1822 and 1823 United States Senate elections

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United States Senate elections, 1822 and 1823

← 1820/21 Dates vary by state 1824/25 →

16 of the 48 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
25 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 39 seats 4 seats
Seats before 44 4
Seats won 14 1
Seats after 44 3
Seat change Steady Decrease 1
Seats up 14 2

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1822 and 1823 were elections for the United States Senate that had the Democratic-Republican Party continue almost complete control of the Senate.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Factions[edit]

At the very end of the next Congress, the 1824 United States presidential election led to a contingency election, decided by the Congress. In that election, Senators split into factions in support of William H. Crawford, Andrew Jackson, or John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay. Even though that election wasn't held until more than two years after the Senate elections in this article, those factions are noted below as "Crawford," "Jackson," or "Adams-Clay."

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 18th Congress (1823–1825)

  • Majority Party: Democratic-Republican (32–33)
  • Minority Parties: National Republican & Federalist (4–5)
  • Total seats: 48

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

Composition after the January 24, 1822 election in Delaware.

DR1 DR2 DR3 DR4
DR14 DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5
DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR19 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23 DR24
Majority → DR25
DR34 DR33 DR32 DR31 DR30 DR29 DR28 DR27 DR26
DR35 DR36 DR37 DR38 DR39 DR40 DR41 DR42 DR43 DR44
F1 F2 F3 F4

Result of the elections[edit]

DR1 DR2 DR3 DR4
DR14 DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5
DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR119 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23 DR24
Majority → DR25
DR34
Hold
DR33
Hold
DR32
Hold
DR31
Hold
DR30 DR29 DR28 DR27 DR26
DR35
Re-elected
DR36
Re-elected
DR37
Re-elected
DR38
Re-elected
DR39
Re-elected
DR40
Re-elected
DR41
Re-elected
DR42
Re-elected
DR43
Re-elected
DR44
Re-elected
F1 F2 F3
Re-elected
V1
F Loss

Beginning of the next Congress, divided by factions[edit]

DRa1 DRa2 DRa3 DRa4
DRc14 DRc13 DRc12 DRa11 DRa10 DRa9 DRa8 DRa7 DRa6 DRa5
DRc15 DRc16 DRc17 DRc18 DRc19 DRc20 DRc21 DRc22 DRc23 DRc24
Plurality→ DRc25
DRj34 DRj33 DRj32 DRc31 DRc30 DRc29 DRc28 DRc27 DRc26
DRj35 DRj36 DRj37 DRj38 DRj39 DRj40 DRj41 DRj42 V3
F Loss
V2
F Loss
Fa1 Fa2 Fa3 V1
Key:
DR# = Democratic-Republican
DRa# = Democratic-Republican (Adams-Clay)
DRc# = Democratic-Republican (Crawford)
DRj# = Democratic-Republican (Jackson)
F# = Federalist
Fa# = Federalist (Adams-Clay)
V# = Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the preceding Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1822 or before March 4, 1823; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Delaware
(Class 1)
Vacant Outerbridge Horsey (F) had resigned March 3, 1821.
New senator elected January 24, 1822.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Ohio
(Class 3)
William A. Trimble Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent died December 13, 1821.
New senator elected January 29, 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Harrison Gray Otis Federalist 1816 Incumbent resigned May 30, 1822 to run for Mayor of Boston.
New senator elected June 5, 1822.
Successor was also elected to the next term, see below.
Federalist hold.
Alabama
(Class 3)
John W. Walker Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent resigned December 12, 1822 due to failing health.
New senator elected December 12, 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Maryland
(Class 1)
William Pinkney Democratic-Republican 1819 (Special)
1821
Incumbent died February 25, 1822.
New senator elected December 17, 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Samuel Smith (Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Virginia
(Class 2)
James Pleasants Democratic-Republican 1819 (Special) Incumbent resigned December 15, 1822 to become Governor of Virginia.
New senator elected December 18, 1822.
Successor was later re-elected to the next term, see below.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Races leading to the next Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1823; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama William R. King Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected in 1822.
Delaware Nicholas Van Dyke Federalist 1817 Legislature failed to elect.
Federalist loss.
Incumbent would later be re-elected late in 1824.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Georgia Nicholas Ware Democratic-Republican 1821 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1822 or 1823.
  • Green tickY Nicholas Ware (Crawford Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Illinois Jesse B. Thomas Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
Kentucky Richard M. Johnson Democratic-Republican 1819 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
Louisiana Henry Johnson Democratic-Republican 1818 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee elected in 1823.
  • Green tickY Henry Johnson (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Maine John Chandler Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
  • Green tickY John Chandler (Crawford Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Massachusetts James Lloyd Federalist 1808 (Special)
1808
Resigned 1813
1822 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected as an Adams-Clay Federalist in 1822.
Winner was also elected to finish the current term, see above.
  • Green tickY James Lloyd (Adams-Clay Federalist)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Mississippi Thomas Hill Williams Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
New Hampshire David L. Morril Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1823.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Samuel Bell (Adams-Clay Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
New Jersey Mahlon Dickerson Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
North Carolina Montfort Stokes Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special)
1816
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY John Branch (Crawford Democratic-Republican)
  • [Data unknown/missing.]
Rhode Island Nehemiah R. Knight Democratic-Republican 1821 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
South Carolina William Smith Democratic-Republican 1810 (Special)
1816
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Tennessee John Williams Democratic-Republican 1815 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected October 28, 1823.[2]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Virginia John Taylor of Caroline Democratic-Republican 1822 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
Winner was also elected to finish the current term, see above.

Special elections during the next Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were elected in 1823 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New Jersey
(Class 1)
Samuel L. Southard Democratic-Republican 1821 (Appointed)
1820
Incumbent resigned March 4, 1823 to become U.S. Secretary of the Navy.
New senator elected November 12, 1823.
Democratic Republican hold.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Virginia 1822 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  2. ^ "Tennessee 1823 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved June 4, 2019.