P

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This article is about the letter of the alphabet. For other uses, see P (disambiguation).
For technical reasons, "P#" redirects here. For the programming language, see P Sharp.
For technical reasons, ":P" redirects here. For the keyboard symbol, see Emoticon.
Writing cursive forms of P

P (named pee /ˈp/[1] ) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

History[edit]

Phoenician
P
Archaic Greek
Pi
Greek
Pi
Etruscan
P
Latin
P
PhoenicianP-01.svg GreekP-02.svg Pi uc lc.svg EtruscanP-01.svg RomanP-01.png

Use in writing systems[edit]

In English orthography and most other European languages, 〈p〉 represents the sound /p/.

A common digraph in English is 〈ph〉, which represents the sound /f/, and can be used to transliterate 〈φ〉 phi in loanwords from Greek. In German, the digraph 〈pf〉 is common, representing a labial affricate /pf/.

Most English words beginning with 〈p〉 are of foreign origin, primarily French, Latin, Greek, and Slavic;[citation needed] these languages preserve Proto-Indo-European initial *p. Native English cognates of such words often start with 〈f〉, since English is a Germanic language and thus has undergone Grimm's law; a native English word with initial /p/ would reflect Proto-Indo-European initial *b, which is so rare that its existence as a phoneme is disputed.

However, native English words with non-initial 〈p〉 are quite common; such words can come from either Kluge's law or the consonant cluster /sp/ (PIE *p has been preserved after s).

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /p/ is used to represent the voiceless bilabial plosive.

Related characters[edit]

Ancestors, descendants and siblings[edit]

The Latin letter P represents the same sound as the Greek letter Pi, but it looks like the Greek letter Rho.

Derived ligatures, abbreviations, signs and symbols[edit]

Computing codes[edit]

Character P p
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER P     LATIN SMALL LETTER P
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 80 U+0050 112 U+0070
UTF-8 80 50 112 70
Numeric character reference P P p p
EBCDIC family 215 D7 151 97
ASCII 1 80 50 112 70
1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations[edit]

NATO phonetic Morse code
Papa ·––·
ICS Papa.svg Semaphore Papa.svg {{{Braille}}}
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "P", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "pee," op. cit.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to P at Wikimedia Commons
  • The dictionary definition of P at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of p at Wiktionary