Abdul Qadir (Afghan communist)

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Abdul Qadir
Minister of Defence
In office
1982 – December 1986
Premier Sultan Ali Keshtmand
Preceded by Mohammed Rafie
Succeeded by Mohammed Rafie
In office
30 April 1978 – August 1978
Premier Sultan Ali Keshtmand
Preceded by Ghulam Haidar Rasuli
Succeeded by Mohammad Aslam Watanjar
Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of the Armed Forces
In office
28 April 1978 – 30 April 1978
Preceded by Mohammed Daoud Khan
Succeeded by Nur Muhammad Taraki
Personal details
Born 1944
Herat, Afghanistan
Died 22 April 2014 (aged 69–70)
Political party People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
Religion Sunni Islam[citation needed]

Colonel Abdul Qadir (1944 – 22 April 2014) was the leader of the Afghan Air Force squadrons that attacked the Radio-TV Station during the 1978 Coup that started the Saur Revolution.

He also participated in the 1973 Coup that created the Daoud Republic of Afghanistan under the Presidency of Mohammad Daoud Khan. He served as the leader of the country for three days[citation needed], when the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan took power and declared the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. He was born in 1944 in Herat and trained as a pilot in the Soviet Union.

The Republican Revolution of 1973[edit]

Former Prime Minister Mohammad Daoud Khan led the coup with General Abdul Karim Mustaghni, who had been Chief of Staff of the armed forces. Daoud promised radical land reform, the legalisation of political parties and other reforms. The Parcham was offered four minister posts in Daoud's government. As a Parcham member, Qadir was nominated vice-commander of the Afghan air force, while another Parcham supporter, Major Zia Mohammadzi Zia, was appointed head of the Afghan army. However, by 1974 Daoud removed and downgraded many of the Parcham ministers in the government. Qadir was thus downgraded to head of Kabul's Military abattoir. Many Parcham supporters, including Major Qadir, shifted allegiance to Khalq.

In April 1978 Daoud and his hardline interior minister, General Abdul Qadir Khan Nuristani, launched a sharp government crackdown on the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). It proved to be a miscalculation. Major Qadir and Colonel Mohammad Aslam Watanjar, another leading PDPA member in the military, narrowly escaped arrest and early on 27 April Hafizullah Amin was able to smuggle out the order to restart the coup.

The Saur Revolution[edit]

He also ordered the attack against the Arg, and against the Royal Palace of President Mohammad Daoud Khan. The tank commander on the ground was Colonel Aslam Watanjar, of the first battalion of the 4th tank brigade. Together, the troops under their command took Kabul. The government fell, and Daoud was killed.[1]

At 19:00 on 27 April Qadir made an announcement over Radio Afghanistan, in the Dari language, that a Revolutionary Council of the Armed Forces had been established, with himself at its head. The council's initial statement of principles, issued late in the evening of 27 April was a noncommittal affirmation of Islamic, democratic, and nonaligned ideals:

The Revolutionary Council was formed by himself, Hafizullah Amin, and Major Mohammad Aslam Watanjar, it assumed the control of the country until a civilian government was formed. On 30 April the newly created PDPA's Revolutionary Council (with Nur Mohammad Taraki and Babrak Karmal in its leadership) issued the first of a series of fateful decrees. The decree formally abolished the military’s revolutionary council. A second decree, issued on 1 May, named the members of the first cabinet that included Qadir as Minister of Defence.

Member of the Khalqist Government[edit]

He became minister of defense, for three months starting in May 1978. On 6 May Qadir asked the Soviet commanders for advice on how to deal with all the people under arrest. On 17 August, Qadir, still defence minister, was arrested for his part in a conspiracy that allegedly had been organized by the Parchams exiled abroad. Since Qadir remained popular in the military, President Taraki did not dare to kill him and instead he was sentenced to fifteen years in jail.[1]

The policy of Taraki and Hafizullah Amin to get rid of people they considered unsuitable in order to concentrate all power in their own hands became very apparent. Prime Minister Amin later reported:[2]

Member of the Parchami Government[edit]

After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 that assassinated Hafizullah Amin, Qadir was released from jail under the new regime of Babrak Karmal, the political posts he held in the PDPA before being sent to jail were restored. He served once again as Minister of Defence (1982-1985) during the Babrak Administration.[1]

After the Soviet Invasion, Kabul was put in a state of siege. The bridges were blocked, barriers and hidden ambushes were set up on all the roads leading into the city. Qadir was made commander of the city. As part of the changes in the leadership of the country, he resigned from the Politburo in November 1985, a year later was appointed Ambassador to Warsaw, Poland by President Mohammad Najibullah. He was recalled to Afghanistan in 1988, and was subsequently elected to Parliament. After the Soviet withdrawal in 1989 it was believed he fled to Bulgaria and sought political asylum.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Frank Clements and Ludwig W. Adamec (2003-12-31). Conflict in Afghanistan: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO Ltd. p. 207. ISBN 1851094024. Retrieved 2009-03-24. 
  2. ^ Vasili Mitrokhin (July 2009). "The KGB in Afghanistan". Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 2009-03-24. 

External links[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by
Mohammad Daoud Khan
Head of the Revolutionary Council
of the Armed Forces

April 27 – 30, 1978
Succeeded by
Nur Muhammad Taraki
Political offices
Preceded by
Ghulam Haidar Rasuli
Minister of Defense
May 1978 – August 1978
Succeeded by
Mohammad Aslam Watanjar
Preceded by
Mohammed Rafie
Minister of Defense
1982 – December 1986
Succeeded by
Mohammed Rafie