Health of Adolf Hitler

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Adolf Hitler's health has long been a subject of popular controversy. Both his physical and mental health have come under scrutiny. Part of this is because Hitler was extremely inbred,[1][2] possibily having monorchism.[3] With his Father Alois Hitler possibly being his maternal grandfather,[4] and Mother Klara Hitler and Alois Hitler both being second cousins.[5] People who are inbred have a higher chance of having developmental disorders and harmful mutations.[6] This can be seen as four of Hitlers potential brothers all died during child birth,[7] although infant mortality was higher at the time.[8]

Syphilis[edit]

Adolf Hitler's tremor and irregular heartbeat during the last years of his life could have been symptoms of tertiary (late stage) syphilis,[9] which would mean he had a syphilis infection for many years. However, syphilis had become curable in 1910 with Dr. Paul Ehrlich's introduction of the drug Salvarsan.

The author Deborah Hayden[10] has written extensively regarding Hitler and syphilis.[11]

In his biography of Doctor Felix Kersten called The Man with the Miraculous Hands,[12] journalist and Académie française member Joseph Kessel wrote that in the winter of 1942, Kersten heard of Hitler's medical condition. Consulted by his patient, Himmler, as to whether he could "assist a man who suffers from severe headaches, dizziness and insomnia", Kersten was shown a top-secret 26-page report. It detailed how Hitler had contracted syphilis in his youth and was treated for it at a hospital in Pasewalk, Germany. However, in 1937, symptoms re-appeared, showing that the disease was still active, and by the start of 1942, signs were evident that progressive syphilitic paralysis (Tabes dorsalis) was occurring. Himmler advised Kersten that Morell (who in the 1930s claimed to be a specialist venereologist) was in charge of Hitler's treatment, and that it was a state secret. The book also relates how Kersten learned from Himmler's secretary, Rudolf Brandt, that at that time, probably the only other people privy to the report's information were Nazi Party chairman Martin Bormann and Hermann Göring, the head of the Luftwaffe.

Monorchism[edit]

It has been alleged that Hitler had monorchism, the medical condition of having only one testicle. In 2008, a British newspaper reported that, in 1916, a German doctor named Johan Jambor had encountered an injured Hitler during the Battle of the Somme.[13] Jambor allegedly asserted that Hitler—who is known to have suffered a groin injury in the battle—had in fact lost a testicle. Jambor had supposedly described the dictator's condition to a priest, who later wrote down what he had been told.[13]

Soviet doctor Lev Bezymensky, allegedly involved in the Soviet autopsy, stated in a 1967 book that Hitler's left testicle was missing. Bezymensky later admitted that the claim was falsified.[14]

Hitler was routinely examined by many doctors throughout his childhood, military service and later political career, and no clinical mention of any such condition has ever been discovered. Eduard Block, Hitler’s childhood doctor, told U.S. interrogators in 1943 that Hitler's genitals were in fact "completely normal".[15]

Huntington's disease[edit]

It has been speculated that Hitler had Huntington's disease. When many of the physical symptoms shown in newsreels during his later life – his hand tremor and shuffling gait – are coupled with his alleged mental and psychological deterioration, they may also point toward Huntington's. This is only conjecture, since a definitive diagnosis would require DNA testing.[16] Although Huntington's Disease was known and considered a hereditary disease during the time period, even appearing in state papers on the sterilization list, it is not known if Hitler knew of this condition.[17][18]

Parkinson's disease[edit]

It has also been speculated Hitler had Parkinson's disease. Newsreels of Hitler show he had tremors in his left hand and a shuffling walk (also a symptom of tertiary syphilis, see above) which began before the war and continued to worsen until the end of his life. Morell treated Hitler with a drug agent that was commonly used in 1945, although Morell is viewed as an incompetent doctor by most historians and any diagnoses he may have made are subject to doubt.[19]

A more reliable physician, Ernst-Günther Schenck, who worked at an emergency casualty station in the Reich Chancellery during April 1945, also claimed Hitler might have Parkinson's disease. However, Schenck only saw Hitler briefly on two occasions and, by his own admission, was extremely exhausted and dazed during these meetings (at the time, he had been in surgery for numerous days without much sleep). Also, some of Schenck's opinions were based on hearsay from Dr. Werner Haase.[20]

Other complaints[edit]

From the 1930s he suffered from stomach pains, in 1936 a non cancerous polyp was removed from his throat and he developed eczema on his legs.[21] He suffered ruptured eardrums as a result of the July 20 plot bomb blast in 1944 and 200 wood splinters had to be removed from his legs,[22] but he was otherwise uninjured. Some doctors dismiss Hitler's ailments as hypochondria, pointing out the apparently drastic decline of Hitler's health as Germany began losing World War II.

Mental health[edit]

As debated as Hitler's physical medical issues may be, his mental health is a minefield of theories and speculation. This topic is controversial, as many believe that if a psychological cause can be found for Hitler's behavior, there would be more reasoning behind his actions.

Waite, who wrote an extensive psychohistory of Hitler, concluded that he suffered from borderline personality disorder, which manifested its symptoms in numerous ways and would imply Hitler was in full control of himself and his actions. Others have proposed Hitler may have been schizophrenic,[citation needed] based on claims that he was hallucinating and delusional during his last year of life. Many people believe that Hitler had a mental disorder and was not schizophrenic nor bipolar, but rather met the criteria for both disorders, and was therefore most likely a schizoaffective. If true, this might be explained by a series of brief reactive psychoses in a narcissistic personality which could not withstand being confronted with reality (in this case, that he was not the "superman" or "savior of Germany" he envisioned himself to be, as his plans and apparent early achievements collapsed about him). In addition, his regular methamphetamine use[23][24] and possible sleep deprivation in the last period of his life must be factored into any speculation as to the cause of his possible psychotic symptoms, as these two activities are known to trigger psychotic reactions in some individuals. Hitler never visited a psychiatrist, and under current methodology, any such diagnosis is speculation.

Drug use[edit]

Prescribed 90 medications during the war years by Theodor Morell, Hitler took many pills each day for chronic stomach problems and other ailments.[25] He regularly consumed methamphetamine, barbiturates, opiates, and cocaine,[26][27][28] as well as potassium bromide and atropa belladonna (the latter in the form of Doktor Koster's Antigaspills).[29]

Criticism[edit]

In a 1980 article, the German historian Hans-Ulrich Wehler was highly dismissive of all theories that sought to attribute the rise and policies of Nazi Germany to some defect, medical or otherwise, of Hitler's. In Wehler's opinion, besides the problem that such theories about Hitler's medical condition were extremely difficult to prove, the problem was that they had the effect of personalizing the phenomena of Nazi Germany by more or less attributing everything that happened in the Third Reich to one flawed individual.[30] Wehler wrote:[30]

Does our understanding of National Socialist policies really depend on whether Hitler had only one testicle?...Perhaps the Führer had three, which made things difficult for him, who knows?...Even if Hitler could be regarded irrefutably as a sado-masochist, which scientific interest does that further?...Does the 'Final Solution of the Jewish Question' thus become more easily understandable or the 'twisted road to Auschwitz' become the one-way street of a psychopath in power?

Echoing Wehler's views, the British historian Sir Ian Kershaw argued that it was better to take a broader view of German history by seeking to examine what social forces led to the Third Reich and its policies, as opposed to the "personalized" explanations for the Holocaust and World War II.[30]

In his book Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil (1998), the American journalist Ron Rosenbaum sarcastically remarked that theories concerning Hitler's mental state and sexual activity shed more light on the theorists than on Hitler.

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Dimuro, Gina (11 June 2018). "Origins Of Evil: The Rage-Filled Story Of Alois Hitler". All That's Interesting.
  2. ^ Vernon, W. H. D. (1942). "Hitler, the man--notes for a case history". The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 37 (3): 295–308. doi:10.1037/h0059954.
  3. ^ Bromberg, N. (7 October 1974). "Hitler's Childhood". Int. R. Psycho-Anal. 1: 227–244 – via PEP Web.
  4. ^ Grunzweig, Walter (22 September 2008). "The Hitler Family: A Relational Approach to Norman Mailer". The Mailer Review. 2 (1): 330 – via www.questia.com.
  5. ^ "Klara Hitler". Spartacus Educational.
  6. ^ Pekkala, Nina; Knott, K Emily; Kotiaho, Janne S; Nissinen, Kari; Puurtinen, Mikael (November 2014). "The effect of inbreeding rate on fitness, inbreeding depression and heterosis over a range of inbreeding coefficients". Evolutionary Applications. 7 (9): 1107–1119. doi:10.1111/eva.12145. PMC 4231599. PMID 25553071.
  7. ^ Rosenberg, Jennifer (27 September 2018). "See Adolf Hitler's Complicated Family Tree". ThoughtCo.
  8. ^ Gehrmann, Rolf (2011). "Infant Mortality in Germany in the 19th Century". Comparative Population Studies. 36 (4). ProQuest 2056746876.
  9. ^ "Hitler syphilis theory revived". BBC News. 12 March 2003. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  10. ^ Hayden, Deborah (4 August 2008). Pox. p. 220. ISBN 9780786724130.
  11. ^ See a documentary video file produced by the Armed Forces in the late 1940s about the very serious number of cases of the disease reported in Europe and the United States in the early part of the century.
  12. ^ Kessel, Joseph. The Man With the Miraculous Hands: The Fantastic Story of Felix Kersten, Himmler's Private Doctor. Classics of War Series. Springfield, NJ: Burford Books, 2004. ISBN 1580801226.
  13. ^ a b Jamieson, Alastair (19 November 2008). "Nazi leader Hitler really did have only one ball". The Telegraph.
  14. ^ Bezymensky L. A. Operatsija "Mif" ili skolko raz choronili Gitlera. Moscow 1995
  15. ^ John, Tara (23 February 2016). "The Immortal Myth of Hitler's Deformed Genitals". Time. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  16. ^ "Huntington's disease - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  17. ^ "Huntington's disease - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  18. ^ "Hitler's 'Cure' for Huntington's Disease | Huntington's Disease Lighthouse Families". www.hdlf.org. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  19. ^ Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B. (2015). "Adolf Hitler and His Parkinsonism". Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology. 18 (4): 387–390. doi:10.4103/0972-2327.169536 (inactive 30 September 2020). PMC 4683874. PMID 26713007.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of September 2020 (link)
  20. ^ "Physician describes Hitler's last days". UPI.
  21. ^ Ian Kershaw (2000). Hitler 1936-1945: Nemesis. Penguin Press. ISBN 0-393-32252-1.
  22. ^ Heinz Linge, Roger Moorehouse (2009). With Hitler to the End: The Memoir of Hitler's Valet. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-602-39804-7.
  23. ^ Hitler's Hidden Drug Habit: Secret History on YouTube directed and produced by Chris Durlacher. A Waddell Media Production for Channel 4 in association with National Geographic Channels, MMXIV. Executive Producer Jon-Barrie Waddell.
  24. ^ Doyle 2005, p. 8/8 in PDF.
  25. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 782.
  26. ^ Ohler, Norman (13 February 2017). "Hitler's Doctor Said the Dictator Almost Died from a Cocaine Overdose". Vice. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  27. ^ Ghaemi 2011, p. [page needed].
  28. ^ Porter 2013.
  29. ^ Doyle 2005, p. 8.
  30. ^ a b c Kershaw, Ian (2000). The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation. London: Arnold. p. 72.

Bibliography

Further reading

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