Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar

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Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar
علي محسن صالح الأحمر
Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar (cropped).jpg
3rd Vice President of Yemen
Assumed office
4 April 2016
President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi
Preceded by Khaled Bahah
Personal details
Born Ali Mohsen Saleh al-Ahmar
(1945-06-20) June 20, 1945 (age 73)
Sanhan, Sana'a Governorate, Yemen
Political party General People's Congress
Relations Ali Abdullah Saleh (Distant cousin)[1]
Military service
Allegiance  Yemen
Service/branch Yemen Army
Years of service 1966–present
Rank
YemeniArmyInsignia-LieutenantGeneral.png
Lieutenant general
Commands North-Western Military District 2011–2012
1st Armoured Division 1987–2011[2]
Battles/wars

Ali Mohsen Saleh al-Ahmar (Arabic: علي محسن صالح الأحمر‎), sometimes spelled "Muhsin", (born 20 June 1945) is the Vice President of Yemen. He is a general of the Yemeni army and was the commander of the northwestern military district and the 1st Armoured Division. He played a leading role in the creation of the General People's Congress.[3][4] Mohsen has a good relationship with Saudi Arabia and other Arab states of the Persian Gulf.

He was appointed as a Deputy Supreme Commander of Yemeni Armed Forces on February 22, 2016. "Yemen's Hadi appoints top general in bid to rally tribes". After that President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi has appointed him a Vice President of Yemen on April 3, 2016.[5] This assignment made a big controversy between objectors and supporters, but most of them considered it a strong message from President Hadi and the Saudi-led Coalition for the intention to use the Military option to regain control of the Capital.This is bascially because of the flexible and strong relation between Mohsen with figures from the tribes surrounding the Capital Sana'a as well as some military commander who will be loyal to the side of legitimacy because of this assignment.[3]

Early life and education[edit]

Born in Sanhan, a southeastern suburb of Sana'a, and he got his primary and secondary education there, he is not a member of the al-Ahmar immediate ruling family of the Hashid tribe.[6]

Military training[edit]

Ali Mohsen Saleh al-Ahmar joined the army to the 4th Military brigade in 1961. He was promoted as a first lieutenant in the Mechanized forces of the Yemeni army in 1968, and participated in the North Yemen Civil War 1962-1967, fighting on the Republican side. Then he joined Yemen Military Academy in 1971, and got his bachelor's degree in 1974. After his graduation from Yemen Military Academy he got promoted as a captain. He joined Al-Tholaya Institute in Taiz and got a certificate of Battalions Leadership in 1969. He got his PhD from Nasser Military Academy-Cairo in 1974. He continued to get promotions until he became a major general in 2007,[7] Later on, the presidential decree issued by Abd Rabbuh Mansur promoted him as Lieutenant Colonel and he was subsequently appointed as the Deputy Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces on February 22, 2016.[8]

Career[edit]

Political and military career[edit]

Mohsen started his military career in Al-Maghawir Brigade, as a leader of an infantry company in 1970, then he joined the 1st Armored Brigade and became a commander of a tank company in 1975, he was a commander of the independent 4th Tank battalion in 1977.

He was close to Saleh since 1973, and When Saleh seized power in 1978, Mohsen was promoted to full colonel in 1979 and given command of one of the Armoured Brigade. In 1983 he became Chief of Staff of the 1st Armoured Division, as well as the command of the 1st Brigade of the1stArmored Division. He became a commander of North-Western Military District on 8 January 1995. On 22 January 2001 he was appointed as a commander of 1st Armoured Division and North-Western Military District. Then he became a President's Advisor for Defence and Security Affairs on 10 April 2013.

In 2004 the former president Ali Abdullah Saleh assigned him to lead the military operations against the Houthi militia.[9] He served as a chief of the Local Council for Cooperative Development of Sanhan Dstrict – Sana'a Governorate in 1975, for three sessions each one was a period of three years. In 1980 he was a member of the committee of National Dialogue that drafted the National Covenant which was considered the universal document for all political components that subject to General People's Congress party..[3]

In 1980 Mohsen participated in establishing the General People's Congress party, chaired by the former president Ali Abdullah Saleh, and he was a member of the Standing Committee of GPC for three consecutive sessions from 1980 to 1989, then he became a member of the Defense Committee of GPC party.

Mohsen was a primary and effective member of the preparing committee for the unity during the negotiation process, then he participated in the integration and restructuring the Armed Forces of Yemen after the unity. He was assigned as a Deputy Chief of joint Yemeni-Saudi Military Committee for addressing the security and militarism balances between the two countries, and resolving the border issues.

Mohsen is known to have Salafi leanings and to support a more radical Islamic political agenda than Ali Abdullah Saleh. He has powerful supporters in Saudi Arabia and has aided the Saudis in establishing Wahhabi/Salafi institutions in the Zaydi heartland, Sadaa[10] creating internal tension.[11]

Vice presidency[edit]

On April 3, 2016, President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi appointed Ali Mohsen Saleh al-Ahmar as Vice President of Yemen. Mohsen has been serving the nation of Yemen in that capacity till date.[12] Since he was appointed Vice President, he played an important role in activating the fighting fronts against the Houthi & Saleh, as well as supervising many battles including Marib, Midi, Taiz and Shabwah.[13]

In October 2017, Ali Mohsen as the Vice president of Yemen headed a meeting for the Security Taskforce which is an offshoot of the Friends of Yemen Group that is formed to lead the fight against terrorism in Yemen. The agenda of the meeting focused on latest developments in the country and the progress of the taskforce's work.[14] Since then, Ali Mohsen become the head of counter-terrorism group in Yemen that include the United States of America, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Mohsen shared with the group efforts in transferring expertise in security, military and intelligence fields to the ground and coordination for building military units to fight terrorism and clamp down on smugglers.[14]

Business ventures[edit]

According to ambassador Thomas C. Krajeski, Mohsen was a major beneficiary of diesel smuggling, and amassed a fortune in the smuggling of arms, food staples and consumer products. Together with Sheikh Abdullah al Ahmar's sons and Ali Abdullah Saleh, were making millions working the diesel smuggling and black market, using military vehicles and National Security Bureau and Central Security Organization staff to move the fuel to markets in Yemen and Saudi Arabia.[15] This accusations are absolutely denied by Ali Mohsen Al-Ahmar "the favoritism and the smugglings operations was a common defect in the army units and the decision to fight that was under the authority of President Saleh" Mohsen pointed out.[16]

2011 uprising[edit]

The massacre of (Friday of Dignity) occurred in the Square of Change in Sana'a which was the Square for the protesters against Ali Abdullah Saleh. After the demonstrators had finished Jumah prayer, masked gunmen began shooting at them for more than three hours. They killed about 45 demonstrator and wounded about 200, according to Human Rights watch the number of death toll may reach 54 following injuries on those affected.[17] Furthermore, about 40 of the injured persons have been shot on the heads, chest and other parts of upper body by semi-automatic weapons which were described by medical officials, lawyers and protesters as a job of skilled snipers.[18]

Relations between Saleh and Mohsen had reportedly soured years before the uprising due to his rivalries with two of the president's sons. This souring of relations led to an apparent attempt by President Saleh to kill Mohsen by asking Saudi Arabian military commanders to bomb an alleged rebel base which was in fact Mohsen's HQ.[19] On March 21, 2011, Mohsen said he would protect the anti-government Yemeni protesters, along with other top Yemeni army commanders, in a move that was later condemned as 'mutinous' by President Saleh.[20] On December 19, 2012, Moshen was effectively dismissed from his position by President Hadi as part of Hadi's efforts to restructure the military and remove the political and military elite remnant from former President Ali Abdullah Saleh's rule. The forces previously under Mohsen's command, most notably the First Armoured Division, will be absorbed into the Defence Ministry.[21]

2014 Houthi takeover of Sana'a[edit]

On September 16, armed clashes broke out in northwest Sana'a between the Iran-backed Houthi militia and some army units led by Moshen. After four days of fighting, al-Ahmar moved toward the headquarters of Military Region VI (the previous First Armored Division, which Ahmar used to lead before he was dismissed and appointed to be adviser to the president for defense and security affairs in 2012). He did not comply with the president's and defense minister's directives and he led the battles against the Houthis himself, in what was seen as a possible coup attempt. Mohsen did not achieve any victories, and in two days the Houthis were in control of most major government buildings in Sana'a, including the buildings of state television, state radio, the prime minister's office, the armed forces general command, the Ministry of Defense, the Central Bank of Yemen and Military Region VI.[22]

Rumored exile[edit]

Following the Houthi takeover of the Yemeni capital Sana'a, it was rumored that Sadiq al-Ahmar, members of the al-Ahmar family and Hashid tribal elders fled Yemen to Saudi Arabia or Qatar.But Sadiq appeared in a video tape later in Sanaa and still there until now.[23] Moshen was also believed to have sought refuge in either Saudi Arabia or Qatar but recently noticed that Saudi Embassy in Sana'a prepared a helicopter and coordinated for his departure to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia following the Houthi ascension to power.[24][25] His absence has seen his homes in the Hadda neighborhood of Sana'a seized by Houthi fighters.

2015 Yemeni Civil War[edit]

After he left Yemen as a result of the Houthi takeover, Mohsen returned to Yemen to lead the military operation in Yemen's northern province of Hajja in December 2015 and relocated his headquarter near Mareb governorate in 2016.[26] Since he was appointed Vice President, he played an important role in activating the fighting fronts against the Houthi & Saleh, as well as supervising many battles including Marib, Midi, Taiz and Shabwah.

Mohsen enjoys wide influence on the tribes and military officers of Yemen and seen as the actual ruler in the north of Yemen. He is in regular meetings and talks with the ambassadors of USA, UK and the ten sponsor countries of the Gulf Initiative, followed by his successive statements that support the peace talks held in Kuwait, April 2016.[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sarah Phillips (2008). Yemen's Democracy Experiment in Regional Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 52. ISBN 9780230616486. 
  2. ^ Yemen Order of Battle | American Enterprise Institute Critical Threats Project
  3. ^ a b c "Who is Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar, and why he was appointed Deputy Yemeni President". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  4. ^ Sarah Phillips (2008). Yemen's Democracy Experiment in Regional Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 137. ISBN 9780230616486. 
  5. ^ "Yemeni president sacks prime minister, appoints new senior team: State Media". Reuters. Retrieved 3 April 2016. 
  6. ^ Gerges, Fawaz (2013). The New Middle East: Protest and Revolution in the Arab World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1107470579. 
  7. ^ "Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar". Aljazeera. Retrieved 4 April 2016. 
  8. ^ "Yemeni president sacks prime minister, appoints new senior team: state media", reuters.com,.
  9. ^ "The armed forces and security for Atstahedv only rebel". 26sep. Retrieved 4 April 2016. 
  10. ^ Barak A. Salmoni; Bryce Loidolt; Madeleine Wells (2010). Regime and Periphery in Northern Yemen The Huthi Phenomenon. RAND Corporation. p. 93. ISBN 9780833049339. 
  11. ^ Fawaz A. Gerges (2013). The New Middle East: Protest and Revolution in the Arab World. Cambridge University Press. p. 374. ISBN 9781107470576. 
  12. ^ "Yemeni president sacks prime minister, appoints new senior team: state media". todayonline.com. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2018. 
  13. ^ Ali, Ali al-Dhahab (30 June 2016). "Yemen's Warring Parties: Formations and Dynamics". aljazeera.net. Retrieved 1 March 2018. 
  14. ^ a b "VPmeets Security Taskforce discuss work progress". sabanew.net. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2018. 
  15. ^ Mark Rice-Oxley (21 March 2011). "WikiLeaks cable links defecting Yemeni general to smuggling rackets". the Guardian. Retrieved 19 October 2014. 
  16. ^ "Jish and Alhyzh Alhabt in pain" (PDF). Doha Institute. Retrieved 11 April 2016. 
  17. ^ "Yemen's Failed Response to the "Friday of Dignity" Killings". Hrw. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  18. ^ "Acknowledgments of Yemens". Hrw. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  19. ^ "WikiLeaks: Yemen tricked Saudis into nearly bombing president's rival". The Guardian. 8 April 2011. 
  20. ^ "Top Yemeni general, Ali Mohsen, backs opposition". BBC News. 21 March 2011. 
  21. ^ Jamjoom, Mohammed; Almasmari, Hakim. "Yemen's president restructures armed forces". CNN. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  22. ^ "Houthi victory is defeat for Yemen's Islah". 5 September 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  23. ^ al Shrhabi, Adel Moujahed (24 September 2014). "Houthi victory is defeat for Yemen's Islah". Retrieved 7 January 2015. 
  24. ^ "Maj. Gen. Ali Mohsen leave Yemen and information talks about his arrival in Saudi Arabia on board a helicopter Killings". Almasdar Online. Retrieved 23 September 2014. 
  25. ^ "Houthis take Sanaa but refrain from coup". 22 September 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2015. 
  26. ^ "Former Saleh ally leading operations against him". Gulf New. 11 December 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2016. 
  27. ^ "Yemeni government agrees to return to participate in the consultations Kuwait". Alaraby. Retrieved 16 July 2016. 
Political offices
Preceded by
Khaled Bahah
Vice President of Yemen
2016–present
Succeeded by
Incumbent