Downfall (2004 film)

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Downfall
Der Untergang Downfall poster.png
Theatrical release poster
Directed byOliver Hirschbiegel
Produced byBernd Eichinger
Screenplay byBernd Eichinger
Based on
Starring
Music byStephan Zacharias[1]
CinematographyRainer Klausmann[1]
Edited byHans Funck[1]
Production
company
Distributed byConstantin Film (Germany, Austria)
01 Distribution (Italy)
Release date
  • 16 September 2004 (2004-09-16) (Germany)
  • 17 September 2004 (2004-09-17) (Austria)
  • 18 March 2005 (2005-03-18) (Greece)
  • 29 April 2005 (2005-04-29) (Italy)
Running time
155 minutes[2]
CountryGermany
Italy
Austria[3]
LanguageGerman[2]
Budget€13.5 million[4]
Box office$92.2 million[5]

Downfall (German: Der Untergang) is a 2004 historical war drama film directed by Oliver Hirschbiegel from a screenplay by its producer, Bernd Eichinger. The film stars Bruno Ganz, Alexandra Maria Lara, Corinna Harfouch, Ulrich Matthes, Juliane Köhler, Heino Ferch, Christian Berkel, Matthias Habich, and Thomas Kretschmann. It is set during the Battle of Berlin in World War II, when Germany is on the verge of defeat, and depicts the final days of Adolf Hitler (portrayed by Ganz). It is based on the books Inside Hitler's Bunker by historian Joachim Fest and Until the Final Hour by Hitler's former private secretary Traudl Junge, among other accounts of the period.

Principal photography took place from September to November 2003, on location in Berlin, Munich, and in Saint Petersburg, Russia. As the film is set in and around the Führerbunker, Hirschbiegel used eyewitness accounts, survivors' memoirs, and other historical sources during production to reconstruct the look and atmosphere of 1940s Berlin.

The film premiered at the Toronto Film Festival on 14 September 2004, but stirred controversy for portraying the human side of Hitler. It later received a wide theatrical release in Germany under its production company Constantin Film. The film grossed over $92 million, received favourable reviews from critics, and was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 77th Academy Awards. Scenes from the film, such as the scene where Hitler displays rage after Felix Steiner fails to obey his orders, spawned a series of Internet memes.

Plot[edit]

In November 1942, at the Wolf's Lair in East Prussia, Chancellor of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler selects Traudl Junge as his personal secretary. Three years later, the Red Army has pushed back Germany's advance and surrounded Berlin. On Hitler's 56th birthday, the Red Army begins shelling Berlin's city centre. Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler tries to persuade Hitler to leave Berlin, but Hitler refuses. Himmler leaves to negotiate terms with the Western Allies in secret. Later, Himmler's adjutant Hermann Fegelein also attempts to persuade Hitler to flee, but Hitler insists that he will win or die in Berlin.

Dr. Ernst-Günther Schenck is ordered to leave Berlin per Operation Clausewitz, though he persuades an SS general to let him stay in Berlin to treat the injured. In the streets, Hitler Youth child soldier Peter Kranz's father approaches Peter's unit and tries persuading him to leave. Peter, who destroyed two enemy tanks and will soon be awarded a medal by Hitler, calls his father a coward and runs away.

At a meeting in the Führerbunker, Hitler forbids the outnumbered 9th Army to retreat, ordering SS commander Felix Steiner's units to mount a counter-attack. The generals find the orders impossible and irrational. Above ground, Hitler awards Peter his medal, hailing Peter as braver than his generals. In his office, Hitler talks to Minister of Armaments Albert Speer about his scorched earth policy. Speer is concerned of the destruction of German infrastructure, but Hitler believes the German people left behind are weak and deserve death. Meanwhile, Hitler's companion Eva Braun holds a party in the Reich Chancellery. Fegelein tries persuading Eva, his sister-in-law, to leave Berlin with Hitler, but she dismisses him. Artillery fire eventually breaks up the party.

On the battlefield, General Helmuth Weidling is informed he will be executed for allegedly ordering a retreat. Weidling comes to the Führerbunker to clear himself. His action impresses Hitler, who promotes him to oversee all Berlin defences. At another meeting, Hitler learns Steiner did not attack because his unit was too weak. Hitler becomes enraged at what he saw as betrayal, stating that everyone has failed him and denounces his generals as cowards and traitors, before finally acknowledging that the war is lost, but that he would rather commit suicide than leave Berlin.

Schenck witnesses mass civilian casualties and executions as supposed traitors. Hitler receives a message from Luftwaffe chief Hermann Göring requesting state leadership. Hitler declares Göring a traitor, ordering his arrest. Speer then admits to Hitler that he has defied his orders. Hitler, however, does not punish Speer who decides to leave Berlin. Peter's unit is defeated and he runs back to his parents. Hitler imagines more ways for Germany to turn the tide. At dinner, Hitler learns of Himmler's secret negotiations and orders his execution and also finds out that Fegelein has deserted Berlin, having him executed despite Eva's pleas. SS physician Ernst-Robert Grawitz asks Hitler's permission to evacuate for fear of Allied reprisal. Hitler refuses, leading Grawitz to kill himself and his family.

The Soviets continue their advance, Berlin's supplies run low, and German morale plummets. Hitler hopes that the 12th Army will save Berlin. After midnight, Hitler dictates his last will and testament to Junge, before marrying Eva. The following morning, Hitler learns that the 12th Army is stuck and cannot relieve Berlin. Refusing surrender, Hitler plans his death. He administers poison to his dog Blondi, bids farewell to the bunker staff, and commits suicide with Eva. The two are cremated in the Chancellery garden.

Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels assumes Chancellorship. General Hans Krebs fails to negotiate a conditional surrender with Soviet General Vasily Chuikov. Goebbels declares that Germany will not surrender as long as he is alive. Goebbels' wife Magda poisons her six children with cyanide, before committing suicide with Goebbels; Weidling announces unconditional surrender of German forces in Berlin. Many government and military officials commit suicide after learning of Germany's defeat. Peter discovers his parents were executed. Junge leaves the bunker and tries to flee the city; Peter joins her as she sneaks through a group of Soviet soldiers before the two find a bicycle and leave Berlin.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

Producer-screenwriter Bernd Eichinger wanted to make a film about Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party for 20 years but was, at first, discouraged after its enormity prevented him from doing so. After reading a publication about the book by historian Joachim Fest called Inside Hitler's Bunker: The Last Days of the Third Reich (2002), he became inspired by Fest's academic writings and included them in the film.[6][7][8] Eichinger also based the film on the memoirs of Traudl Junge, one of Hitler's secretaries, called Until the Final Hour: Hitler's Last Secretary (2002);[9][10] he used the books Inside the Third Reich (1969), by Albert Speer,[11] one of the highest-ranking Nazi officials to survive both the war and the Nuremberg trials; Hitler's Last Days: An Eye-Witness Account (1973), by Gerhard Boldt;[12] Das Notlazarett unter der Reichskanzlei: Ein Arzt erlebt Hitlers Ende in Berlin (1995) by Doctor Ernst-Günther Schenck; and Soldat: Reflections of a German Soldier, 1936–1949 (1992) by Siegfried Knappe as references when writing the screenplay.[13]

After completing the script for the film, Eichinger presented it to director Oliver Hirschbiegel who hesitated at first because he "reacted to the idea of nazism as a taboo", as he himself was German. He eventually agreed to helm the project.[14][13]

Casting[edit]

Bruno Ganz studied the Hitler and Mannerheim recording for four months to prepare for his role[15]

When Bruno Ganz was offered the role of Hitler, he was reluctant to accept the part, and many of his friends advised against accepting it:[4][16]

In order to prepare for the role, Ganz conducted four months of research and studied an 11-minute recording of Hitler in private conversation with Finnish Field Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim in order to properly mimic Hitler's conversational voice and Austrian dialect. Ganz also became convinced that Hitler had Parkinson's Disease after seeing him in the newsreel Die Deutsche Wochenschau presenting medals to Hitler Youth and visited a hospital to observe patients with the disorder.[15] Ganz auditioned in the casting studio with makeup for half an hour and tested his voice for Hirschbiegel who was convinced by his performance.[4][17]

Alexandra Maria Lara was cast as Traudl Junge; she was given Junge's book Until the Final Hour (2002), which she called her "personal treasure", to read during filming. Before she was cast, she had seen André Heller's documentary film Im toten Winkel which impressed her and influenced her perspective on Junge.[18][19]

Numerous actors were cast in the roles for members of the Nazi party and the other people in the bunker; Juliane Köhler, Ulrich Noethen, Ulrich Matthes, Corinna Harfouch, Heino Ferch, and Michael Mendl were cast as Eva Braun, Heinrich Himmler, Joseph Goebbels, Magda Goebbels, Albert Speer, and Helmuth Weidling respectively.[1][20]

Filming and design[edit]

Filming took place near the Obvodny Canal in Saint Petersburg in a district slum to imitate the setting for Berlin

Principal photography lasted 12 weeks, in the period from September to November 2003, under the working title Sunset.[21][13] Since the film is set mostly in and around the Führerbunker, Hirschbiegel said he made an effort to accurately reconstruct the look and atmosphere of World War II through eyewitness accounts, survivors' memoirs, and other historical sources by filming in the cities of Berlin, Munich, and Saint Petersburg, Russia, where an industrial district slum along the Obvodny Canal was also used to portray the historical setting in Berlin.[21][22]

According to Lara, the atmosphere for the actors during filming was intense but depressing. Her other colleagues briefly stopped during production to do other activities, such as play football, to brighten up their mood. Ganz also kept a happy mood in between his scenes.[19] There was tremendous interest for the film during filming which lead the Russian press to visit the set, making the producers uneasy and occasionally defensive. Yana Bezhanskay, director of Globus Film, Constantin's Russian partner, raised her voice to Russian journalists and said: "This is an antifascist film and nowhere in it do you see Hitler praised."[21]

The film was produced on a €13.5 million budget.[4] The bunker and Hitler's Wolf's Lair was constructed at Bavaria Studios in Munich by production designer Bernd Lepel.[17][1] One CGI scene of the Reichstag building as it would have appeared before the restoration was created. Hirschbiegel decided to limit the amount of CGI, props, and sets so as not to make the set design look like that of a theatre production.[17] He explained:

Themes[edit]

They just got it wrong. Bad people do not walk around with claws like vicious monsters, even though it might be comforting to think so. Everyone intelligent knows that evil comes along with a smiling face.[16]

— Hirschbiegel in 2015, on the criticism surrounding the portrayal of Hitler

The film explores Hitler's decisions and motives during his final days through the perspective of the people in the Führerbunker. Hirschbiegel said that the production team sought to give Hitler a three-dimensional personality, telling NBC: "We know from all accounts that he was a very charming man – a man who managed to seduce a whole people into barbarism."[23] During production, Hirschbiegel came to the conclusion that Hitler often charmed people with his personality, saying that he was "like a shell", attracting people with his self-pity, but inside the shell was only "an enormous will for destruction".[16] Many of the people in the film, including Traudl Junge, are shown to be enthusiastic in interacting with Hitler instead of feeling threatened or anxious by his presence and authority. In the DVD commentary, Hirschbiegel said that everything in the film was "derived from the accounts, from descriptions of people" in the bunker.[24] The film also opens and closes with the real Junge in an interview from Im toten Winkel where she admits feeling guilt for "not recognizing this monster in time"[25]

The overlaying idea, according to Bernd Eichinger, was to make a film about Hitler that was very close to historical truth, as part of a theme that would allow the German nation to save their own history and "experience their own trauma".[26] The addition of Peter Kranz, a fictional Hitler Youth boy who is awarded by Hitler for destroying two tanks and later escapes Berlin with Junge, was a symbolic representation of Germany's attempt to defend itself, leading up to its chance at rebirth.[27][28] The film explores the suicides and deaths of the Nazi party as opposed to the people who choose life. Hitler's provision of cyanide pills to those in the bunker and the Goebbel's murder of their children are shown as selfish deeds while people such as Ernst-Günther Schenck, who choose to help the injured and escape death, are shown as rational and generous.[28][25]

Release[edit]

Theatrical[edit]

Downfall initially failed to find a distributor in Germany due to the press reaction from commentators, film magazines, and newspapers for its attempt to show Hitler as "too human".[7][23][29] It premiered at the Toronto Film Festival on 14 September 2004.[12][30] The film was eventually released by Constantin Film in Germany on 16 September 2004.[31][22][8] It premiered in the U.S. in Manhattan on 18 February 2005 under Newmarket Films.[32] On its broadcast in the UK, Channel 4 marketed it with the strapline: "It's a happy ending. He dies."[33]

Home video[edit]

The film was released on DVD in August 2005, by Columbia-TriStar Home Entertainment.[34] Shout! Factory released a collector's edition Blu-ray in March 2018, with a "making-of" featurette, cast and crew interviews, and audio commentary from director Oliver Hirschbiegel.[35]

Reception[edit]

Box office and awards[edit]

Downfall sold nearly half a million tickets in Germany for its opening weekend and attracted 4.5 million viewers in the first three months.[36][30] The final North American gross was $5,509,040.[5] $86,671,870 was made with its foreign gross, and it became the fourth most popular film at the 2005 Norwegian box office.[5][37] The film made $93.6 million altogether.[13]

In 2005, Downfall was nominated for an Oscar at the 77th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film.[38] It won the 2005 BBC Four World Cinema competition.[39] The film was also ranked number 48 in Empire magazine's "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema" in 2010.[40]

Critical response[edit]

The review-aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gives a score of 91 percent based on 138 reviews from critics, and a weighted average of 8 out of 10. The website's critical consensus describes the film as "an illuminating, thoughtful and detailed account of Hitler's last days".[41] At Metacritic, the film has a score of 82 out of 100 on based on 35 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim".[42]

The film was debated by critics and audiences upon its release,[6][43][44] although Bruno Ganz's portrayal of Hitler was praised.[45][46][47] The German tabloid Bild asked, "Are we allowed to show the monster as a human being?" in their newspaper.[23]

On the film's depiction of Hitler, David Denby for The New Yorker said that Ganz "made the dictator into a plausible human being".[48] Addressing other critics like Denby, Chicago Sun-Times critic Roger Ebert said the film did not provide an adequate portrayal of Hitler's actions, because he felt no film could, and that no response would be sufficient. Ebert said Hitler was in reality "the focus for a spontaneous uprising by many of the German people, fuelled by racism, xenophobia, grandiosity and fear".[49] Author Giles MacDonogh criticised the film for its sympathetic portrayals of the SS officers Wilhelm Mohnke, and Ernst-Günther Schenck, the former of which was accused of murdering a group of British prisoners of war in the Wormhoudt massacre.[N 1] MacDonogh also pointed out that Schenck's medical experiments on concentration camp prisoners using herbs in 1938 allegedly led to deaths among his subjects and among the slaves growing the herbs.[51] But at a discussion in London, Hirschbiegel said in response that he did his own research and did not find the allegations for Schenck convincing.[52] Mohnke strongly denied the accusations against him, telling historian Thomas Fischer that he never issued any orders to take or execute English prisoners.[53]

Hermann Graml, history professor and former Luftwaffe helper, praised the film and said that he had not seen a film that was "so insistent and tormentingly alive". Graml said that Hitler's portrayal was presented correctly by showing Hitler's will "to destroy, and his way of denying reality".[54] Julia Radke of the German website Future Needs Remembrance praised the film's acting and called it well crafted and a solid Kammerspielfilm, though it could lose viewer interest due to a lack of concentration on the narrative perspective.[55] German author Jens Jessen said that the film "could have been stupider" and called it a "chamber play that could not be staged undramatically". Jessen also said that it was not as spectacular as the pre-media coverage could have led one to believe, and it did not arouse the "morbid fascination" the magazine Der Spiegel was looking for.[20]

Hitler biographer Sir Ian Kershaw wrote in The Guardian that the film had enormous emotive power, calling it a triumph and "a marvelous historical drama". Kershaw also said that he found it hard to imagine anyone would find Hitler to be a sympathetic figure in his final days.[31] Wim Wenders, in a review for the German newspaper Die Zeit, said the film was absent of a strong point of view for Hitler which made him harmless, and compared Downfall to Resident Evil: Apocalypse, stating that in Resident Evil the viewer would know which character was evil.[4][43] Rochus Misch, who acted as telephonist and bodyguard in the bunker, called Downfall "americanised" in a 2005 interview while comparing what happened in the film to what happened in real life. He stated that although the film portrayed the important facts accurately, it exaggerated other details for dramatic effect, such as the film's characters screaming and shouting when, in his recollection, most people in the bunker spoke quietly.[56]

Parodies[edit]

The scene in the film that depicts Hitler experiencing anger after Steiner fails his orders became a viral video after numerous parodies were posted to the internet

Downfall is well known for its rise in popularity due to Internet parodies called "Hitler Rants", inspired by a scene in the film where Hitler launches into a furious tirade upon finally realizing that the war is lost. In the videos, the original German audio is retained, but new subtitles are added so that Hitler and his subordinates seem to be reacting to an issue of setback in present-day politics, sports, entertainment, popular culture, or everyday life.[57][58][59][60] Other scenes from various portions of the film have been parodied in the same manner, including the scenes where Hitler orders Otto Günsche to find SS-Gruppenführer Hermann Fegelein, and where Hitler discusses a counterattack against advancing Soviet forces with his generals.

By 2010, there were thousands of such parodies, including many in which Hitler is enraged that people keep making Downfall parodies in a case of metaparody.[61] Various YouTubers made Downfall reaction videos and some have cited their reasons for making the parodies.[62][59] Hirschbiegel spoke positively about these parodies in a 2010 interview with New York magazine, saying that many of them were funny and they were a fitting extension of the film's purpose:

Nevertheless, Constantin Film has taken an "ambivalent" view of the parodies and has asked video sites to remove many of them.[64] On 21 April 2010, the producers initiated a removal of parody videos from YouTube.[65] This prompted posting of videos of Hitler complaining about the fact that the parodies were being taken down, and a resurgence of the videos on the site.[62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Mohnke was rumoured, but never proven, to have ordered the execution near Dunkirk in 1940.[50]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f Elley, Derek. "Downfall". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  2. ^ a b "DOWNFALL (15)". British Board of Film Classification. 24 December 2004. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
  3. ^ "Downfall (2004)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Eichinger-Film "Der Untergang": Bruno Ganz spielt späten Hitler" (in German). Spiegel Online. 16 April 2003. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  5. ^ a b c "DOWNFALL". Box Office Mojo.
  6. ^ a b Engelen, Leen; Winkel, Roel Vande (2007). "Hitler's Downfall, a film from Germany (Der Untergang, 2004)". Perspectives on European Film and History. Academia Press. ISBN 9789038210827.
  7. ^ a b Summers, Sue (20 March 2005). "Now the Germans have their say". The Guardian. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
  8. ^ a b Landler, Mark (15 September 2004). "The All-Too-Human Hitler, on Your Big Screen". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  9. ^ Denby, David (14 February 2005). "Back in the Bunker". The New Yorker. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  10. ^ Machtans, Karolin; Ruehl, Martin A. (November 30, 2012). Hitler - Films from Germany: History, Cinema and Politics since 1945. Palgrave Macmillan UK. ISBN 9781137032386.
  11. ^ Oren, Michael B. (4 July 2005). "Pass the Fault". The New Republic. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  12. ^ a b Bathrik, David (1 November 2007). "Whose Hi/story Is It? The U.S. Reception of Downfall". Duke University Press. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  13. ^ a b c d Niemi, Robert (2018). 100 Great War Movies: The Real History Behind the Films. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781440833861.
  14. ^ Trapani, Salvatore (5 February 2005). "The Downfall - Interview: Oliver Hirschbiegel • Director". Cineuropa. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  15. ^ a b c Diver, Krysia; Moss, Stephen (25 March 2003). "Desperately seeking Adolf". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
  16. ^ a b c Johnston, Sheila (30 April 2015). "The dangers of portraying Hitler". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  17. ^ a b c d Cavagna, Carlo. "Interviews: DOWNFALL". AboutFilm.Com. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  18. ^ Bonke, Johannes (17 September 2004). "Alexandra Maria Lara über ihr Gefühls-Chaos" (in German). Filmreporter.de. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  19. ^ a b Sarkar, David (25 August 2004). "Das Böse kann niemals eindimensional sein" (in German). Planet Interview. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  20. ^ a b Jessen, Jens (26 August 2004). "Stilles Ende eines Irren unter Tage". Die Zeit (in German). Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  21. ^ a b c Varoli, John (7 October 2003). "A War-Torn Berlin Reborn in Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  22. ^ a b Meza, Ed (12 August 2003). "Hitler pic lands in Russia". Variety. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  23. ^ a b c Eckardt, Andy (16 September 2004). "Film showing Hitler's soft side stirs controversy". NBC News. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  24. ^ Fuchs, Cynthia (3 August 2005). "Downfall (2004)". PopMatters. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  25. ^ a b Bangert, Axel (2014). The Nazi Past in Contemporary German Film: Viewing Experiences of Intimacy and Immersion. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 9781571139054.
  26. ^ Mazierska, Ewa (12 July 2011). European Cinema and Intertextuality: History, Memory and Politics. Springer. ISBN 9780230319547.
  27. ^ Fisher, Jaimey; Prager, Brad (2010). The Collapse of the Conventional: German Film and Its Politics at the Turn of the Twenty-first Century. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 9780814333778.
  28. ^ a b Engelen, Leen; Winkel, Roel Vande (2007). Perspectives on European Film and History. Academia Press. ISBN 9789038210827.
  29. ^ "My Hitler part in 'Downfall'". The Irish Times. 26 March 2005. Retrieved 14 November 2018. Though Downfall has been a significant commercial success in Germany, there have been dissenting voices. The same concerns that have kept museums and visitors centres from opening on the land above the bunker have hitherto dissuaded German directors from representing Adolf Hitler on film.
  30. ^ a b Bendix, John (Spring 2007). "Facing Hitler: German Responses to 'Downfall'". German Politics and Society. 25 (1 (82)): 70–89. JSTOR 23742889.
  31. ^ a b Kershaw, Ian (17 September 2004). "The human Hitler". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  32. ^ Scott, A. O. (18 February 2005). "The Last Days of Hitler: Raving and Ravioli". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  33. ^ "Hitler: The Lost Files". The Irish Times. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  34. ^ Atanasov, Svet (8 August 2005). "Downfall". DVD Talk. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  35. ^ "Downfall Collector's Edition Blu-ray Detailed". Blu-ray.com. 12 February 2018. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  36. ^ "German film on Hitler's demise a box office hit". The Irish Times. 20 September 2004. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  37. ^ Pham, Annika (31 March 2005). "Downfall climbs local box office". Cineuropa. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  38. ^ "Hitler Film Wins Oscar Nomination". DW. 26 January 2005. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  39. ^ "Downfall wins BBC world film gong". BBC. 26 January 2006. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  40. ^ "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema – 48. Downfall". Empire.
  41. ^ "Downfall (Der Untergang) (2004)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  42. ^ "Downfall Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  43. ^ a b "A film depicting Adolf Hitler's human side is attracting crowds and stirring debate in Germany". Columbia University. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  44. ^ Borcholte, Andreas (15 September 2004). ""Der Untergang": Die unerzählbare Geschichte". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  45. ^ Bradshaw, Peter (1 April 2005). "Downfall Review". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  46. ^ Newman, Kim (10 May 2017). "Downfall Review". Empire. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  47. ^ Smithey, Cole (9 May 2005). "German Filmmakers do Justice to the Fall of Hitler's Empire". Smart New Media.
  48. ^ Denby, David (14 February 2005). "David Denby's comments on Der Untergang". The New Yorker. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  49. ^ Ebert, Roger (11 March 2005). "Downfall". Chicago Sun-Times.
  50. ^ Weale, Adrian (2012). Army of Evil: A History of the SS. New York; Toronto: NAL Caliber (Penguin Group). ISBN 978-0-451-23791-0.
  51. ^ Eberle, Henrik, MacDonogh, Giles and Uhl, Matthias. The Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin, New York: PublicAffairs, 2005, p 370. ISBN 1-58648-366-8
  52. ^ Higgins, Charlotte (5 April 2005). "Bunker film 'is too kind to Nazis'". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  53. ^ Fischer, Thomas. Soldiers of the Leibstandarte, J. J. Fedorowicz Publishing, Inc. 2008, p 26.
  54. ^ ""Der Untergang": Faktisch genau, dramaturgisch lau". Der Spiegel (in German). 16 August 2004. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  55. ^ Radke, Julia (1 November 2004). "Hirschbiegel: Der Untergang. Filmrezension". Future Needs Rememberence (in German). Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  56. ^ Hattemer-Higgins, Ida (21 February 2005). "Hitler's bodyguard". Salon. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  57. ^ "The rise, rise and rise of the Downfall Hitler parody". BBC News. 13 April 2010.
  58. ^ "Internetting: a user's guide #18 - How downfall gained cult status". The Guardian. London. 5 July 2013. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  59. ^ a b "Kobra - Del 2 av 12: Hitlerhumor" (in Swedish). SVT Play. Archived from the original on 23 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  60. ^ Brady, Tara (31 July 2015). "Oliver Hirschbiegel: from Hitler to Princess Diana and back again". The Irish Times. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  61. ^ Boutin, Paul (25 February 2010). "Video Mad Libs With the Right Software". The New York Times. pp. B10. Retrieved 26 February 2010. In various home-subtitled remakes over the last few years, Hitler explodes when told that the McMansion he was trying to flip is in foreclosure, that the band Oasis has split up, that the Colts lost the Super Bowl or that people keep making more "Downfall" parodies.
  62. ^ a b Evangelista, Benny (23 July 2010). "Parody, copyright law clash in online clips". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  63. ^ Rosenblum, Emma (15 January 2010). "The Director of Downfall Speaks Out on All Those Angry YouTube Hitlers". New York. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
  64. ^ Finlo Rohrer (13 April 2010). "The rise, rise and rise of the Downfall Hitler parody". BBC News. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
  65. ^ Finlo Rohrer (21 April 2010). "Downfall filmmakers want YouTube to take down Hitler spoofs". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 April 2010.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]