1822 in science
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- Georges Cuvier establishes new standards and methods in stratigraphy and paleontology.
- Gideon Mantell discovers the first fossil of the iguanodon.
- John Phillips and William Conybeare identify the Carboniferous Period.
- Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy identifies the Cretaceous Period. He also proposes the Jurassic System.
- July 3 – Charles Babbage publishes a proposal for a "difference engine", a mechanical forerunner of the modern computer for calculating logarithms and trigonometric functions. Construction of an operational version will proceed under British Government sponsorship 1823–32 but it will never be completed.
- Karl Feuerbach describes the nine-point circle of a triangle.
- William Farish of the University of Cambridge publishes a systematization of the rules for isometric drawing.
- United States Army surgeon William Beaumont pioneers human gastric endoscopy on Alexis St. Martin.
- May 23 – HMS Comet launched at Deptford Dockyard in the United Kingdom, the first steamboat commissioned by the Royal Navy.
- June 10 – The Aaron Manby crosses the English Channel, making her the first seagoing iron steamboat.
- French civil engineer Louis Vicat completes construction of a concrete viaduct across the Dordogne at Souillac, Lot.
- September 11 - Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632) is permitted by the Roman Catholic Church to be published.
- June 12 – Edward Banks knighted, the first such honour for work in civil engineering.
- Copley Medal: William Buckland
- January 2 – Rudolf Clausius, physicist (died 1888)
- January 6 – Heinrich Schliemann, archaeologist (died 1890)
- February 16 – Sir Francis Galton, explorer, biologist (died 1911)
- April 18 – August Heinrich Petermann, cartographer (died 1878)
- June 10 – Lydia White Shattuck, botanist (died 1889)
- July 22 – Gregor Mendel, geneticist (died 1884)
- October 13 (O.S. October 1) – Lev Tsenkovsky, biologist (died 1887)
- December 27 – Louis Pasteur, biologist (died 1895)
- January 21 – Marie-Aimée Lullin, Swiss entomologist (born 1751)
- February 23 – Johann Matthäus Bechstein, naturalist (born 1757)
- June 23 – René Just Haüy, mineralogist (born 1743)
- August 13 – Jean-Robert Argand, mathematician (born 1768)
- August 25 – William Herschel, astronomer (born 1738)
- November 6 – Claude Louis Berthollet, chemist (born 1748)
- Hyman, Anthony (1982). Charles Babbage: pioneer of the computer. Oxford University Press. p. 51ff. ISBN 0-19-858170-X.
- Crilly, Tony (2007). 50 Mathematical Ideas You Really Need to Know. London: Quercus. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-84724-008-8.
- Farish, William (1822). "On Isometrical Perspective" (PDF). Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 1: 1–19. Retrieved 2012-05-29.
- Jones, Barclay G. (1986). Protecting historic architecture and museum collections from natural disasters. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. p. 243. ISBN 0-409-90035-4.
- Moorhouse, Charles Edmund (1974). Visual messages: graphic communication for senior students.
- Beaumont, William; Combe, Andrew (1838). Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice, and the Physiology of Digestion (reprint ed.). Edinburgh: MacLachlan & Stewart. ISBN 0-486-69213-2. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
- Clermontel, Danièle; Clermontel, Jean-Claude (2009). Chronologie scientifique, technologique et économique de la France. Paris: Publibook. p. 241.
- Port, M. H. (2004). "Banks, Sir Edward (1770–1835)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/1294. Retrieved 2010-10-31. (subscription or UK public library membership required)