1825 in science
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Pierre-Simon Laplace completes his study of gravitation, the stability of the solar system, tides, the precession of the equinoxes, the libration of the Moon, and Saturn's rings in Mécanique Céleste.
- Richard Harlan publishes Fauna Americana.
- Charles Waterton publishes Wanderings in South America, the North-west of the United States, and the Antilles, in the years 1812, 1816, 1820, and 1824; with original instructions for the perfect preservation of birds, &c. for cabinets of natural history.
- Cox's Orange Pippin apple cultivar first grown, at Colnbrook in Buckinghamshire, England, by horticulturist and retired brewer Richard Cox.
- Michael Faraday isolates benzene as Bicarburet of Hydrogen.
- Hans Christian Ørsted reduces aluminium chloride to produce metallic aluminium in an impure form.
- Friedrich Wöhler and Justus von Liebig perform the first confirmed discovery and explanation of isomers, earlier named by Berzelius. Working with cyanic acid and fulminic acid, they correctly deduce that isomerism was caused by differing arrangements of atoms within a molecular structure.
- G. Poulett Scrope publishes Considerations on Volcanoes, the first systematic work on volcanology.
- Augustin-Louis Cauchy presents the Cauchy integral theorem for general integration paths—he assumes the function being integrated has a continuous derivative.
- Augustin-Louis Cauchy introduces the theory of residues in complex analysis.
- Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet and Adrien-Marie Legendre prove Fermat's last theorem for n = 5.
- André-Marie Ampère discovers Stokes' theorem.
- Jean-Baptiste Sarlandière's Mémoires sur L'Électro-Puncture introduces Western medicine to electroacupuncture.
- Georges Cuvier proposes his catastrophe theory as the cause of extinctions of large groups of animals.
- Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire identifies Cuvier's fossil `crocodile´ as a teleosaurus.
- August – The wire-cable suspension bridge between Tournon-sur-Rhône and Tain-l'Hermitage, designed by Marc Seguin, opens.
- September 27 – The world's longest railway to be worked by steam locomotives at this date, the Stockton and Darlington Railway, opens in northern England.
- October 26 – The Erie Canal officially opens over 363 miles (584 km) from Albany, New York, to Lake Erie.
- English inventor William Sturgeon describes the first electromagnet.
- January 18 – Edward Frankland (died 1899), English chemist.
- March 25 – Max Schultze (died 1874), German physiologist.
- May 1 – Johann Balmer (died 1898), Swiss mathematician.
- May 4 – Thomas Henry Huxley (died 1895), English biologist.
- June 6 – Friedrich Bayer (died 1880), German manufacturing chemist.
- November 29 – Jean-Martin Charcot (died 1893), French neurologist.
- December 26 – Felix Hoppe-Seyler (died 1895), German physiologist.
- April 19 – Marc-Auguste Pictet (born 1752), Swiss physicist.
- June – William Higgins (born 1763), Irish chemist.
- October 6 – Bernard Germain Étienne (born 1756), French naturalist.
- Maria Angela Ardinghelli (born 1730), Italian mathematician and physicist.
- Faraday, M. (1825-06-16). "On New Compounds of Carbon and Hydrogen, and on Certain Other Products Obtained during the Decomposition of Oil by Heat". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 115: 440–466. doi:10.1098/rstl.1825.0022. JSTOR 107752. Retrieved 2012-09-25.
- Kaiser, R. (1968). "'Bicarburet of Hydrogen': Reappraisal of the Discovery of Benzene in 1825 with the Analytical Methods of 1968" (PDF). Angewandte Chemie (International ed.) 7 (5): 345–350. doi:10.1002/anie.196803451. Retrieved 2012-09-25.
- "Justus von Liebig and Friedrich Wöhler". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. Retrieved 2007-02-22.
- "Scrope, George Julius Poulett". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2008. Archived from the original on 10 February 2008. Retrieved 2008.
- Gwei-Djen, Lu; Needham, Joseph (1980). Celestial Lancets: A History and Rationale of Acupuncture and Moxa. Cambridge University Press. pp. 295–7. ISBN 0-521-21513-7.
- Drewry, Charles Stewart (1832). A Memoir of Suspension Bridges, Comprising the History of their Origin and Progress. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman. pp. 110–114. Retrieved 2011-04-18.
- Finch, Roy G. (1925), The Story of the New York State Canals (PDF), New York State Canal Corporation, retrieved 2012-09-25
- Gee, William; James, Frank A. J. L. (2004). "Sturgeon, William (1783–1850)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26748. Retrieved 2012-01-05. (subscription or UK public library membership required)