1768 in Great Britain
- Monarch – George III
- Prime Minister – William Pitt the Elder (Whig) (until 14 October), Duke of Grafton (Whig) (starting 14 October)
- Parliament – 13th then 14th
- 9 January – Philip Astley stages the first modern circus, with acrobats on galloping horses in London.
- March – general election; Whigs remain in power.
- 17 March – William Cookworthy of Plymouth is granted a patent for the manufacture of true porcelain.
- 10 May – John Wilkes is imprisoned for writing an article for The North Briton severely criticising King George III. This action provokes protesters to riot; in Southwark, troops fire on the mob, killing seven, the Massacre of St George's Fields.
- 8 August – James Cook departs Plymouth on his first voyage of discovery.
- September – first Birmingham Music Festival held.
- 14 October – Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, succeeds William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, as Prime Minister after Pitt's resignation due to ill health.
- 10 December – Royal Academy founded in London, with Joshua Reynolds as its first President.
- Secretary of State for colonies appointed.
- Boston citizens refuse to quarter British troops.
- Frederick Cornwallis enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury.
- The Theatre Royal, Bath, and Theatre Royal, Norwich, assume these titles having been granted Royal Patents, making them officially the country's only legal provincial theatres.
- Foundation of the Leeds Library, the oldest surviving subscription library of its type in Britain.
- Joseph Wright of Derby's painting An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump.
- First of the weekly numbers of the Encyclopædia Britannica, edited by William Smellie, are published in Edinburgh; one hundred are planned.
- An Essay upon Prints, containing remarks upon the principles of picturesque beauty by William Gilpin.
- A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy by Laurence Sterne.
- A Six Weeks Tour, through the southern counties of England and Wales by Arthur Young.
- 22 March – Bryan Donkin, engineer and inventor (died 1855)
- 17 May
- 23 August – Astley Cooper, surgeon and anatomist (died 1841)
- 24 September – Sharon Turner, historian (died 1847)
- 2 October – William Carr Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford, general and politician (died 1854)
- 1 February – Sir Robert Rich, cavalry officer (born 1685)
- 2 February – Robert Smith, mathematician (born 1689)
- 8 February – George Dance the Elder, architect (born 1695)
- 17 February – Arthur Onslow, politician (born 1691)
- 18 March – Laurence Sterne, Irish-born English novelist (born 1713)
- 15 June – James Short, mathematician and optician (born 1710)
- 24 July – Nathanial Lardner, theologian (born 1684)
- 3 August – Thomas Secker, Archbishop of Canterbury (born 1693)
- 1 October – Robert Simson, mathematician (born 1687)
- 17 November – Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Prime Minister (born 1693)
- 26 November – Edward Stone, polymath (born 1702)
- date unknown – Mary Hervey (born 1700)
- Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 224–225. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Penderill-Church, John (1972). William Cookworthy 1705–1780: a study of the pioneer of true porcelain manufacture in England. Truro: Bradford Barton.
- "St. George's Field Riot". Spartacus. Archived from the original on 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2012-03-03.
- "Cook's Journal: Daily Entries, 7 August 1768". Archived from the original on 23 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-10.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- "Theatre Royal – Tate Wilkinson as Manager". York Guides. Archived from the original on 2012-02-26. Retrieved 2011-02-25.
- Kaufman, Paul (1967). "The Community Library: A Chapter in English Social History". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 57. JSTOR 1006043.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.