Astara, Iran

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Astara

آستارا
City
Beach in Astara
Beach in Astara
Astara is located in Iran
Astara
Astara
Coordinates: 38°25′45″N 48°52′19″E / 38.42917°N 48.87194°E / 38.42917; 48.87194Coordinates: 38°25′45″N 48°52′19″E / 38.42917°N 48.87194°E / 38.42917; 48.87194
Country Iran
ProvinceGilan
CountyAstara
BakhshCentral
Government
 • Mayorjavad maayiati
 • ParliamentVali Dadashi
Population
(2016 Census)
 • Total51,579 [1]
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)

Astara (pronounced [ɒstaɾɒ] (About this soundlisten); Persian: آستارا‎, also Romanized as Āstārā)[2] is a city and capital of Astara County, Gilan Province, Iran. It lies on the border with Azerbaijan Republic and on the Caspian Sea. It is a relatively important border trade center between Iran and the Caucasus.

Etymology[edit]

It is believed that the name Astara originates from the Talysh language.

History[edit]

The earliest mention, under the name Astārāb, comes in the Ḥodūd al-ʿālam, written toward the end of the 10th century. In the 14th century, Astara became the seat of the small principality of the Esfahbad or Espahbad (-bod) of Gīlān. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, the Ṭālešī Khans of Āstārā were either autonomous or nominally subordinate to the governors of Gīlān or Ardabīl; on several occasions they played important parts in the history of the Caspian provinces.[3] According to Minorsky, We do not know whether the later governors of Astara still continued the line of the ispahbads. Even after the conquest of Northern Tālish by the Russians (1813) the family of the Tālish-khans maintained some special rights.[4]

Astara was part of the short lived Talysh Khanate in the 18th and 19th centuries, and for a short while it was the capital of the Khanate before it was moved to Lankaran.[5] In 1828, with the signing of the Treaty of Turkmenchay, Astara was split into two. The city of Astara in Azerbaijan is located just across the Astarachay River.

Tourism[edit]

Astara has various attractions and is considered a major tourist destination for Iranians and foreigners, especially those from the Caucasus. The city has a selection of beaches and is near to a Temperate rainforest. Annually over six million Iranians, and six hundred thousand foreigners visit the city.[6]

Culture[edit]

Astara is home to one of the first libraries established in the country.[7]

Agriculture[edit]

Rice has been cultivated in this region for many years, where some indigenous cultivars (landrace) were conventionally bred by farmers.[8]

Climate[edit]

Astara has a humid subtropical climate with cold, wet winters and hot, humid summers.

Climate data for Astara
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.8
(47.8)
8.8
(47.8)
11.2
(52.2)
16.6
(61.9)
22.3
(72.1)
27.3
(81.1)
30.5
(86.9)
29.8
(85.6)
25.6
(78.1)
20.3
(68.5)
15.2
(59.4)
11.3
(52.3)
19
(66.1)
Average low °C (°F) 1.9
(35.4)
2.1
(35.8)
4.8
(40.6)
9.3
(48.7)
14.0
(57.2)
18.1
(64.6)
20.6
(69.1)
20.5
(68.9)
17.5
(63.5)
13.1
(55.6)
8.4
(47.1)
4.3
(39.7)
11.2
(52.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 95.6
(3.76)
90.2
(3.55)
108.3
(4.26)
60.7
(2.39)
56.5
(2.22)
45.9
(1.81)
41.2
(1.62)
88.8
(3.5)
230.0
(9.06)
239.0
(9.41)
144.6
(5.69)
91.7
(3.61)
1,292.5
(50.88)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11 10 12 10 9 6 4 7 10 13 11 9 112
Average relative humidity (%) 84 85 86 83 80 74 71 75 82 86 87 85 82
Source: Iranian Meteorological Organization [9]

Demographics[edit]

The majority of people in Astara are ethnically Azerbaijani and speak the Azeri language.[10][11] However, there is a sizeable Talysh[10] minority in the city. Shia Islam is the predominant religion in the city, however there is also a minority of Sunni Muslims.

Famous people from Astara[edit]

Transport[edit]

Education[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.amar.org.ir/english
  2. ^ Astara, Iran can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3054011" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  3. ^ Bazin, Marcel (August 18, 2011) [December 15, 1988]. "ĀSTĀRĀ i. Town and sub-province". In Yarshater, Ehsan. Encyclopædia Iranica. Fasc. 8. II. New York City: Bibliotheca Persica Press. pp. 837–838. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
  4. ^ Minorsky, Vladimir (October 1954). "A Mongol Decree of 720/1320 to the Family of Shaykh Zāhid". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. London: SOAS, University of London. 16 (3): 515–527. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00086821.
  5. ^ http://rch.ac.ir/article/Details/7307
  6. ^ http://www.irna.ir/theme1/fa/pages/4.aspx
  7. ^ http://nikookaran.ir/Portal/Home/ShowPage.aspx?Object=Contact&CategoryID=f1a3ff2a-0a52-497e-966b-297d5d06abd8&WebPartID=a77e46f5-1402-46f2-81bc-778daaff99e6&ID=c3b86c88-5d30-4c26-913c-52e5a0161523
  8. ^ Pazuki, Arman & Sohani, Mehdi (2013). "Phenotypic evaluation of scutellum-derived calluses in 'Indica' rice cultivars" (PDF). Acta Agriculturae Slovenica. 101 (2): 239–247. doi:10.2478/acas-2013-0020. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  9. ^ http://www.irimo.ir/english/statistics/climanormals/gilan/astara.txt
  10. ^ a b دائره المعارف بزرگ اسلامی – آستارا
  11. ^ http://www.gchto.ir/en/pages/about-gilan/astara.php

External links[edit]