Achaemenid coinage

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The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent.[1][2][3][4]

Coins of the Achaemenid Empire were issued from 520 BCE-450 BCE to 330 BCE. The Persian daric was the first gold coin which, along with a similar silver coin, the siglos, (From Ancient Greek σίγλος, Hebrew שֶׁקֶל (shékel)) represented the bimetallic monetary standard of the Achaemenid Persian Empire which has continued till today.[5] It seems that before then, a continuation of Lydian coinage under Persian rule was highly likely. Achaemenid coinage includes the official imperial issues (Darics and Sigloi), as well as coins issued by the Achaemenid governors (Satraps), such as those stationed in ancient Asia Minor.

Early coinage of Western Asia under the Achaemenid Empire[edit]

Coin type of Croesus, the Croeseid, minted in Lydia, under the rule of Cyrus the Great to Darius I. Circa 545-520. It only weighs 8.06 g, compared to the standard 10.7 grams of the Croeseid.[6]
Lycia coin, with obverse bull protome and reverse incuse punch mark using a geometrical motif, circa 520-470 BC.

When Cyrus the Great (550–530 BC) came to power, coinage was unfamiliar in his realm. Barter and to some extent silver bullion was used instead for trade.[7] The practice of using silver bars for currency also seems to have been current in Central Asia from the 6th century.[8]

Cyrus the Great introduced coins to the Persian Empire after 546 BC, following his conquest of Lydia and the defeat of its king Croesus, who had put in place the first coinage in history.[7] With his conquest of Lydia, Cyrus acquired a region in which coinage was invented, developped through advanced metallurgy, and had already been in circulation for about 50 years, making the Lydian Kingdom one of the leading trade powers of the time.[7]

It seems Cyrus initially adopted the Lydian coinage as such, and continued to strike Lydia's lion-and-bull coinage.[7] The stater coins had a weight of 10.7 grams, a standard initially created by Croesus, which was then adopted by the Persians and became commonly known as the "Persic standard".[9] The Persians also minted postumous Croeseid half-staters, with a weight of 5.35g, which would become the weight standard for the later Sigloi, introduced at the end of the 6th century BCE.[9][10]

Soon after 546, Cyrus also had full control of Asia Minor, including other kingdoms such Lycia, Caria or Ionia, following the conquests of his general Harpagus.[11] With the conquest of Lydia and the adoption of Lydian coinage, the nascent Achaemenid Empire thus obtained access to the most modern coinage of its time and the economic power that goes with it.[12] The mint was located in Sardis, now capital of all the Western Satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire, and continued minted operation under Cyrus.[12] This coinage would supply the western part of the Achaemenid Empire.[12]

Technically, these early coins used incuse punches on the reverse, while the obverse die would consist in some pictorial design ("die and punch" technique, rather than the later "two dies" technique).[13] The Lydian coins used double punches on the reserve, a technique which would be simplified in the time of Darius by using a single reverse punch on some coinage.[12] Some of the earliest Lycian coins under the Achaemenids also used an animal design on the obverse and incuse punches on the reverse, which developed into geometrical forms, such as two diagonals between projecting rectangular lugs.[14] [15]

Apadana hoard (c.515 BCE)[edit]

Coin types of the Apadana hoard
Gold Croeseids.
Aegina stater.
Abdera coin.

As late as the time of the foundation of the Apadana Palace in Persepolis, circa 515 BCE, it seems that the Achaemenid had not yet designed the Sigloi and Darics. This is known because no Darics or Sigloi were found in the Apadana hoard, under the Apadana foundation stones of the Apadana Palace in Persepolis (dated to between 519 and 510 BC), whereas the hoard contained several gold Croeseids of the light type from Sardis (probably minted under the rule of Darius I) and several imported Archaic Greek silver staters.[17]

Darics and Sigloi[edit]

Daric gold coin (c.490 BC)

The coinage of the Achaemenid Empire started to move away from simply copying Lydian coinage to introducing changes with the reign of Darius I (ruled 522-486 BC).[12] Under Darius I, the minting of Croeseids in Sardis was progressively replaced by the minting of Darics and Sigloi. From around 510-500 BC,[12] Darius simplified the coining procedure by replacing the double reverse punch of Lydian coins, by a single, oblong reverse punch, and he introduced the image of the Persian king in place of the lion and bull design.[12] This is known because no Darics or Sigloi were found in the Apadana hoard, under the Apadana foundation stones of the Apadana Palace in Persepolis (dated to between 519 and 510 BC), whereas there were gold Croeseids of the light type and Greek silver staters.[17] However, a clay tablet, issued in year 22 of the reign of Darius I (circa 500 BCE), contained the impression on clay of two Type II Sigloi ("King shooting arrow"), showing that the new Sigloi had already been issued by 500 BCE.[18][19] Because of these and other discoveries, the creation of the Darics and Sigloi is dated to the last decade of the 6th century BC, during the reign of Darius I.[17]

The new Achaemenid coins were initially only made in silver, and the Lydian gold design of Croesus was maintained.[12] Then, Darius introduced his new design for gold coins as well, which came to be known as Darics, from Old Persian Daruiyaka, meaning "Golden".[12] Although the Achaemenids had developed their own currency, they still accepted local monetary production including civic issues, throughout the land under their control, in particular in Western Asia.[20]

Minting activity
Throughout the period of the Achaemenid Empire, it seems the Darics and Sigloi were exclusively minted in Sardis, Lydia (modern Turkey), where they replaced the original production of the Croeseids.[21]

Although the Achaemenids fully exploited and developed coinage production from Western Asia, it seems the barter economy remained quite important in the Iranian heartland throughout the Achaemenid period, and the Achaemenids did not develop their own mints in Iran: minting coinage in Iran would only start later from circa 330 BCE under Alexander the Great and the Seleucid Empire.[12] The circulation of the Daric was mainly confined to the Western part of the Achaemenid Empire.[12]

It seems that all the minting activity for the Darics and the Sigloi for the whole Empire was essentially centralized in one mint, or possibly two mints at Sardis in Lycia.[22] Sardis remained the central mint for the Persian Darics and Sigloi of Achaemenid coinage, and there is no evidence of other mints for the new Achaemenid coins during the whole time of the Achaemenid Empire.[21] According to hoard finds, Sardis was clearly the main mint, but there may also have been secondary mints in southwestern and northwestern Asia Minor.[23]

Overall, it seems that the minting of Darics and Sigloi was rather small in quantity compared to the other local productions of coins in Asia Minor, or the circulation of Greek coins in the area.[24] Although the gold Daric became an international currency which was found throughout the Ancient world, the circulation of the silver Sigloi remained very much limited to Asia Minor: important hoards of Sigloi are only found in these areas, and finds of Sigloi beyond are always very limited and marginal compared to Greek coins, even in Achaemenid territories.[21]

According to numismat Martin Price, there is no doubt that the Darics and Sigloi of Types I and II were minted at Sardis and immediately followed the production of the Croeseids, since they adopted similar weights and were of the same fabric.[25] He insists that the finds of the Croeseids and the "Archer" types of Darics and Sigloi indicate that they were not an Imperial coinage, but rather the coinage of the Satrapy of Lydia.[25]

Standards
The first type of Siglos (Type I: "King with bow and arrows", upper body of the king only), from the time of Darius I. Circa 520-505 BC
Type II Daric ("King shooting arrow") temp. Darios I to Xerxes I. Circa 505-480 BC. There are no Type I coins known in Darics (only in Sigloi).[26]
Achaemenid bimetallic equivalence: 1 gold Daric was equivalent in value to 20 silver Sigloi. Under the Achaemenids the exchange rate in weight between gold and silver was 1 to 13.[27]

Darius introduced the reformed currency system from about 510-500 BC,[12] consisting of gold Darics and silver Sigloi. The rate of exchange was 1 Daric = 20 Siglos. A Daric was between 8.10-8.50 grams in weight, based on the Babylonian shekel of 8.33 grams, slightly heavier than the Croesus standard of 8.06 grams.[12] The purity of gold was between 98-99%. 1 Daric = 25 Attic Drachmae. It represented initially about 1 month of a soldier's wage.[28] This new coin became popular throughout all of the ancient world for more than 150 years.[12] Around 395 BCE, the Achaemenids, led by Satrap Pharnabazes, bribed Greek states by paying them tens of thousands of Darics in order to attack Sparta, which was then waging a campaign of destruction in Asia Minor under Agesilaus. This started the Corinthian War. According to Plutarch, Agesilaus, the Spartan king, said upon leaving Asia "I have been driven out by 10,000 Persian archers", a reference to "Archers" (Toxotai) the Greek nickname for the Darics from their obverse design, because that much money had been paid to politicians in Athens and Thebes in order to start a war against Sparta.[29][28][30]

The Siglos was 5.40-5.60 grams each, based on the 0.5 Lydian Siglos of 10.73-10.92 grams for the full unit. Purity was at first issue 97-98% but by the middle 4th century was 94-95%. 1 Siglos = 7.5 Attic Obols.

Although the area of Babylon had never minted Darics or Sigloi, after the capture of Babylon by Alexander, the Satrap Mazaeus, reconfirmed by Alexander in his position for having opened the doors of Babylon to his armies after the Battle of Gaugamela, issued the double Daric of 16.65 grams in weight whose image was based on the Daric coin and bore his name until his death in 328 BCE.[31]

Design
Archer type of Herakles on a late 6th - early 5th century coin of Cyprus (Apadana hoard, left), and archer type on an Achaemenid Type II Siglos (right).

The "archer" type used in Achaemenid coinage may have been derived from similar and contemporary images on Greek coinage, in particular those of Herakles shooting arrows.[33][34] The adaptation of this design for the illustration of the Achaemenid king or hero on the obverse may have been meant as a way to glorify the king, in way a which was easily understandable to the Hellenized people in the Western areas of the Achaemenid Empire, who minted the Achaemenid coinage and to whom this coinage was mainly destined as a currency.[33][34] Other depictions of the king as an archer (for example shooting from his charriot) are also known from Sumerian art, so this representation would also have been natural to subjects in the Achaemenid realm as well.[33][34] The "archer" type of Type II, less hieratic and rigid than the traditional Achaemenid illustration of the bust of the king on Type I, may represent the fusion of the Eastern conception of the King as a royal hunter, and the Western conception of the King as a hero, and designed to represent the Achaemenid king as an Olympian contestant in a propaganda effort towards the West.[33][34] These depictions also imply that the Achaemenids were the first ever to illustrate the person of their king on coinage.[33]

Extent
The gold Stater of Philip II of Macedon (ruled 359–336 BC) was the first true competition for the Achaemenid Daric. It was called Dareikos Philippeios ("Philip's Daric") by the Greeks

In effect, the gold Daric became a currency desired in all the ancient world, since it was the most convenient format to exchange and accumulate wealth.[22] The Greeks never minted much gold, but their silver Athenian tetradrachms also became a sort of world currency from the 5th century BC.[22] The first important competition against the prestigious Daric, as a means of storing wealth and making large payments on an international scale, came later from Philip II of Macedon (ruled 359–336 BC), when he issued his own gold coinage, pointedly called Dareikos Philippeios by the Greeks.[22]

Archaeological finds

Daric coins have been found in Asia Minor, Greece, Macedonia and Italy. The Siglos denomination have been found in hoards only in Asia Minor, and single coins with other Greek coinage from Ancient Egypt to Afghanistan (Kabul hoard) and Pakistan (Shaikhan Dehri hoard).[22]

Continued circulation of Greek coinage throughout the Empire[edit]

Coin of Achaemenid Satrap of Egypt Sabakes, in imitation of Athenian coinage. Circa 340-333 BC. Achaemenid Egypt.
Eastern hacksilber from the Achaemenid Levant, including jewelry and Greek coins, 425-420 BCE

In all the known hoards of the Achaemenid period, royal Achaemenid coinage, such as the sigloi, form actually a small minority, while most of the non-local coinage generally comes from the Greek realm, either from the independent Greek mainland or from the Greek colonies of Western Asia under the Achaemenid rule.[35] For example the Kabul hoard, in modern day Afghanistan, included 30 coins from various Greek cities, about 33 Athenian coins and an Iranian imitation of an Athenian coin, only 9 royal Achaemenid silver coins (sigloi). There were also 29 locally minted coins and 14 punch-marked coins in the shape of bent bars.[36][37]

Some Achaemenid Satraps are also known to have minted coins in imitation of Athenian coinage, such as the Achaemenid Satrap of Egypt Sabakes (ruled circa 340-333 BCE). An Achaemenid copy of an Athenian coin, this time found in the Kabul hoard was minted in the vicinity of Babylon circa 380 BCE.

The fact that Greek coins (both Archaic and early Classical) are comparatively numerous in Achaemenid period coin hoards, much more numerous than sigloi, suggests that the circulation of Greek coinage was central in the monetary system of the Empire.[38] These coins were probably not legal tenders in the Achaemenid Empire, but were valued for their weight in silver, and thus used as bullion silver. Numerous finds of hacksilber hoards in the East also exist from the period, in which various silver objects, including coins, are cut into pieces, in order to facilitate their exchange on the basis of their weight.[39]

Greek coinage travelled throughout the Achaemenid Empire. For example, the Greek coins discovered in the Kabul hoard include the following types:

Coinage of Southern Asia under the Achaemenid Empire[edit]

Eastern border of the Achaemenid Empire and ancient kingdoms and cities of ancient India (circa 500 BCE).[45][46][47]

The Achaemenid Empire already reached the doors of India during the original expansion of Cyrus the Great, and the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley is dated to circa 515 BC under Darius I.[7] An Achaemenid administration was established in the area. The Kabul hoard, also called the Chaman Hazouri hoard,[48] is a coin hoard discovered in the vicinity of Kabul, Afghanistan, containing numerous Achaemenid coins as well as many Greek coins from the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.[49] The deposit of the hoard is dated to the Achaemenid period, in approximately 380 BCE.[50] The hoard also contained many locally produced silver coins, minted by local authorities under Achaemenid rule.[24] Several of these issues follow the "western designs" of the facing bull heads, a stag, or Persian column capitals on the obverse, and incuse punch on the reverse.[24][51]

According to numismatist Joe Cribb, these finds suggest that the idea of coinage and the use of punch-marked techniques was introduced to India from the Achaemenid Empire during the 4th century BCE.[52] More Achaemenid coins were also found in Pushkalavati and in Bhir Mound.[53][54]

Later Satrapal issues[edit]

Coin of the Achaemenid dynast of Lycia, Kherei, with Athena on the obverse, and himself wearing the Persian cap on the reverse. Circa 440/30-410 BCE.
Coin of Mazaios. Satrap of Cilicia, 361/0-334 BC. Tarsos, Cilicia.

During the 4th century, following the weakening of central Achaemenid power, and the development of coinage technologies, Siglos production receded and numerous satrapal issues of a very high quality started to appear in Western Asia under the Achaemenid Empire.[24] These issues combined Achaemenid as well as Greek characteristics. Throughout, coin circulation was characterized by a mix of coins from the Achaemenid and Greek realms.[24]

Various Achaemenid satraps also issued imitations of Athenian tetradrachms, such as Sabakes in Egypt.

First attempts at portraiture

Although many of the first coins of Antiquity were illustrated with the images of various gods or symbols, the first ever portraiture of actual rulers appears with these Achaemenid satrapal issues in the 5th century BC, in particular with the coinage of Lycia.[57][58] The Achaemenids had been the first to illustrate the person of their king or a hero in a stereotypical manner, showing a bust or the full body, but never an actual portrait, on their Sigloi and Daric coinage from circa 500 BC.[58][33][34] Before the Lycian coins with dynastic portraits, a slightly earlier candidate for the first portrait is Themistocles, the Athenian general who became a Governor of Magnesia on the Meander for the Achaemenid Empire circa 465-459 BC,[59][60] although there is some doubt that his coins may have represented Zeus rather than himself.[61] Themistocles may have been in a unique position in which he could transfer the notion of individual portraiture, already currrent in the Greek world, and at the same time wield the dynastic power of an Achaemenid dynast who could issue his own coins and illustrate them as he wished.[62] From the time of Alexander the Great, portraiture of the issuing ruler would then become a standard, generalized, feature of coinage.[58]

After the conquests of Alexander the Great[edit]

Coin of Balacrus, as Satrap of Alexander the Great in Cilicia, with Baal on the obverse. Tarsos, 333-323 BC
Tetradrachm of Alexander the Great with seated Zeus on the reverse, Tarsos, Cilicia, 323 BC.

After his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great established his own satraps in the conquered territories, some of them Achaemenids who had been favorable to the invader, such as Mazaios, others some of Alexander's closest supports, such as Balacrus. Several satraps continued to use an Achaemenid type for their coinage, such as Balacrus when he became Hellenistic satrap of Cilicia, complete with the local deety of Tarsus, Baal.[63] This coinage is said to have later influenced Alexander's imperial coinage, which was often minted in the same mints.[63]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ O'Brien, Patrick Karl (2002). Atlas of World History. Oxford University Press. pp. 42–43. ISBN 9780195219210.
  2. ^ Philip's Atlas of World History. 1999.
  3. ^ Davidson, Peter (2018). Atlas of Empires: The World's Great Powers from Ancient Times to Today. i5 Publishing LLC. ISBN 9781620082881.
  4. ^ Barraclough, Geoffrey (1989). The Times Atlas of World History. Times Books. p. 79. ISBN 0723003041.
  5. ^ Michael Alram, "DARIC", Encyclopaedia Iranica, December 15, 1994, last updated November 17, 2011
  6. ^ Classical Numismatic Group
  7. ^ a b c d e Metcalf, William E. (2016). The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 61–65. ISBN 9780199372188.
  8. ^ Discovery of a hoard of currency with silver bars near Malayer, dated circa 600 BCE, with photographs in Bivar, Adrian David Hugh. Hoard of Ingot-Currency of the Median Period from Nūsh-i Jān, near Malayir (1971). pp. 97–111.
  9. ^ a b American Journal of Numismatics (Second Series), vol. 20. 2008. p. 55.
  10. ^ Cahill, Nick; Kroll, John H (2005). New archaic coin finds at Sardis, AJA 109 (2005). American Journal of Archaeology (Vol 109, No.4). pp. 609–614.
  11. ^ Christidēs, A.-Ph; Christidis, A.-F.; Arapopoulou, Maria; Χρίτη, Μαρία (2007). A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge University Press. p. 924. ISBN 9780521833073.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Metcalf, William E. (2016). The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. p. 63-64. ISBN 9780199372188.
  13. ^ Dow, Joseph A. (2011). Ancient Coins Through the Bible. Tate Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 9781617771354.
  14. ^ Carradice, Ian (1987). Coinage and administration in the Athenian and Persian empires: the Ninth Oxford Symposium on Coinage and Monetary History. B.A.R. p. 32.
  15. ^ "on the reverse an incuse punch which develops into a distinctive local form incorporating two diagonals between projecting rectangular lugs" in Kraay, Colin M. (1976). Archaic and classical Greek coins. Methuen. p. 269. ISBN 9780416123104.
  16. ^ CNG: LYCIA. Circa 520-470/60 BC. AR Stater (18mm, 9.18 g).
  17. ^ a b c Daric.
  18. ^ Half-figure of the King: unravelling the mysteries of the earliest Sigloi of Darius I (PDF). The Celator Vol.26 No.02 Feb 2012. p. 14, with photograph.
  19. ^ Root, Margaret Cool (1989). The Persian archer at Persepolis : aspects of chronology, style and symbolism. pp. 36–37.
  20. ^ Mildenberg, Leo (2000). On the so-called satrapal coinage. p. 10.
  21. ^ a b c Fisher, William Bayne; Gershevitch, I.; Boyle, John Andrew; Yarshater, Ehsan; Frye, Richard Nelson (1968). The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge University Press. p. 619. ISBN 9780521200912.
  22. ^ a b c d e Metcalf, William E. (2016). The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 68–71. ISBN 9780199372188.
  23. ^ Daric.
  24. ^ a b c d e Metcalf, William E. (2016). The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford University Press. pp. 70–80. ISBN 9780199372188.
  25. ^ a b Martin Price "Intervention" in Root, Margaret Cool (1989). The Persian archer at Persepolis : aspects of chronology, style and symbolism (in French). p. 50.
  26. ^ DARIC – Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  27. ^ DARIC – Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  28. ^ a b Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (2015). Coins and Currency: An Historical Encyclopedia. McFarland. p. 125. ISBN 9781476611204.
  29. ^ "Persian coins were stamped with the figure of an archer, and Agesilaus said, as he was breaking camp, that the King was driving him out of Asia with ten thousand "archers"; for so much money had been sent to Athens and Thebes and distributed among the popular leaders there, and as a consequence those people made war upon the Spartans" Plutarch 15-1-6 in Delphi Complete Works of Plutarch (Illustrated). Delphi Classics. 2013. pp. 1031, Plutarch 15-1-6. ISBN 9781909496620.
  30. ^ Schwartzwald, Jack L. (2014). The Ancient Near East, Greece and Rome: A Brief History. McFarland. p. 73. ISBN 9781476613079.
  31. ^ Spek, R. J. Van der; Zanden, Jan Luiten van; Leeuwen, Bas van (2014). A History of Market Performance: From Ancient Babylonia to the Modern World. Routledge. p. 377. ISBN 9781317918509.
  32. ^ DARIC – Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  33. ^ a b c d e f Root, Margaret Cool (1989). The Persian archer at Persepolis : aspects of chronology, style and symbolism. pp. 43–50.
  34. ^ a b c d e Half-figure of the King: unravelling the mysteries of the earliest Sigloi of Darius I (PDF). The Celator Vol.26 No.02 Feb 2012. p. 20.
  35. ^ Kagan, Archaic Greek Coins East of the Tigris 2009, pp. 230-231.
  36. ^ Bopearachchi, Coin Production and Circulation 2000, pp. 300-301.
  37. ^ Cribb, Dating India's Earliest Coins 1985, p. 548: "The Iranian imitations were close copies of silver tetradrachms of Athens; the latest Greek coin of the Chaman Hazuri hoard is an example of these Iranian copies of an Athenian coin."
  38. ^ Kagan, Jonathan. Archaic Greek coins East of the Tigris. p. 230-234.
  39. ^ Classical Numismatic Group
  40. ^ "a fragmentary stater of Thasos" described in Kagan p.230, Kabul hoard Coin no.9 in Daniel Schlumberger Trésors Monétaires d'Afghanistan (1953)
  41. ^ "a worn Chiot stater" described in Kagan p.230, Kabul hoard Coin no.12 in Daniel Schlumberger Trésors Monétaires d'Afghanistan (1953)
  42. ^ Kabul hoard Coins No.7-8 in Daniel Schlumberger Trésors Monétaires d'Afghanistan (1953)
  43. ^ a b "The 1933 Cabul hoard pub-lished by Schlumberger consisted of over 115 coins, with significant overlap with the Malayer hoard. Athens again is the largest group, with 33 recorded tetradrachms compared to eight sigloi. In addition to the worn archaic stater of Aegina, a fragmentary stater of Thasos and a worn Chiot stater may be archaic. There are two well-preserved early classical tetradrachms from Acanthus and an early classical stater of Corcyra. Again there is a significant Levantine component represented by coins from Pamphylia, Cilicia and Cyprus, though nothing from Phoenicia. The early Cilician coins probably date the hoard slightly later than the Malayer hoard." in Kagan, Jonathan. ARCHAIC GREEK COINS EAST OF THE TIGRIS. p. 230.
  44. ^ Kabul hoard 31-32-33
  45. ^ Philip's Atlas of World History (1999)
  46. ^ O'Brien, Patrick Karl (2002). Atlas of World History. Oxford University Press. p. 43. ISBN 9780195219210.
  47. ^ Barraclough, Geoffrey (1989). The Times Atlas of World History. Times Books. p. 79. ISBN 9780723009061.
  48. ^ Bopearachchi, Coin Production and Circulation 2000, pp. 300-301
  49. ^ a b c Bopearachchi & Cribb, Coins illustrating the History of the Crossroads of Asia 1992, pp. 57–59: "The most important and informative of these hoards is the Chaman Hazouri hoard from Kabul discovered in 1933, which contained royal Achaemenid sigloi from the western part of the Achaemenid Empire, together with a large number of Greek coins dating from the fifth and early fourth century BC, including a local imitation of an Athenian tetradrachm, all apparently taken from circulation in the region."
  50. ^ Bopearachchi, Coin Production and Circulation 2000, p. 309 and Note 65
  51. ^ André-Salvini, Béatrice (2005). Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia. University of California Press. p. 208 Coin no.381 for the Persian column capitals. ISBN 9780520247314.
  52. ^ Cribb, Investigating the introduction of coinage in India 1983, p. 101
  53. ^ 372. Lot: 658, Lot of two AR bent bars, CNG Coins
  54. ^ Bopearachchi & Cribb, Coins illustrating the History of the Crossroads of Asia 1992, pp. 57–59: "Silver bent-bar punch-marked coin of Kabul region under the Achaemenid Empire, c.350 BC: Coins of this type found in quantity in Chaman Hazouri and Bhir Mound hoards." (Commentary by Joe Cribb and Osmund Bopearachchi)
  55. ^ "Extremely Rare Early Silver from the Kabul Valley", CNG 102, Lot:649, CNG Coins
  56. ^ Bopearachchi & Cribb, Coins illustrating the History of the Crossroads of Asia 1992, pp. 57–59: "Coins of this type found in Chaman Hazouri (deposited c.350 BC) and Bhir Mound hoards (deposited c.300 BC)." (Commentary by Joe Cribb and Osmund Bopearachchi)
  57. ^ "The earliest attempts at portraiture appear to have taken place in Lycia. The heads of various dynasts appear on coins of the fifth century" Carradice, Ian (1978). Ancient Greek Portrait Coins. British Museum Publications. p. 2. ISBN 9780714108490.
  58. ^ a b c West, Shearer; Birmingham), Shearer (2004). Portraiture. OUP Oxford. p. 68. ISBN 9780192842589.
  59. ^ "A rare silver fraction recently identified as a coin of Themistocles from Magnesia even has a bearded portrait of the great man, making it by far the earliest datable portrait coin. Other early portraits can be seen on the coins of Lycian dynasts." Carradice, Ian; Price, Martin (1988). Coinage in the Greek World. Seaby. p. 84. ISBN 9780900652820.
  60. ^ Stieber, Mary (2010). The Poetics of Appearance in the Attic Korai. University of Texas Press. pp. 98–99. ISBN 9780292773493.
  61. ^ Rhodes, P. J. (2011). A History of the Classical Greek World: 478 - 323 BC. John Wiley & Sons. p. 58. ISBN 9781444358582.
  62. ^ Howgego, Christopher (2002). Ancient History from Coins. Routledge. p. 64. ISBN 9781134877843.
  63. ^ a b Mildenberg, Leo (2000). On the so-called satrapal coinage. p. 10 and Note 8.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]