Entrance of the main temple of Ġgantija
|Location||Xagħra, Gozo, Malta|
|Part of||Megalithic Temples of Malta|
|Excavation dates||1827 and 1933–1959|
|Ownership||Government of Malta|
|Official name||Megalithic Temples of Malta: Ġgantija, Ħaġar Qim, Mnajdra, Ta' Ħaġrat, Skorba, Tarxien|
|Designated||1980 (4th session)|
Ġgantija (Maltese pronunciation: [dʒɡanˈtiːja], "Giants' Tower") is a megalithic temple complex from the Neolithic on the Mediterranean island of Gozo. The Ġgantija temples are the earliest of the Megalithic Temples of Malta. The Ġgantija temples are older than the pyramids of Egypt. Their makers erected the two Ġgantija temples during the Neolithic (c. 3600–2500 BCE), which makes these temples more than 5500 years old and the world's second oldest manmade religious structures after Göbekli Tepe. Together with other similar structures, these have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Megalithic Temples of Malta.
The temples were possibly the site of a fertility rites; archeologists believe that the numerous figurines and statues found on site are connected with that cult. According to local Gozitan folklore, a giantess who ate nothing but broad beans and honey bore a child from a man of the common people. With the child hanging from her shoulder, built these temples and used them as places of worship.
Description and design
The Ġgantija temples stand at the end of the Xagħra plateau, facing towards the south-east.
This megalithic monument is in fact two temples (actually three, the last only the facade was partially built, before being abandoned, facing today's equinox sunrise, same as Mnajdra south, and same age), built side by side and enclosed within a boundary wall. The southerly one is the larger and older, dating back to approximately 3600 BC. It is also better preserved. The plan of the temple incorporates five large apses, with traces of the plaster that once covered the irregular wall still clinging between the blocks.
The temples are built in the typical clover-leaf shape, with inner facing blocks marking the shape which was then filled in with rubble. This led to the construction of a series of semi-circular apses connected with a central passage. Archaeologists believe that the apses were originally covered by roofing. The structures are all the more impressive for having been constructed at a time when no metal tools were available to the natives of the Maltese Islands, and when the wheel had not yet been introduced. Small, spherical stones have been discovered. They are believed to have been used as ball bearings to transport the enormous stone blocks required for the temples' construction.
The temple, like other megalithic sites in Malta, faces southeast. The southern temple rises to a height of six metres. At the entrance sits a large stone block with a recess, which led to the hypothesis that this was a ritual ablution station for purification before entering the complex. The five apses contain various altars; the finding of animal bones in the site suggests the site was used for animal sacrifice.
Excavations and recognition
Residents and travelers knew about the existence of the temple for a long time. In the late eighteenth century, even before any excavations were carried out, Jean-Pierre Houël drew a mostly correct plan based on that knowledge. In 1827, Col. John Otto Bayer, the Lieutenant Governor of Gozo, had the site cleared of debris. The soil and remains were therefore lost without having been properly examined. However the German artist Brochtorff had painted a picture of the site within a year or two prior to removal of the debris, so there was a record of the site before clearance.
After the excavations in 1827, the ruins fell into decay. The remains were included on the Antiquities List of 1925. The land was held privately until 1933, when the Government expropriated it for public benefit. The Museums Department conducted extensive archaeological work in 1933, 1936, 1949, 1956–57 and 1958–59. Its goal was to clear, preserve and research the ruins and their surroundings.
The Ġgantija temples were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. In 1992, the Committee decided to expand the listing to include five other megalithic temples situated across the islands of Malta and Gozo. The Ġgantija listing was renamed "the Megalithic Temples of Malta"
Possible Eternal Flame in the south complex
- Megalithic Temples of Malta
- Ħaġar Qim
- Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni
- List of megalithic sites
- Tarxien Temples
- De Soldanis, Gozo, Ancient and Modern, Religious and Profane, Book I, pp. 86–88
- "3600BC Ggantija Temples on Gozo – Millennium before the Pyramids or Stonehenge". Carnaval.com. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- Trump, Malta: An Archaeological Guide, p. 159
- Żammit, Mayrhofer, The Prehistoric Temples of Malta and Gozo, p. 152
- Żammit, Mayrhofer, The Prehistoric Temples of Malta and Gozo, p. 150
- Trump, Malta: An Archaeological Guide, p. 156
- Gunther, Michael D. "Prehistoric Temples Of Malta". Retrieved 19 September 2008.
- Żammit, Mayrhofer, The Prehistoric Temples of Malta and Gozo, p. 155
- "Protection of Antiquities Regulations 21st November, 1932 Government Notice 402 of 1932, as Amended by Government Notices 127 of 1935 and 338 of 1939.". Malta Environment and Planning Authority. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016.
- "World Heritage Centre – World Heritage List". Retrieved 2008-09-19.
- Meilaq, Charles (7 November 2007). "Extensive works at Ggantija Temples". Times of Malta. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "Enhanced visitor experience at Ggantija". Times of Malta. 23 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- "Ġgantija Heritage Park project inaugurated". Times of Malta. 24 October 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
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