
⟨ng⟩, in Sino-Tibetan languages, as in English and several other European and derived orthographies (for example Vietnamese), generally represents the velar nasal /ŋ/. It is considered a single letter in many Austronesian languages (Māori, Tagalog, Tongan, Gilbertese, Tuvaluan, Indonesian, Chamorro), Welsh, and Rheinische Dokumenta, for velar nasal /ŋ/; and in some African languages (Lingala, Bambara, Wolof) for prenasalized /ɡ/ (/ⁿɡ/).
- For the development of the pronunciation of this digraph in English, see NG-coalescence and G-dropping.
- Finnish uses the digraph 'ng' to denote the phonemically long velar nasal /ŋː/ in contrast to 'nk' /ŋk/, which is its "strong" form under consonant gradation, a type of lenition. Weakening /k/ produces an archiphonemic "velar fricative", which, as a velar fricative does not exist in Standard Finnish, is assimilated to the preceding /ŋ/, producing /ŋː/. (No /ɡ/ is involved at any point, despite the spelling 'ng'.) The digraph 'ng' is not an independent letter, but it is an exception to the phonemic principle, one of the few in standard Finnish.
- In Irish ng is used word-initially as the eclipsis of g and represents /ŋ/, e.g. ár ngalar /ɑːɾˠ ˈŋɑɫəɾˠ/ "our illness" (cf. /ˈɡɑɫəɾˠ/). In this function it is capitalized nG, e.g. i nGaillimh "in Galway".
- In Tagalog and other Philippine languages, ng represented the prenasalized sequence /ŋɡ/ during the Spanish era. The velar nasal, /ŋ/, was written in a variety of ways, namely "n͠g", "ñg", "gñ" (as in Sagñay), and—after a vowel—at times "g̃". During the standardization of Tagalog in the early part of the 20th century, ng became used for the velar nasal /ŋ/, while prenasalized /ŋɡ/ came to be written ngg. Furthermore, ng is also used for a common genitive particle pronounced /naŋ/, to differentiate it from an adverbial particle nang.
- In Uzbek, it is considered as a separate letter, being the last (twenty-ninth) letter of the Uzbek alphabet. It is followed by the apostrophe (tutuq belgisi).
⟨ńg⟩ is used in Central Alaskan Yup'ik to write the voiceless nasal sound /ŋ̊/.
⟨ñg⟩, or more precisely ⟨n͠g⟩, was a digraph in several Spanish-derived orthographies of the Pacific, such as Tagalog and Chamorro, where it represented the sound /ŋ/, as opposed to ng, which originally represented /ŋɡ/. An example is Chamorro agan͠gñáijon (modern agangñaihon) "to declare". Besides ñg, variants of n͠g include gñ (as in Sagñay), ng̃, and a g̃, that is preceded by a vowel (but not a consonant). It has since been replaced by the trigraph ⟨ngg⟩ or ⟨ng⟩ (see above).
⟨ngʼ⟩ is used for /ŋ/ in Swahili and languages with Swahili-based orthographies. Since ⟨ʼ⟩ is not a letter in Swahili, ⟨ngʼ⟩ is technically a digraph, not a trigraph.
⟨nh⟩ is used in several languages. See article.
⟨ni⟩ in Polish, it usually represents ɲ whenever it precedes a vowel, and ɲi whenever it precedes a consonant (or in the end of the word), and is considered a graphic variant of ń appearing in other situations. (In some cases it may represent also ɲj before a vowel; for a better description, when, see the relevant section in the article on Polish orthography).
⟨nj⟩ is a letter in the Latin orthographies of Albanian, Serbo-Croatian. Ljudevit Gaj, a Croat, first used this digraph in 1830. In all of these languages, it represents the palatal nasal /ɲ/. For example, the Croatian and Serbian word konj (horse) is pronounced /koɲ/. The digraph was created in the 19th century by analogy with a digraph of Cyrillic, which developed into the ligature ⟨њ⟩. While there are dedicated Unicode codepoints, U+01CA (Ǌ), U+01CB (ǋ) and U+01CC (ǌ), these are included for backwards compatibility (with legacy encodings for Serbo-Croatian which kept a one-to-one correspondence with Cyrillic Њњ) and modern texts use a sequence of Basic Latin characters.
- In Faroese, it generally represents /ɲ/, although in some words it represent /nj/, like in banjo. It is also used in some languages of Africa and Oceania where it represents a prenazalized voiced postalveolar affricate or fricative, /ⁿdʒ/ or /ⁿʒ/. In Malagasy, it represents /ⁿdz/.
- Other letters and digraphs of the Latin alphabet used for spelling this sound are ⟨ń⟩ (in Polish), ⟨ň⟩ (in Czech and Slovakian), ⟨ñ⟩ (in Spanish), ⟨nh⟩ (in Portuguese and Occitan), ⟨gn⟩ (in Italian and French), and ⟨ny⟩ (in Hungarian, among others).
⟨nk⟩ is used in many Bantu languages like Lingala, Tshiluba, and Kikongo, for /ŋk/ or /ᵑk/. In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages such as Warlpiri, Arrernte, and Pitjantjatjara, it distinguishes a prenasalized velar stop, /ŋ͡k ~ ŋ͡ɡ/, from the nasal /ŋ/.
⟨nn⟩ is used in Irish for the Old Irish "fortis sonorants" /Nˠ/ ("broad", i.e. non-palatalized or velarized) and /Nʲ/ ("slender", i.e. palatalized) in non-initial position. In modern Irish, the "broad" sound is /n̪ˠ/, while the slender sound can be any of /nʲ/, /n̠ʲ/, or /ɲ/, depending on dialect and position in the word. In Spanish historical ⟨nn⟩ has contracted to the ligature ⟨ñ⟩ and represents the sound /ɲ/. In the Gwoyeu Romatzyh romanization of Mandarin Chinese, final -nn indicates a falling tone on a syllable ending in /n/, which is otherwise spelled -n. It is used in Haida (Bringhurst orthography) for glottalized /ˀn/. In Piedmontese, it is /ŋn/ in the middle of a word, and /n/ at the end. In Cornish, it is used for an optionally pre-occluded /n/; that is, it is pronounced either /n/ or /nː/ (in any position); /ᵈn/ (before a consonant or finally); or /dn/ (before a vowel); examples are penn ('head') or pennow ('heads').
⟨nq⟩ is used in various alphabets. In the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, it represents the sound /ɴɢ/. In Xhosa and Zulu it represents the click /ᵑǃ/. In the Gwoyeu Romatzyh romanization of Mandarin Chinese, final -nq indicates a falling tone on a syllable ending in /ŋ/, which is otherwise spelled -ng.
⟨nv⟩, equivalent to ⟨mv⟩ for /mv/ or /ᵐv/.
⟨ny⟩ is used in several languages for /ɲ/. See article.
⟨n-⟩ is used for medial /ŋ/ in Piedmontese.
⟨o′⟩ is used for /o/ and /ø/ in Uzbek, with the preferred typographical form being ⟨oʻ⟩ (Cyrillic ⟨ў⟩). Technically it is not a digraph in Uzbek, since ⟨ʻ⟩ is not a letter of the Uzbek alphabet, but rather a typographic convention for a diacritic. In handwriting the letter is written as ⟨õ⟩.
⟨oa⟩ is used in English, where it commonly represents the /oʊ/ sound as in road, coal, boast, coaxing, etc. In Middle English, where the digraph originated, it represented /ɔː/, a pronunciation retained in the word broad and derivatives, and when the digraph is followed by an "r", as in soar and bezoar. The letters also represent two vowels, as in koala /oʊ.ɑː/, boas /oʊ.ə/, coaxial /oʊ.æ/, oasis /oʊ.eɪ/, and doable /uː.ə/. In Malagasy, it is occasionally used for /o/.
⟨oe⟩ is found in many languages. In English, it represents the /oʊ/ sound as in hoe and sometimes the /uː/ sound as in shoe. It may also represent the /ɛ/ sound in AmE pronunciation of Oedipus, (o)esophagus (also in BrE), and (o)estrogen, /eɪ/ in boehmite (AmE) and surnames like Boehner and Groening (as if spelled Bayner and Gray/Greyning respectively), and /iː/ in foetus (BrE and CoE) and some speakers' pronunciation of Oedipus and oestrogen. Afrikaans and Dutch oe is /u/, as in doen; it also represented the same phoneme in the Indonesian language before the 1972 spelling reform. Ligatured to ⟨œ⟩ in French, it stands for the vowels /œ/ (as in œil /œj/) and /e/ (as in œsophage /ezɔfaʒ ~ øzɔfaʒ/). It is an alternative way to write ⟨ö⟩ or ⟨ø⟩ in German or Scandinavian languages when this character is unavailable. In Cantonese Pinyin it represents the vowel /ɵ ~ œː/, while in the Jyutping romanisation of Cantonese it represents /œː/, and in Zhuang it is used for /o/ (⟨o⟩ is used for /oː/). In Piedmontese, it is /wɛ/. In the Kernewek Kemmyn orthography of Cornish, it is used for a phoneme which is [oː] long, [oˑ] mid-length, and [ɤ] short.
⟨oê⟩ is used in French to write the vowel sound /wa/ in a few words before what had historically been an s, mostly in words derived from poêle /pwal/ "stove". The diacriticless variant, ⟨oe⟩, rarely represents this sound except in words related to moelle /mwal/ (rarely spelt moëlle).
⟨ôe⟩ is used in Afrikaans for the vowel /ɔː/.
⟨oi⟩ is used in various languages. In English, oi represents the /ɔɪ̯/ sound as in coin and join. In French, it represents /wa/, which was historically – and still is in some cases – written "oy." In Irish it is used for /ɛ/, /ɔ/, /ɪ/, /əi̯/, /iː/, /oː/ between a broad and a slender consonant. In Piedmontese, it is /ui̯/.
⟨oí⟩ is used in Irish for /iː/ between a broad and a slender consonant.
⟨oî⟩ is used in French to write /wa/ before what had historically been an s, as in boîtier or cloître.
⟨ói⟩ is used in Irish for /oː/ between a broad and a slender consonant.
⟨òi⟩ is used in Piedmontese for /oi̯/.
⟨om⟩ is used in Portuguese for /õ/, and in French to write /ɔ̃/.
⟨ôm⟩ is used in Brazilian Portuguese for /õ/ before a consonant.
⟨on⟩ is used in Portuguese for /õ/ before a consonant, and in French to write /ɔ̃/.
⟨ôn⟩ is used in Portuguese for /õ/ before a consonant.
⟨oo⟩ is used in many languages. In English, oo commonly represents sounds which historically descend from the Middle English pronunciation /oː/. After the Great Vowel Shift, this came to typically represent /uː/ as in "moon" and "food". Subsequently, in a handful of common words like "good" and "flood" the vowel was shortened to /u/, and after the Middle English FOOT–STRUT split, these became /ʊ/ and /ʌ/ respectively. Like in Middle English, the digraph's pronunciation is /oː/ in most other languages. In German and Dutch, the digraph represents /oː/. In Cornish, it represents either /oː/ or /uː/.
⟨ou⟩ is used in English for the diphthong /aʊ/, as in out /aʊt/. This spelling is generally used before consonants, with ⟨ow⟩ being used instead before vowels and at the ends of words. Occasionally ou may also represent other vowels – /ʌ/ as in trouble, /oʊ/ as in soul, /ʊ/ as in would, /uː/ as in group, or /juː/ as in the alternate American pronunciation of coupon. The ou in out originally represented /uː/, as in French, and its pronunciation has mostly changed as part of the Great Vowel Shift. However, the /uː/ sound was kept before p.
In Dutch ⟨ou⟩ represents /ʌu/ in the Netherlands or /oʊ/ in Flanders. In Cornish, it represents [uː], [u], or [ʊ]. In French, it represents the vowel /u/, as in vous /vu/ "you", or the approximant consonant /w/, as in oui /wi/ "yes".
⟨oû⟩ is used in French to write the vowel sound /u/ before what had historically been an s, as in soûl /su/ "drunk" (also spelt soul).
⟨ow⟩, in English, usually represents the /aʊ/ sound as in coward, sundowner, and now or the /oʊ/ sound, as in froward, landowner, and know. An exceptional pronunciation is /ɒ/ in knowledge and rowlock. There are many English heteronyms distinguished only by the pronunciation of this digraph, like: bow (front of ship or weapon), bower (a dwelling or string player), lower (to frown or drop), mow (to grimace or cut), row (a dispute or line-up), shower (rain or presenter), sow (a pig or to seed), tower (a building or towboat). In Cornish, this represents the diphthong /ɔʊ/ or /oʊ/; before vowels, it can also represent /uː/.
⟨oy⟩ is found in many languages. In English and Faroese, oy represents the diphthong /ɔɪ/. Examples in English include toy and annoy. In Cornish, it represents the diphthong /oɪ/~/ɔɪ/; in the words oy ('egg') and moy ('much'), it can also be pronounced /uɪ/~/ʊɪ/.
⟨oŷ⟩ is an obsolete digraph once used in French.
⟨øy⟩ is used in Norwegian for /øʏ/.
⟨pf⟩ in German represents a labial affricate /pf/. It can be initial (Pferd, 'horse'), medial (Apfel, 'apple'), or final (Knopf, 'button'). Where it appears in English, usually in names or words recently derived from German, it is ordinarily simplified to /f/ such as Pfizer.
⟨ph⟩, in English and some other languages, represents /f/, mostly in words derived from Greek. The Ancient Greek letter phi ⟨Φ, φ⟩ originally represented /pʰ/ (an aspirated p sound), and was thus transcribed into Latin orthography as ⟨PH⟩, a convention that was transferred to some other Western European languages. The Greek pronunciation of ⟨φ⟩ later changed to /f/, and this was also the sound adopted in other languages for the relevant loanwords. Exceptionally, in English, ⟨ph⟩ represents /v/ in the name Stephen and some speakers' pronunciations of nephew.
⟨pl⟩ is used in the Romanized Popular Alphabet used to write Hmong, where it represents the sound /pˡ/.
⟨pm⟩ is used for /ᵖm/ in Arrernte.
⟨pn⟩ is used in English for an initial sound /n/ in words of Greek origin such as pneumatic. When not initial, it represents the sequence /pn/, as in apnea.
⟨ps⟩ is used in English for an initial sound /s/ in words of Greek origin such as psyche. When not initial, it represents the sequence /ps/, as in ellipse. It is also used in Shona to write a whistled sibilant cluster /ps͎/.
⟨pt⟩ is used in several languages for /t/ in words of Greek origin, where it was /pt/. An example in English is pterosaur /ˈtɛrəsɔr/, and an exception is ptarmigan //, which is Gaelic, not Greek. When not initial, pt represents the sequence /pt/, as in apt.
⟨pw⟩ is used for /pʷ/ in Arrernte.
⟨py⟩ is used in Cypriot Arabic for /pc/.
⟨qo⟩ is used in Piedmontese for /kw/.
⟨qq⟩ is used in Haida (Bringhurst orthography) for ejective /qʼ/. In Hadza it is the glottalized click /ᵑǃˀ/.
⟨qu⟩ is used in Catalan, French, Galician, Occitan, Portuguese and Spanish for /k/ before the vowel letters e, i, where the letter c represents the sound /θ/ (Castilian Spanish and most of Galicia) or /s/ (Catalan, French, American Spanish, Occitan and Portuguese). This dates to Latin qu, and ultimately the Proto-Indo-European labialized velar consonant */kʷ/; in English this sound instead became written primarily as wh, due to Grimm's law changing kʷ > xʷ (written hw), and Middle English spelling change switching hw to wh. In English, it represents /k/ in words derived from those languages (e.g., quiche), and /kw/ in other words, including borrowings from Latin (e.g., quantity). In German, where the /w/ sound evolved into /v/, it is used to represent /kv/ in both native Germanic words and Latin borrowings. In the Ossete Latin alphabet, it was used for /qʷ/. In Vietnamese it is used to represent the /kw/ or /w/ sound. In Cornish, it represents the /kw/ sound.
⟨qv⟩ is used for glottalized /ˀw/ in Bouyei.
⟨qw⟩ is used in some languages for the sound /qʷ/. In Mi'kmaq it is used for /xʷ/. In the Kernowek Standard and Standard Written Form orthographies for Revived Cornish, and in William Jordan's 1611 Creation of the World, it is used for /kw/.
⟨qy⟩ is used for glottalized /ˀj/ in Bouyei.
⟨rd⟩ is used in the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages such as Warlpiri, Arrernte, and Pitjantjatjara for a retroflex stop, /ʈ/. In Norwegian and Swedish it represents voiced retroflex plosive, [ɖ].
⟨rh⟩ is used in English for Greek words transliterated through Latin. Examples include "rhapsody", "rhetoric" and "rhythm". These were pronounced in Ancient Greek with a voiceless "r" sound, /r̥/, as in Old English ⟨hr⟩. The digraph may also be found within words, but always at the start of a word component, e.g., "polyrhythmic". German, French, and Interlingua use rh in the same way. ⟨Rh⟩ is also found in Welsh where it represents a voiceless alveolar trill (r̥), that is a voiceless "r" sound. It can be found anywhere; the most common occurrence in English from Welsh is in the slightly respelled given name "Rhonda". In Wade-Giles transliteration, ⟨rh⟩ is used for the syllable-final rhotic of Mandarin Chinese. In the Gwoyeu Romatzyh romanization of Mandarin Chinese, initial rh- indicates an even tone on a syllable beginning in /ʐ/, which is otherwise spelled r-. In Purépecha, it is a retroflex flap, /ɽ/.
⟨rl⟩ is used in the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages such as Warlpiri, Arrernte, and Pitjantjatjara, as well in Norwegian and Swedish, for a retroflex lateral, written /ɭ/ in the IPA. In Greenlandic, it represents /ɬː/ as the result of an assimilation of a consonant cluster with a uvular consonant as the first component.
⟨rm⟩ is used in Inuktitut for /ɴm/.
⟨rn⟩ represents the retroflex nasal /ɳ/ in Warlpiri, Arrernte, and Pitjantjatjara (see transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages), as well in Norwegian and Swedish. In Greenlandic, it represents /ɴ/. In Inuktitut, it represents /ɴn/.
⟨rp⟩ is used in Greenlandic for /pː/ as the result of an assimilation of a consonant cluster with a uvular consonant as the first component.
⟨rr⟩ is used in English for ⟨r⟩. It normally appears in words of Latin or Romance origin, and "rrh" in words of ancient Greek origin. It is quite a common digraph. Some words with "rr" are relatively recent loanwords from other languages; examples include burro from Spanish. It is often used in impromptu pronunciation guides to denote either an alveolar tap or an alveolar trill. It is a letter in the Albanian alphabet.
In several European languages, such as Catalan, Spanish, Portuguese or Albanian, "rr" represents the alveolar trill /r/ (or the voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/ in Portuguese) and contrasts with the single "r", which represents the alveolar tap /ɾ/ (in Catalan and Spanish a single "r" also represents the alveolar trill at the beginning of words or syllables). In Italian and Finnish, "rr" is a geminated (long) consonant /rː/. In Central Alaskan Yup'ik it is used for /χ/. In Cornish, it can represent either /rː/, /ɾʰ/, or /ɹ/.
⟨rs⟩ was equivalent to ⟨rz⟩ and stood for /r̝/ (modern ř) in medieval Czech. In Greenlandic, it represents /sː/ as the result of an assimilation of a consonant cluster with a uvular consonant as the first component. In Norwegian and Swedish, it represents voiceless retroflex fricative, [ʂ].
⟨rw⟩ is used for /ɻʷ/ in Arrernte.
⟨rz⟩ is used in Polish and Kashubian for a voiced retroflex fricative /ʐ/, similar to English zh as in Zhivago. Examples from Polish are marzec (help·info) "March" and rzeka (help·info) "river". ⟨rz⟩ represents the same sound as ⟨ż⟩, but they have a different origin. ⟨rz⟩ used to be pronounced the same way as Czech ⟨ř⟩ (/r̝/) in older Polish, but the sounds merged, and the orthography still follows etymology. When preceded by a voiceless consonant (ch, k, p, t) or end of a word, ⟨rz⟩ devoices to [ʂ], as in przed (help·info) ("before", [ˈpʂɛt]).
⟨sc⟩ is used in Italian for /ʃː/ before the front vowel letters e, i. It is used for /s/ in Catalan, Spanish, French, English, Occitan and Brazilian Portuguese (e.g. French/English reminiscence, Spanish reminiscencia, Brazilian Portuguese reminiscência, Catalan reminiscència, Occitan reminiscéncia); in European Portuguese this changed to /ʃ/ in the early 20th century, although in careful speech it can be /ʃs/. However, it represents /z/ in modern pronunciations of crescent in British and non-Canadian Commonwealth English. In Old English it usually represented /ʃ/.
⟨sç⟩ is used in French for /s/ in a few verb forms such as simple past acquiesça /akjɛsa/. It is also used in Portuguese as in the imperative/conjunctive form of verbs ending with scer: crescer cresça. Still pronounced /s/ in Brazilian Portuguese, in European Portuguese this changed to /ʃ/ in the early 20th cent.ury, although in careful speech it can be /ʃs/
⟨sg⟩ is used in Piedmontese for /ʒ/.
⟨si⟩ is used in English for /ʒ/ in words such as fusion (see yod-coalescence). In Polish, it represents /ɕ/ whenever it precedes a vowel, and /ɕi/ whenever it precedes a consonant (or in the end of the word), and is considered a graphic variant of ś appearing in other situations. In Welsh ⟨si⟩ is used for the sound /ʃ/ as in siocled /ʃɔklɛd/ ('chocolate').
⟨sk⟩ is used in Swedish to write the sje sound /ɧ/. It takes by rule this sound value before the front vowels (e, i, y, ä and ö) word or root initially (as in sked (spoon)), while normally representing /sk/ in other positions. In Norwegian and Faroese, it is used to write voiceless postalveolar fricative /ʃ/ (only in front of i, y, ei and øy/oy).
⟨sl⟩ is used in Iraqw and Bouyei to write the lateral fricative /ɬ/. (Sl is used in the French tradition to transcribe /ɬ/ in other languages as well, as in the General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages.)
⟨sp⟩ is used in German for /ʃp/ as in Spaß /ʃpaːs/ instead of using schp.
⟨sr⟩ is used in Kosraean for /ʂ/.
⟨ss⟩ is used in Pinyin for /z/ in languages such as Yi. For its use in the Wade–Giles system of Romanization of Chinese, see Wade–Giles → Syllabic consonants. In English, ⟨ss⟩ typically represents /z/ in the first ss of possess and its derivatives possessed, possesses, possession, possessive and possessor, brassiere, dessert, dissolution and its derivatives dissolved, dissolves and dissolving, Missoula (County), Missouri(an), scissors, and pronunciations of Aussie outside the United States. In other languages, such as Catalan, Cornish, French, Italian, Occitan, Portuguese and Central Alaskan Yup'ik, where ⟨s⟩ transcribes /z/ between vowels (and elsewhere in the case of Yup'ik), ⟨ss⟩ is used for /s/ in that position (/sː/ in Italian and also in some cases in Cornish). In romanized Korean, it represents the fortis sound /s͈/. In Cypriot Arabic it is used for /sʰː/.
Also to note, there are spellings of words with ⟨ss⟩ as opposed to them with just one ⟨s⟩, varied in different types of English. For the word focus, in British English the 3rd person singular, the past participle and the present participle are spelled with ⟨ss⟩ (i.e. focusses, focussed and focussing) whereas in American English and usually Canadian and Australian English they are spelled with one ⟨s⟩ (i.e. focuses, focused and focusing).
⟨st⟩ is used in German for /ʃt/ as in Stadt /ʃtat/ instead of using scht (or cht). In some parts of northern Germany, the pronunciation /st/ (as in English) is still quite common in the local dialect.
⟨sz⟩ is used in several languages. See article.
⟨s-c⟩ and ⟨s-cc⟩ are used in Piedmontese for the sequence /stʃ/.
⟨s-g⟩ and ⟨s-gg⟩ are used in Piedmontese for the sequence /zdʒ/.
⟨ti⟩, before a vowel, is usually pronounced /sj/ in French and /tsj/ in German.
⟨tj⟩ is used in Norwegian and Faroese words like tjære/tjøra ('tar') for /ç/ (Norwegian) and /tʃ/ (Faroese). In the closely related Swedish alphabet, it represents /ɕ/, as in tjära /ˈɕæːɾa/. It is also the standard written form of the /tʃ/ sound in Dutch and was likewise used in Dutch-based orthographies that used to apply for languages in Indonesia and Surinam. In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages such as Warlpiri, Arrernte, and Pitjantjatjara, it represents a postalveolar stop, transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet as /ṯ/ or /ḏ/ depending on voicing. This sound is also written ⟨dj⟩, ⟨ty⟩, ⟨dy⟩, ⟨c⟩, or ⟨j⟩. In Catalan it represents /d͡ʒ/. In Juǀʼhoan it is used for the ejective affricate /tʃʼ/.
⟨tl⟩ is used in various orthographies for the affricate /tɬ/.
⟨tł⟩ is used in the transcription of Athabascan languages for a lateral affricate /tɬ/ or /tɬʰ/.
⟨tm⟩ is used in Yélî Dnye for doubly articulated and nasally released /t̪͡pn̪͡m/. In Catalan, it's used to represent /mː/, that can result not geminated as well, /m/, as in setmana (pronounced /səˈmːanə/ in standard Catalan and /seˈmana/ in Valencian).
⟨tr⟩ generally represents a sound like a retroflex version of English "ch" in areas of German influence, such as Truk lagoon, now spelled ⟨chuuk⟩. For instance, in Malagasy it represents /tʂ/. In southern dialects of Vietnamese, ⟨tr⟩ represents a voiceless retroflex affricate /tʂ/. In the northern dialects, this sound is pronounced /tɕ/, just like what ⟨ch⟩ represents. ⟨tr⟩ was formerly considered a distinct letter of the Vietnamese alphabet, but today is not.
⟨ts⟩ is used in the Basque, where it represents an apical voiceless alveolar affricate /t̺s̺/. It contrasts with ⟨tz⟩, which is laminal /t̻s̻/. In Hausa, ⟨ts⟩ represents an alveolar ejective fricative /sʼ/ or affricate /tsʼ/), depending on dialect. It is considered a distinct letter, and placed between ⟨t⟩ and ⟨u⟩ in alphabetical order. It is also used in Catalan for /t͡s/. It is also used in Hausa Boko.
The Wade-Giles and Yale romanizations of Chinese use ⟨ts⟩ for an unaspirated voiceless alveolar affricate /ts/. Wade-Giles also uses ⟨ts'⟩ for the aspirated equivalent /tsʰ/. These are equivalent to Pinyin ⟨z⟩ and ⟨c⟩, respectively. The Hepburn romanization of Japanese uses ⟨ts⟩ for a voiceless alveolar affricate /ts/). In native Japanese words, this sound only occurs before ⟨u⟩, but it may occur before other vowels in loanwords. Other romanization systems write /tsu/ as ⟨tu⟩. ⟨Ts⟩ in Tagalog is used for /tʃ/. The sequence ⟨ts⟩ occurs in English, but it has no special function and simply represents a sequence of ⟨t⟩ and ⟨s⟩. It occurs word-initially only in some loanwords, such as tsunami and tsar. Most English-speakers do not pronounce a /t/ in such words and pronounce them as if they were spelled ⟨sunami⟩ and ⟨sar⟩ or ⟨zar⟩, respectively.
⟨tt⟩ is used in Basque for /c/, and in romanized Kabyle for /ts/. In romanized Korean, it represents the fortis sound /t͈/, in Haida (Bringhurst orthography) it is ejective /tʼ/, and in Cypriot Arabic, it represents /tʰː/.
⟨tw⟩ is used for /tʷ/ in Arrernte.
⟨tx⟩ is used in Basque, Catalan and some indigenous languages of South America, for a voiceless postalveolar affricate /t͡ʃ/. In Nambikwara it represents a glottalized /tʔ/. In Juǀʼhoan it is used for the uvularized-release /tᵡ/.
⟨ty⟩ is used in the Hungarian alphabet for /cç/, a voiceless palatal affricate; in Hungarian, digraphs are considered single letters, and acronyms keep them intact. In Xhosa, ⟨ty⟩ represents /tʲʼ/ and the similar /tʲʼ/ in the Algonquian Massachusett orthography. In Shona, it represents /tʃk/. In Tagalog it represents /tʃ/. In the transcription of Australian Aboriginal languages such as Warlpiri, and Arrernte, it represents a postalveolar stop, either voiceless /ṯ/ or voiced /ḏ/. (This sound is also written ⟨tj⟩, ⟨dj⟩, ⟨dy⟩, ⟨c⟩, and ⟨j⟩). In Cypriot Arabic, it represents /c/.
⟨tz⟩ is used in Basque, German and Nahuatl for the voiceless alveolar affricate /t͡s/). In Basque, this sound is laminal and contrasts with the apical affricate represented by ⟨ts⟩. It is also used in Catalan to represent the voiced alveolar affricate /d͡z/. In Juǀʼhoan it is used for the ejective affricate /tsʼ/. For its use in the Wade–Giles system of Romanization of Chinese, see Wade–Giles → Syllabic consonants.
⟨uc⟩ is used in Nahuatl for /kʷ/ before a consonant. Before a vowel, ⟨cu⟩ is used.
⟨ue⟩ is found in many languages. In English, ⟨ue⟩ represents /ju/ or /u/ as in cue or true, respectively. In German, it is equivalent to Ü, and as such may appear in proper names of people, representing /ʏ/ or /yː/. In the Cantonese Romanisation, it represents /yː/ in a non-initial position.
⟨ûe⟩ is used in Afrikaans to represent /œː/.
⟨ug⟩ is used in Central Alaskan Yup'ik for /ɣʷ/.
for /w/ before a consonant. Before a vowel, ⟨hu⟩ is used.
⟨ui⟩ in Dutch stands for the diphthong /œy/. In Irish and Scottish Gaelic, it is /ɪ/ after a velarized (broad) consonant, and in Irish, it is used for /ɪ/ /ʊ/ /iː/ /uː/ between a broad and a slender consonant. In German, it represents the diphthong /ʊɪ̯/, which appears only in interjections such as "pfui!". In English, it represents the sound /uː/ in fruit, juice, suit and pursuit. However, in many English words, this does not hold. For example, it fails in words where the u in ui functions as a modifier of a preceding g (forcing g to remain /ɡ/ rather than shifting to /dʒ/ in guild, guilt, guilty, sanguine, Guinea, etc.), doing the same with c (in words like circuit and biscuit), or in cases of unusual etymological spelling or syllable separation (e.g. build, suite, and intuition). It represents /ai/ in guide. In Mandarin pinyin, it is /wei̯/ after a consonant. (In initial position, this is spelled wei.) In Cantonese Romanisation, it represents /uːy/ or /ɵy/. In French, it is not a digraph, but a predictable sequence /ɥi/, as in huit "eight". In Scots it represents the vowel in words such as bluid (blood), duin (done), muin (moon) and spuin (spoon) and is used similarly in Northumbrian and Cumbrian.
⟨uí⟩ is used in Irish for /iː/ between a broad and a slender consonant.
⟨úi⟩ is used in Irish for /uː/ between a broad and a slender consonant.
⟨úm⟩ is used in Portuguese for /ũ/ before a consonant.
⟨un⟩ is used in many languages to write a nasal vowel. In Portuguese before a consonant, and in many West African languages, it is /ũ/, while in French it is /œ̃/, or among the younger generation /ɛ̃/. In pinyin, /u̯ən/ is spelled un after a consonant, wen initially.
⟨ún⟩ is used in Portuguese for /ũ/ before a consonant.
⟨ün⟩ is used in Tibetan Pinyin for /ỹ/.
⟨uŋ⟩ is used in Lakhota for the nasal vowel /ũ/.
⟨uu⟩ is used in Dutch for /y/. In languages with phonemic long vowels, it may be used to write /uː/.
⟨uy⟩ is used in Afrikaans for /œy/.
⟨vv⟩ is used in Central Alaskan Yup'ik for /f/.
⟨vr⟩ is used in Quechua.
⟨wh⟩ is used in English to represent Proto-Germanic /hw/, the continuation of the PIE labiovelar */kʷ/ (which became ⟨qu⟩ in Latin and the Romance languages). Most English question words begin with this digraph, hence the terms wh-word and wh-question. In Old English, /hw/ was spelled ⟨huu⟩ or ⟨hƿ⟩, and only the former was retained during the Middle English period, becoming ⟨hw⟩ during the gradual development of the letter ⟨w⟩ during the 14th-17th centuries. In most dialects it is now pronounced /w/, but a distinct pronunciation realized as a voiceless w sound, [ʍ], is retained in some areas: Scotland, central and southern Ireland, the southeastern United States, and (mostly among older speakers) in New Zealand. In a few words (who, whose, etc.) the pronunciation used among almost all speakers regardless of geography is /h/. For details, see Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩. In Māori, ⟨wh⟩ represents /ɸ/ or more commonly /f/, with some regional variations approaching /h/ or /hw/. In the Taranaki region, for some speakers, this represents a glottalized /wʼ/. In Xhosa, it represents /w̤/, a murmured variant of /w/ found in loan words. In Cornish, it represents /ʍ/.
⟨wu⟩ is used in Mandarin pinyin to write the vowel /u/ in initial position, as in the name Wuhan. It is sometimes found with this value in Romanized Korean as well, as in hanwu. In Cantonese Romanisation, it is used to represent /wuː/ in an initial position or /uː/ in a non-initial position.
⟨ww⟩ is used in Haida (Bringhurst orthography) for glottalized /ˀw/.
⟨xf⟩ is used in the General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages for the labialized fricative /xʷ/.
⟨xh⟩, in Albanian, represents the sound of the voiced postalveolar affricate consonant /dʒ/, as in the surname Hoxha /ˈhɔdʒa/. In Zulu and Xhosa it represents the voiceless aspirated alveolar lateral click /kǁʰ/, for example in the name of the language Xhosa /ˈkǁʰoːsa/. In Walloon to write a consonant that is variously /h/, /ʃ/, /ç ~ x/, depending on the dialect. In Canadian Tlingit it represents /χ/, which in Alaska is written x̱.
⟨xi⟩ is used in English for /kʃ/ in words such as flexion. (It is equivalent to ⟨c⟩ plus the digraph ⟨ti⟩, as in action.)
⟨xs⟩ is used in Portuguese in the word exsudar /ˌe.su.ˈda(ʁ)/ in Brazilian Portuguese. In European Portuguese this digraph changed to /ʃs/ in the early 20th century and the word came to be pronounced as /ɐjʃ.su.ˈðaɾ/
⟨xu⟩ was used in the Ossete Latin alphabet for /χʷ/.
⟨ye⟩ used in various languages. In some languages such as English it is used as an /aɪ/ such as in bye or dye. In most languages, it is used as an /jɛ/ sound, such as in yellow.
⟨yh⟩ was used in the pre-1985 orthography of Guinea, for the "ejective y" or palatalized glottal stop (/ʔʲ/) in Pular (a Fula language). In the current orthography it is now written ƴ. In Xhosa it is used for the sound / j̈ /. In a handful of Australian languages, it represents a "dental semivowel".[clarification needed]
⟨yi⟩ is used in Mandarin pinyin to write the vowel /i/ when it forms an entire syllable.
⟨ym⟩ is used in French to write the vowel sound /ɛ̃/ (/im/ before another vowel), as in thym /tɛ̃/ "thyme".
⟨yn⟩ is used in French to write the vowel sound /ɛ̃/ in some words of Greek origin, such as syncope /sɛ̃kɔp/ "syncope".
⟨yu⟩ is used in romanized Chinese to write the vowel /y/. In Mandarin pinyin it is used for /y/ in initial position, whereas in Cantonese Jyutping it is used for /yː/ in non-initial position. In the Yale romanization of Cantonese and Cantonese Romanisation, it represents /jyː/ in an initial position and /yː/ in a non-initial position. (See jyu.)
⟨yy⟩ is used in some languages such as Finnish to write the long vowel /yː/. In Haida (Bringhurst orthography) it is glottalized /ˀj/.
⟨zh⟩ represents the voiced postalveolar fricative (/ʒ/), like the ⟨s⟩ in pleasure, in Albanian and in Native American orthographies such as Navajo. It is used for the same sound in some English-language dictionaries, as well as to transliterate the sound when represented by Cyrillic ⟨ж⟩ and Persian ⟨ژ⟩ into English, but is rarely seen in English words, appearing primarily in foreign borrowings (eg muzhik) and slang (eg zhoosh). ⟨Zh⟩ as a digraph is rare in European languages using the Latin alphabet; in addition to Albanian it is found in Breton in words that are pronounced with /z/ in some dialects and /h/ in others. In Hanyu Pinyin, ⟨zh⟩ represents the voiceless retroflex affricate /tʂ/. When Malayalam and Tamil are transliterated into the Latin script, ⟨zh⟩ represents a retroflex approximant (Malayalam ഴ and Tamil ழ, ḻ, [ɻ]).
⟨zi⟩ in Polish represents /ʑ/ whenever it precedes a vowel, and /ʑi/ whenever it precedes a consonant (or in the end of the word), and is considered a graphic variant of ź appearing in other situations.
⟨zr⟩ is used in the General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages for /ʐ/.
⟨zs⟩ is the last (forty-fourth) letter of the Hungarian alphabet. Its name is "zsé" and represents /ʒ/, a voiced postalveolar fricative, similar to J in Jacques and s in vision. A few examples are rózsa "rose" and zsír "fat".
⟨ŋg⟩ is used in the General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages for /ᵑɡ/.
⟨ŋk⟩ is used in the General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages for /ᵑk/.
⟨ŋʼ⟩ is used in Adzera for the prenasalized glottal stop /ⁿʔ/.
- List of Latin-script trigraphs
- List of Latin-script tetragraphs
- List of Latin letters
- List of Cyrillic digraphs
- Chubb, Ray (2013) [First published 2010]. "Leveryans – Pronunciation". Skeul an Tavas: A coursebook in Standard Cornish. Illustrations by Nigel Roberts (Second ed.). Cnoc Sceichín, Leac an Anfa, Cathair na Mart, Co. Mhaigh Eo: Evertype. pp. 84–94. ISBN 978-1-904808-93-0.
- Ritchie, Carlo J.W. (2012). "Some Considerations on the Origins of Wymysorys". Academia.edu. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- Chubb, Ray (2011) [First published 2010]. "Leveryans – Pronunciation". Skeul an Tavas: A Cornish language coursebook for adults in the Standard Written Form with Traditional Graphs. Illustrations by Nigel Roberts (Second ed.). Redruth, Kernow / Cornwall, UK: Agan Tavas. pp. 84–92. ISBN 978-1-901409-12-3.
- Chubb, Ray (2013) [First published 2010]. "Leveryans – Pronunciation". Skeul an Tavas: A Cornish language coursebook for schools in the Standard Written Form. Illustrations by Nigel Roberts (Second ed.). Redruth, Kernow / Cornwall, UK: Agan Tavas. pp. 84–92. ISBN 978-1-901409-13-0.
- Bock, Albert; Bruch, Benjamin (3 July 2008). An Outline of the Standard Written Form of Cornish (First ed.). ISBN 978-1-903798-56-0. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- Rickard, Peter (2000). A history of the French language (2. ed., reprinted. ed.). London: Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 0-415-10887-X.
- Baxter, William H. (1992-01-31). A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. Berlin, New York: DE GRUYTER MOUTON. doi:10.1515/9783110857085. ISBN 978-3-11-085708-5.
- Nguyễn-Ðăng-Liêm (2019-03-31). Vietnamese Pronunciation. University of Hawaii Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctv9zcm4h. ISBN 978-0-8248-8161-0. S2CID 241836755.
- Bithell, Jethro (2018-10-29), "Sounds, Symbols and Alphabets", German Pronunciation and Phonology, Routledge, pp. 1–45, doi:10.4324/9780429468926-1, ISBN 978-0-429-46892-6, S2CID 187473360
- Gussmann, Edmund (2000), "Underlying forms", Morphologie, Berlin • New York: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 499–510, doi:10.1515/97831101112220.127.116.119, ISBN 978-3-11-011128-6
- Adelaar, K Alexander; Himmelmann, Nikolaus, eds. (2004-11-25). The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar. doi:10.4324/9780203821121. ISBN 9781136755101.
- de Haan, Ferdinand (2010-11-25). "Typology of Tense, Aspect, and Modality Systems". Oxford Handbooks Online. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199281251.013.0021.
- Torrence, Harold (2013-01-18). The Clause Structure of Wolof. Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today. Vol. 198. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi:10.1075/la.198. ISBN 978-90-272-5581-5.
- First Lt. William E. W. MacKinlay, 1905, A Handbook and Grammar of the Tagalog Language. Washington: Government Printing Office.
- Edward von Preissig, 1918, Dictionary and Grammar of the Chamorro Language of the Island of Guam. Washington: Government Printing Office.
- "L'orthographe des langues de la République démocratique du Congo: entre usages et norme" (PDF). Les cahiers du Rifal. 23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-04.
- George, Ken, ed. (September 2009) [First edition published in 1993 under the title Gerlyver Kernewek Kemmyn – An Gerlyver Meur]. "6. Recommended pronunciation". Gerlyver Meur (Second ed.). Cornish Language Board. pp. 28–35. ISBN 978-1-902917-84-9.
- IPA: Vowels Archived 2009-03-13 at the Wayback Machine
- 董峰政, "Taiwanese Tong-iong Pingim Dictionary", 臺南市寧南語言文化協會, Tainan City, Jul 2006.
- Williams, Nicholas (2006). "Pronunciation and Spelling of Unified Cornish Revised". In Everson, Michael (ed.). English–Cornish Dictionary: Gerlyver Sawsnek–Kernowek (Second ed.). Redruth, Kernow, UK: Agan Tavas. pp. xxvii–xxx. ISBN 978-1-901409-09-3.