Abul Kashem

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Mohammad Abul Kashem
Principal Abul Kashem 003.jpg
Kashem receiving Ekushey Padak (1987)
Native name মোহাম্মদ আবুল কাশেম
Born (1920-06-28)28 June 1920
Chittagong District, Bengal, British India (now Bangladesh)
Died 11 March 1991(1991-03-11) (aged 70)
Dhaka, Bangladesh
Spouse(s)
  • Rahela Kashem
  • Momtaz Kashem

Mohammad Abul Kashem (known as Principal Abul Kashem, 28 June 1920 – 11 March 1991) is generally considered as a pioneer and the architect of the historic Language Movement of Bangladesh. He was also a politician, author and an eminent educationist.[1][2] He founded the Islamic-oriented Bengali cultural organisation Tamaddun Majlish.

Early life[edit]

Kashem was born on 28 June 1920 at a village Cheebandy-Barama under Chandanaish Upazila of district of Chittagong.[3] In 1939, Kashem obtained his Matriculation Examination from Boroma Trahi Menka High School with first class and Government district scholarship. He passed Isc from Chittagong government College in 1941 with first class. From Dhaka University, he obtained a Bachelor of Science (honors) in Physics in 1944 and a Master of Science degree in Physics in 1945. He completed his master's thesis under the supervision of the famous mathematician and physicist Satyendra Nath Bose[2][4]

Involvement in Language Movement[edit]

Kashem was associated with the literary and cultural activities of Bangladesh for five decades. He contributed in the movement for recognition of Bengali as one of the state languages of Pakistan soon after the independence of Pakistan in 1947. On 1 September 1947 he founded the Pakistan Tamaddun Majlish as a non-political cultural organisation to mobilise students, intellectuals and the people in general for the Bengali language. On 15 September 1947 he published a booklet entitled, Pakistaner Rashtra Bhasha: Bangla Na Urdu? (Pakistan's state language: Bengali or Urdu?) demanding introduction of Bengali as one of the state language of whole Pakistan.[5] This booklet also strongly advocated for Bengali as the medium of education, court language and for its use in the offices in East Pakistan. Also his untiring efforts let to the formation of the first Rashtrabhasa Sangram Parishad (State Language Committee of Action) on 1 October 1947 with Nurul Huq Bhuiyan as the convener and he himself as the treasurer. On 6 December 1947, a meeting was held under the president-ship of Kashem in Dhaka University campus which protested the resolution of the education week held in Karachi suggesting Urdu as the state language and the lingua franca of Pakistan. A protest procession was brought out from the meeting, which met Khawaja Nazimuddin, the provincial Chief Minister, and other ministers. Khawaja Nazimuddin gave a written assurance to the Action Committee that he would do the needful to introduce Bengali as one of the state language of Pakistan. Kashem actively participated in organising a countrywide strike on 11 March 1948, to press for the language demand. As the outcome of the strike, on the eve of the impending visit of Mohammad Ali Jinnah (the founder of Pakistan) to Dhaka, the then Provincial Government had no other alternative but to sign an agreement with the action committee on 15 March 1948 for introducing Bengali as one of the state language of Pakistan.[2][4]

Career[edit]

Kashem began his career as a lecturer in the Physics department at Dhaka University in 1946. As a lecturer, he was the first person who delivered lectures in the Bengali at Dhaka University. He held his lecturer position until 1953.[6]

Kashem was actively associated with politics. He was co-founders of the Khilafat-e-Rabbani Party in 1952. He was a member of the provincial assembly as a United Front nominee in 1954 from the Patia-Boalkhali constituency in Chittagong.[2] While a member of the Legislative Assembly, he moved a resolution for introduction of Bengali as the medium of education at all levels. On 30 September 1956, he proposed Bengali as the state-language and it was approved unanimously and thus, Bengali received constitutional recognition as one of the State language of Pakistan.[2] He founded the weekly Sainik in 1948, which acted as a mouthpiece of the historic Language Movement.

He felt the need of introducing Bengali as medium of higher education in colleges and universities. With his dream, he established the Bangla College at Mirpur, Dhaka in 1962 and served the college as Principal till 1981. He was the forerunner in introducing textbooks in Bengali for higher education and contributed much in initiating the Bengali version of the question papers for higher education.[6]

Kashem received a number of national and social awards, including Independence Day Award in 1993, Ekushey Padak in 1987, Bangla Academy Award (for his book Biggan Somaj O Dhormo) in 1982, Islamic foundation Award in 1988, Pakistan Writers guild award in 1964 etc. He was accorded a national reception in Dhaka in 1989 which was attended by eminent scholars and litterateurs of Bangladesh and India. In 2007, Dhaka City Corporation named the former Darussalam Road of Mirpur-1 as Bhasha Sainik Principal Abul Kashem Road for his contribution to historic Language Movement.[7]

Kashem died at the Suhrawardy Hospital in Dhaka on Monday 11 March 1991.

List of works[edit]

A prolific writer, Kashem authored nearly 100 books including textbooks on science for postgraduate student and on education, Islam, culture and politics. These include 40 textbooks on physics and other science subjects for college and university levels. Some of his well-known books are:

Bengali[edit]

Islam
* ইসলাম কি দিয়েছে ও কি দিতে পারে Islam Ki Diyeche O Ki Dite Pare 1952
* বুঝে নামাজ পড় Buje Namaz Poro 1968
* ইসলামের রাষ্ট্রী্য় আদর্শ Islamer Rashtio Adorsho 1980
* ইসলামী মেনিফেস্টো Islami Manifesto 1952
* একমাত্র পথ Akmatro Path 1949
* ঘোষনা Ghoshona 1952
Islam & Science
* আধুনিক চিন্তাধারা Oadunik Chintadhara 1968
* বিজ্ঞান বস্তুবাদ ও আল্লাহর অস্তিত্ব Biggan Bostubadh O Allahor Ostitto 1968
* বিবর্তনবাদ সৃষ্টিতত্ত্ব ও আল্লাহর অস্তিত্ব Bibortonbadh Sristitotto O Allahor Ostitto 1969
* বিজ্ঞান সমাজ ধর্ম Biggan Shomaz Dhormo 1982
Economics
* কোরানিক অর্থনীতি Quranic Orthoniti 1971
* পাকিস্তানের অর্থনীতি Pakistaner Orthoniti 1965
International Politics
*তৃতীয় ব্লক আন্দোলন Tritio Block Andolon 1952
History
*পাকিস্তানের রাষ্ট্রভাষা: বাংলা না উর্দু? Pakistan er Rastrobhasha Bangla Na Urdu? 1947
*ভাষা আন্দোলনের ইতিহাস Bhasha Andoloner Ithihash 1952
*আমাদের অতীত Oamader Otit 1957
Bangla College Related
* বাংলা কলেজের চাকরীর নিয়মাবলী Bangla Colleger Chakurir Niomaboli 1968
* বাংলা কলেজ প্রসঙ্গে Bangla College Prosonge 1968 (2nd Edition)
* বাংলা কলেজ কি, কেন, এবং কিরুপ Bangla College Ki, Keno, Abong Kirup 1962
* ঈর্ষা বনাম সাধনা Irsha Bonab Shadona 1965
* বাংলা কলেজের অগ্রগতি ও ভবিষ্যৎ Bangla Colleger Ogrogoti O Bhobishat 1964
Others
* শাসনতান্ত্রিক মুলনীতি Oadunik Chintadhara 1968
* বৈজ্ঞানিক দৃষ্টিতে শ্রেণীসংগ্রাম Boiganik Dhristite Srenisongram 1952
* মুক্তি কোন পথে Mukti kon Pothe 1952
* ইসলামী রাষ্টনীতি Islami rastroneeti 1967
* আমাদের ভাষার রুপ Amader Bhashar Rhup 1962
* বাংলা প্রচলনের কয়েকটি সমস্যা Bnagla Procholoner Koyekti Somosha 1967
* অফিস-আদালত ও শিক্ষার বাহনরুপে বাংলা প্রচলনের সমস্যা office-Adaloter O Shikkhar Bahonrupe Bangla Procholoner Somosha Unknown
* সহজ বাংলা Shohoj Bangla 1974
* একুশ দফার রুপায়ন Ekush daffer Rupaon 1953
* কৃষক ভাইয়ের জমি চাই Krishok Bhaiyer Jomi Chai Unknown
* শ্রমিক ভাইয়ের জমি চাই Sromik Bhaiyer Jomi Chai Unknown
* দুইটি প্রশ্ন Duti Prosno 1955
* ভুলের পুনরাবৃত্তি Bhuler Punorabritti 1953
* রাষ্টবিজ্ঞান Rastrobiggan 1964
* সংগঠন Songothon 1952
* আধুনিক কারবার পদ্ধতি Adunik Karbar Poddoti 1966
* ছাত্র আন্দোলন Chatro Andolon 1951
* প্রবন্ধ মঞ্জুষা Probondho Monzusa 1989
Textbooks
* উচ্চমাধ্যমিক পদার্থিকা, ১ম খন্ড Ucchomaddomik Podarthika 1st part 1964
* উচ্চমাধ্যমিক পদার্থিকা, ২য় খন্ড Ucchomaddomik Podarthika 2nd part 1964
* উচ্চমাধ্যমিক ল্যাবরেটরী পদার্থিকা Ucchomaddomik Laboratory Podarthika 1964
* উচ্চমাধ্যমিক রসায়ন, ১ম খন্ড (অজৈব) Ucchomaddomik Rosayan, 1st part 1965
* উচ্চমাধ্যমিক রসায়ন, ২য় খন্ড (জৈব) Ucchomaddomik Rosayan, 2nd part 1965
* উচ্চমাধ্যমিক ল্যাবরেটরী রসায়ন Ucchomaddomik Laboratory Rosayan 1964
* উচ্চমাধ্যমিক এলজেব্রা Ucchomaddomik Algebra 1964
* উচ্চমাধ্যমিক ক্যালকুলাস Ucchomaddomik Calculus 1966
* উচ্চমাধ্যমিক জ্যামিতি Ucchomaddomik Geometry 1964
* উচ্চমাধ্যমিক ডিনামিক্স Ucchomaddomik Dynamics 1968
* উচ্চমাধ্যমিক ত্রিকোনমিতি Ucchomaddomik Trigonometry 1964
* উচ্চমাধ্যমিক স্টেটিস্ক Ucchomaddomik Statics 1967
* বিজ্ঞান প্রকাশ (৭ম ও ৮ম শ্রেণীর) Bhiggan Prokash (for 7th and 8th grade) 1949
* বিজ্ঞান প্রকাশ (৯ম ও ১০ম শ্রেণীর) Bhiggan Prokash (for 9th and 10th grade) 1949
* মাধ্যমিক ত্রিকোনমিতি Maddomik Trigonometry 1964
* ডিগ্রি পদার্থিকা Degree Padarthika 1971
* সহজ পদার্থিকা, ১ম খন্ড Shohoj Padarthika, 1st Part 1974
* সহজ পদার্থিকা, ২য় খন্ড Shohoj Padarthika, 2nd part 1974
* সহজ রসায়ন, ১ম খন্ড Shohoj Rosaya, 1st part 1962
* সহজ রসায়ন, ২য় খন্ড Shohoj Rosayan, 2nd part 1962
* ল্যাবরেটরী রসায়ন (৯ম ও ১০ম শ্রেণীর) Laboratory Roshayan (9th and 10th grade) 1975
* ল্যাবরেটরী পদার্থবিজ্ঞান (৯ম ও ১০ম শ্রেণীর) Laboratory Podarthobiggan (9th and 10th grade) 1975
* ল্যাবরেটরী জীববিজ্ঞান (৯ম ও ১০ম শ্রেণীর) Laboratory Jibobiggan (9th and 10th grade) 1975

English[edit]

Islam & Science
* Islam Science & Modern Thoughts 1975
* Universal Ideology in the Light of Modern Thought Unknown
Textbooks
* Degree Physics 1970
* General Properties of Matter 1955
* New Physics (1st part) 1955, 6th Edition 1966
* New Physics (2nd part) 1956, 6th Edition 1966
* Inter Physics Tutor part 1 1955
* Inter Physics Tutor part 2 1955
* Laboratory Physics 3rd Edition 1970

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Principal Abul Kashem's Death Anniversary Today". The Bangladesh Observer. 11 March 2005. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Ahmad, Quazi Azizuddin (1991). Principal Abul Kashem Sharok Grantho: A commemorative book on Principal Abul Kashem. Chittagong: Principal Abul Kashem Shreti Parishod. 
  3. ^ the daily Ittefaq report, "Principal Abul Kashemer intekal". The Daily Ittefaq, 12 March 1991.
  4. ^ a b Mahmud, Akif bin, Principal Abul Kashem: Matrivashake gire je full bekoseto. The Weekly Bangla Patrika, Friday 24 March 2006
  5. ^ Mukul, M.R. Aktar, Vhasa Andoloner jinni suchona kore chilan. Daily Bangla , 10 March 1993
  6. ^ a b "Death anniversary of Principal Abul Kashem today.". The New Nation. 11 March 2005. 
  7. ^ Mahmud, Akif, Dui Banglar Shudijoner drestite Principal Abul Kashem. Weekly Thikana, 30 June 2006

External links[edit]