2018 Volcán de Fuego eruption

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2018 Volcán de Fuego eruption
VolcanoVolcán de Fuego
Date3 June 2018 (2018-06-03)
Time~12:00 local time (18:00 UTC)
LocationGuatemala
14°28′29″N 90°52′51″W / 14.47472°N 90.88083°W / 14.47472; -90.88083Coordinates: 14°28′29″N 90°52′51″W / 14.47472°N 90.88083°W / 14.47472; -90.88083
ImpactAt least 190 people killed and 256 missing
Map of Guatemala with Volcán de Fuego marked
Map of Guatemala with Volcán de Fuego marked
Volcán de Fuego

The 2018 Volcán de Fuego eruption was a series of volcanic explosions and pyroclastic flows from the Volcán de Fuego (Spanish for Volcano of Fire) in Guatemala on Sunday 3 June 2018. The eruption included lahars, pyroclastic flows, and clouds of volcanic ash, which left almost no evacuation time and caused nearly two hundred people killed. It was the deadliest eruption in Guatemala since 1929.

Background[edit]

Volcán de Fuego (Spanish for "Volcano of Fire") is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and is located 44 kilometres (27 mi) from Guatemala City.[1] It is a stratovolcano that has had more than 60 eruptions since 1524, including a major eruption in 1974 which produced pyroclastic flows that destroyed the region's winter harvest and ashfall that covered nearby cities.[2] The 3 June eruption is one of the deadliest in the country, including the Santa María eruption of 1902[3] and the Santiaguito dome collapse of 1929, which killed hundreds.[4][5] The most eruptive phase began in 2002 and produced an explosive eruption in 2012 that forced 33,000 people to evacuate, but had no reported deaths.[6][7]

The population around the volcano is estimated to be 54,000 within 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) and more than 1 million within 30 kilometres (19 mi).[8]

Eruption[edit]

On Sunday 3 June 2018, at around noon local time, Volcán de Fuego in southern Guatemala began a volcanic eruption[9] which left almost no evacuation time.[10][11][12] The heat and explosive impact of the volcano brought about rocks the size of baseballs and larger strewn about, and car tires melted into the ground.[13] Most of the injuries and fatalities were south of the volcano in the towns and villages of El Rodeo, Las Lajas, and San Miguel Los Lotes, in Escuintla, located 44 kilometres (27 mi) from Guatemala City.[14][15][16] San Miguel Los Lotes, a community 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) north of El Rodeo was covered with deep hot ash.[3] The eruption prompted the evacuation of about 3,100 people from nearby areas. Ashfall forced the shutdown of La Aurora International Airport, the country's primary airport,[17][3] where members of the Guatemalan military were deployed to remove ash off the tarmac;[18] some flights were canceled, but the airport was able to reopen on 4 June.[19]

The eruption produced an ash column approximately 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) in height.[20] Pyroclastic flows—fast-moving clouds of hot gas and volcanic matter[21]—caused many of the casualties and crop damage.[22][23] INSIVUMEH, Guatemala's national institute of volcanology, warned on 4 June that further pyroclastic flows and lahars (volcanic mudflows) were possible.[3] Heavy rainfall during the eruption led to the formation of dangerous lahars. Volcanic material buried several of the affected villages and cut off roadways.[3] The poor weather and unpredictable lahars complicated the recovery operation, and all rescue efforts had to be suspended overnight on 3 June.[24] The volcanic material also destroyed an estimated 21,000 acres (8,500 hectares) of corn, bean, and coffee crops.[25]

Continued June eruptions[edit]

On 5 June, a second eruption occurred and prompted additional evacuations.[26] On 8 June, new volcanic flows prompted more evacuations of rescue workers and residents of the town of El Rodeo, who had recently returned to their homes and were told to leave once again.[27] On 9 June, additional lahars prompted preventive evacuations in Santa Lucía Cotzumalguapa.[28]

November eruption[edit]

On 18 November 2018, Volcán de Fuego entered a new eruptive and violent phase that prompted preventive evacuations of approximately 4,000 people from communities near the volcano.[29] CONRED issued a red alert in the area that closed main roads and suspended flights at the La Aurora International Airport.[30]

Victims[edit]

At least 190 people were killed,[31] 57 injured, and 256 remained missing as of 30 July 2018[32]—including a number of children, a CONRED officer,[33] firefighters,[34] and a policeman[35]—although local residents estimate that approximately 2,000 people are buried[35] and a local organization said that up to 2,900 may have died.[36] Due to the intense heat and burn injuries, many bodies were planned to be identified with anthropological methods and DNA.[37][38] As of 18 June 2018, up to 159 cases entered the morgues,[39] with 85 of the victims having been identified.[40]

Animals[edit]

Animals such as dogs, cats, chickens, monkeys, donkeys and other species were found by rescuers with burns or blinded by the eruption.[41] In many cases urgent veterinary care was required to treat eye infections, respiratory problems, and burns caused by dust, hot ash and gas from the eruption.[42][43] There is one instance of a family's dog that survived and led rescuers to its owner's home, in which all humans were deceased.[44]

Response[edit]

President Jimmy Morales ordered three days of national mourning in response to the disaster[3] and visited some of the affected towns and villages in person on 4 June.[45] Messages of support, solidarity, and offers of assistance were given by various world leaders.[18]

The Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), Guatemala's disaster relief agency, reported that more than 1.7 million people have been affected by the eruption and its ashfall.[15] A state of emergency was declared in the departments of Escuintla, Chimaltenango, and Sacatepéquez.[46]

Organizations such as GoFundMe, Cruz Roja Guatemalteca, and The National Federation of Cooperatives are being used to raise physical and monetary donations to be dispersed to those affected by the eruption.[47] GoFundMe created a centralized hub for all verified campaigns that are providing aid to those affected.[48]

Severely wounded individuals are scheduled to receive medical attention in the United States and Mexico, and an emergency medical team from Shriners Hospitals for Children would travel from the United States.[13]

Recovery[edit]

The Guatemalan Mountain Rescue Brigade were already searching for a missing person when they suddenly realized that the volcano's activity had increased. Firefighters have been deployed in order to help evacuate residents and recover bodies.[49] Family members who grew tired of waiting for organized efforts by the government organized their own groups of recovery operations and defied police roadblocks to dig at the debris.[50]

A member of a firefighter support organization stated, "Basically there's no houses left, and to my assumption there's nobody left there... except the people doing the search and rescue." A volunteer firefighter added that the ground was very unstable and that breathing was difficult and firefighters' boot soles had been torn off because of the heat.[51]

Firefighters have stated that after 72 hours the chance of finding anyone alive would be nonexistent.[52]

Controversy[edit]

On 7 June, opposition politician Mario Taracena, in an address to Congress, accused the executive secretary of the National Coordination for Disaster Reduction (CONRED) of mismanaging the disaster warnings. The director of the National Institute for Seismology, Vulcanology, Meteorology and Hydrology also came under criticism for mismanagement and lack of warnings, a claim they refuted.[53] Taracena also called for a government investigation into potential criminal negligence.[54] A lawmaker told reporters that seismologists warned of the eruption eight hours before the main eruption, however, three hours later the national disaster agency CONRED called for voluntary evacuations only.[55][56] Mandatory evacuations were ordered at 3pm local time, after some communities were already covered by volcanic flow.[57]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Fuego". Oregon State University. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  2. ^ Hemeroteca, PL (14 October 2015). "Volcán de Fuego causa serios daños en 1974" [Volcán de Fuego causes serious damage in 1974]. Prensa Libre (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Guatemala volcano: Dozens die as Fuego volcano erupts". BBC News. 3 June 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  4. ^ Mercado, R; Rose, W; Matias, O; Giron, J (1988). "November 1929 dome collapse and pyroclastic flow at Santiaguito dome, Guatemala". Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. 69 (44): 1043. doi:10.1029/88EO01175.
  5. ^ "Death toll from eruption at Guatemala's Fuego volcano rises to 99". BNO News. 6 June 2018. Archived from the original on 7 June 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  6. ^ Rodriguez Mega, Emiliano (4 June 2018). "AP Explains: A closer look at Guatemala's Volcano of Fire". Sacramento Bee. Associated Press. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  7. ^ "Volcano erupts in Guatemala forcing thousands to evacuate". The Guardian. Associated Press. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  8. ^ "Fuego". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institute. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  9. ^ Laura, Geggel (4 June 2018). "Lava and Ash from Fuego Volcano Kills 33 in Guatemala". Live Science. Archived from the original on 4 June 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  10. ^ Emergency in Guatemala: Volcán de Fuego Aftermath. Catholic Medical Mission Board. 22 June 2018.
  11. ^ Panic as more flee new blasts from Volcano of Fire. CBS News. 6 June 2018.
  12. ^ The Latest: New evacuations at Guatemala's Volcano of Fire. The Associated Press. 8 June 2018.
  13. ^ a b CNN, Patrick Oppmann, Natalie Gallón, Jose Armijo and Emanuella Grinberg,. "Homes are buried in ash and he can't find his wife". CNN. Retrieved 2018-06-08.
  14. ^ Perez D., Sonia (3 June 2018). "Guatemala volcanic eruption sends lava into homes, kills 25". Associated Press. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  15. ^ a b "Guatemala volcano eruption kills 25". Yahoo! News. Agence France-Presse. 3 June 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  16. ^ Menchu, Sofia (3 June 2018). "Guatemala's Fuego volcano eruption kills 25, injures hundreds". Reuters. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  17. ^ "Death toll climbs from volcano's explosions of ash, molten rock in Guatemala". CBS News. 3 June 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  18. ^ a b Cullinane, Susannah; Grinberg, Emanuella; Dominguez, Claudia (4 June 2018). "Guatemala's Fuego volcano erupts, killing at least 25". CNN. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  19. ^ Withers, Paul (4 June 2018). "Guatemala volcano eruption update LIVE: Fuego EXPLOSION kills 62 – 2 MILLION affected". Daily Express. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  20. ^ "Volcanic Ash Advisory". National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. 4 June 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  21. ^ "Pyroclastic flow | volcanism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  22. ^ Sharman, Jon; Shugerman, Emily (4 June 2018). "Death toll from Guatemala eruption rises to 62 with 2 million people affected". The Independent. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  23. ^ Tuckman, Jo (4 June 2018). "Guatemala's Fuego volcano eruption: At least 38 dead and hundreds injured as lava surge sweeps through villages". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  24. ^ Leister, Eric (4 June 2018). "Dozens killed as Guatemala volcano emits lava and ash, triggers lahars". AccuWeather. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  25. ^ Experimental Forecasts Could Help Guatemala Recover from Volcanic Eruption. Sarah Fecht, Earth Institute, Columbia University.
  26. ^ "Guatemala warns of greater activity after volcano explodes again". Reuters. 5 June 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  27. ^ Lava Flows From Guatemala Volcano Prompt New Evacuations. Samantha Raphelson, NPR. 8 June 2018.
  28. ^ Guatemala's Volcano of Fire emits another hot sediment flow. ABC News. 9 June 2019.
  29. ^ Guatemala volcano: Satellite captures video of Fuego eruption from space. The Independent. 20 November 2018.
  30. ^ "Thousands urged to flee Guatemala's killer "Volcano of Fire"". CBS News. Associated Press. 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  31. ^ "Thousands evacuated as Guatemala's Fuego volcano erupts". Reuters. 19 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  32. ^ "Guatemala volcano death toll hiked to 159, 256 people still missing". Al Día. Pennsylvania, US: AL DÍA News Media. 30 July 2018. Archived from the original on 4 August 2018. Retrieved 23 Aug 2018.
  33. ^ Adamczyk, Ed; Haynes, Danielle (4 June 2018). "Dozens dead, 1.7M affected by Guatemala volcano eruption". United Press International. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  34. ^ Peters, María de Jesús (8 June 2018). "Rescatistas dejan la vida por el volcán de Guatemala" [Rescuers lose their lives due to the Guatemala volcano]. El Universal. Mexico. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  35. ^ a b Morales, Sergio (12 June 2018). "Hallan cuerpo de policía arrastrado por río cuando trasladaba ayuda para víctimas de erupción" [Body of policeman swept away by river when moving help for eruption victims is found]. Prensa Libre (in Spanish). Guatemala. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  36. ^ Paredes, Enrique; Morales, Sergio (4 July 2018). "Conred cifra en 332 el número de desaparecidos por erupción volcánica" [Conred: 332 the number of missing due to volcanic eruption]. Prensa Libre. Guatemala. Archived from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  37. ^ Grim task as forensic experts ID Guatemala volcano victims. Sonia Perez D., Associated Press. 8 June 2018.
  38. ^ "Guatemala lucha por identificar a las víctimas del volcán". VOA Noticias. 5 June 2018. Archived from the original on 5 June 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  39. ^ Palacios, Braulio (18 June 2018). "Inacif identifica tres víctimas más de la erupción del volcán de Fuego" [Inacif identifies three more victims of the Volcán de Fuego eruption]. República. Guatemala. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018.
  40. ^ "Guatemala raises number of missing to 332 in deadly volcano eruption". CBS News. 4 July 2018. Archived from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  41. ^ "Amazing Animal Rescues in Guatemala (PHOTOS)". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
  42. ^ "Help at hand for Guatemala's equine volcano victims - Horsetalk.co.nz". Horsetalk.co.nz. 2018-06-10. Retrieved 2018-06-10.
  43. ^ HSI brings food, medical help to starving, hurt animals in volcano-hit Guatemala. The Humane Society. 26 June 2018.
  44. ^ "HEARTBREAKING: Faithful dog led rescuers to his dead owners in Guatemala volcano disaster". Express.co.uk. 2018-06-06. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
  45. ^ "En Directo. Tragedia por erupción de Volcán de Fuego" [Live: Tragedy of the Volcán de Fuego eruption]. Prensa Libre (in Spanish). 4 June 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  46. ^ "Dozens dead as 'Volcan de Fuego' erupts in Guatemala". Al Jazeera. 4 June 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  47. ^ Cruz, Caitlin. "How To Help Guatemalans Affected by the Fuego Volcano Eruption From Wherever You Are". Bustle. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  48. ^ "Fuego Volcano Eruption Cause Page". GoFundMe. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  49. ^ "Guatemala searches for volcano missing". BBC News. 4 June 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  50. ^ "At Guatemala volcano, families left on own to keep searching". cleveland.com. Retrieved 2018-06-08.
  51. ^ CNN, Susannah Cullinane, Holly Yan and Flora Charner,. "Rescuers brave scalding ash as Guatemala volcano toll rises". CNN. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  52. ^ "Time running out to rescue Guatemala volcano victims". Press Herald. 2018-06-06. Retrieved 2018-06-08.
  53. ^ "Guatemala Volcano Toll Reaches 99, As Officials Point Fingers Over Evacuation". NPR.org. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
  54. ^ "Guatemala volcano: Emergency agency 'failed to heed warnings'". BBC. 7 June 2018. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  55. ^ Guatemala Volcano Eruption Warnings 'Came Too Late,' Officials Admit. David Brennan, News Week. 8 June 2018.
  56. ^ Did Guatemala volcano emergency response cost lives? MSN News. 8 June 2018.
  57. ^ Volcán de Fuego de Guatemala: ¿era evitable la tragedia causada por la erupción? Lioman Lima, BBC News. 6 June 2018 (in Spanish).

External links[edit]