Baháʼí studies

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The scholarly study of the Baháʼí Faith, its teachings, history and literature is currently conducted in a variety of venues, including institutes of the Baháʼí administration as well as non-affiliated universities. Some scholars study some aspect of the Baháʼí Faith as part of research on related matters while others engage in Baháʼí studies as a primary focus of their research. Scholars' comments on the religion and its predecessor Bábism date back to the at least 1845, the year after its founding. Initially, they were often Orientalists or Christian missionaries but through time both Baháʼís and non-Baháʼí researchers have addressed the religion especially in tune with the growth of the religion, which has been called significant.

Organizations[edit]

  • Association for Baháʼí Studies[1] - founded in 1975, the ABS operates under the supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baháʼís of Canada.
  • Baháʼí Library Online[2] − a private, independent, all-volunteer project created by Jonah Winters and a team of contributors.
  • Baháʼí Reference Library − an agency of the Baháʼí International Community, hosts authorized writings of the religion.
  • H-Bahai - part of H-Net, an international interdisciplinary organization of scholars, H-Bahai is a website making available a wealth of difficult-to-obtain primary sources on the religion.
  • Irfan Colloquium
  • Landegg International University - a now defunct university that operated from 1992 to 2003 under the aegis of the Baháʼí community of Switzerland
  • Unity Museum is a boutique[3] tax-exempt non-profit member of the Washington Museum Association and American Alliance of Museums, separate from the formal organizational structure of the Baháʼí Faith, with its own board of directors, in Seattle, Washington, located near the University of Washington.
  • Wilmette Institute - founded in 1995 as an educational endeavor of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, the Wilmette Institute provides on-line and on-site summer residential sessions.
  • Mediathèque Baha'ie Francophon

Journals[edit]

  • Baháʼí Studies Bulletin, published 1982–1993, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    • Somewhat informal, yet prepared with full scholarly standards, the Baháʼí Studies Bulletin was edited, photocopied and distributed by Stephen Lambden, Professor of Religious Studies at University of Newcastle upon Tyne (said university not itself affiliated with the Bulletin). Contributors were university professors and other scholars, and the early years saw Bulletins that were a mixture of handwritten and typed articles (of varying layouts).[4] Many of the contributors later appeared in the later, "more polished" journals listed here.
  • Baháʼí Studies (a French-English bilingual publication, full name on the journal's cover is Études Baháʼí Studies)
    • published 19?? to 1987, in Ottawa, by the Canadian Association for Studies on the Baháʼí Faith[5]
    • the Canadian association, and its journal, changed names in 1988 - see next bullet...
  • The Journal of Baháʼí Studies (a French-English-Spanish trilingual publication)
    • published since 1988, in Ottawa, by the Association for Baháʼí Studies (North America), an agency of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada.[6]
  • Baháʼí Journal of the Baháʼí Community of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland or Baháʼí Journal UK some issues of which were digitized and is preserved online.[7][8] Then the periodical was redone and called the UK Baha'i Journal.
  • Bahaʼi Studies Review
  • H-Bahai Digital Publications Series − published by H-Bahai, consisting of Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies; Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies; Documents on the Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Movements; and Translations of Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Primary Texts
  • Irfan Colloquia, consisting of Safini-yi 'Irfán: Papers Presented at the ʻIrfán Colloquia (in Persian); Lights of ʻIrfán: Papers Presented at the ʻIrfán Colloquia and Seminars (in English), and Beiträge des 'Irfán-Kolloquiums: 'Irfán-Studien zum Baháʼí-Schrifttum (in German)
  • UK Baha'i Review, various issues of which were digitized and is preserved online[9]
  • World Order Magazine (published 1935–1949 and 1966–2002)[10]

Academic chairs[edit]

Archives and collections[edit]

Baháʼí archives/collections[edit]

A number of collections of Baháʼí related materials are preserved around the world. Some are maintained at universities; the Baháʼí World Center, especially at the Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts, the International Archives, and International Baháʼí Library, most National Baháʼí Assemblies and many local Baháʼí assemblies or institutions maintain their own archives.

Academic[edit]

  • Ghassem Ghani[15] Collection, at Yale University,[16] 1800–1900, 3.5 linear feet (1 box, 2 folios) in Persian.
  • Jamshed & Parvati Fozdar Collection at the National Library of Singapore.[17]
  • Baron Victor Rosen's collection in the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg branch.[18][19]
  • Badiʼu'lláh and Muhammad Ali Bahaʼi Papers, 1901–1944, Burke Library Archives, Columbia University Libraries, Union Theological Seminary, New York[20]
  • Hurqalya Publications: Center for Shaykhī and Bābī-Bahāʼī Studies by Stephen Lambden, University of California, Merced.[21]

Baháʼí sponsored[edit]

Publishing[edit]

A number of venues exist for publishing materials related to the Baháʼí Faith.[30] Many national assemblies have their own publishing trust and there are a few publishing houses that run more or less independently. Among them are:

  • BahaiBookStore.com[31] the Baháʼí Distribution Service acting as an agency of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baháʼís of the United States
  • BahaiBooksUK is the publishing trust of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baháʼís of the United Kingdom.[32]
  • BahaiBooks is the publishing trust of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baháʼís of Australia, founded in 1976.[33]
  • Baha'i Publishing Trust of India.[34]
  • Oneworld Publications[35] founded in 1986 in the UK[36] has published Baha'i books.[37]
  • Kalimát Press[38] is a small, privately owned Baha'is publishing company.
  • Baháʼí Encyclopedia Project was also established by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baháʼís of the United States for invited scholars to contribute scholarly articles.[39]

Scholarship[edit]

Starting with the antecedent Bábísm religion, as viewed by Baháʼís,[40] scholarship on the religion began in its earliest days.[41]

While there were previous Iran or near-Iranian sources of scholarship of the religion in early periods, wide-ranging publications covering mostly western literature include Moojan Momens' 1981 The Babi and Baha'i Religions, 1844–1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts,[41] William Collins' 1992 Bibliography of English-language works on the Bábí and Baháʼí faiths, 1844–1985,[42] and MacEoin's annotated bibliography borrowing heavily from Collins' work.[43] There is also the Resource Guide for the Scholarly Study of the Baháʼí Faith by Robert Stockman and Jonah Winters published in 1997,[44] focusing more on later works. Mostly these works explicitly ignored newspaper accounts.

19th century[edit]

A wide variety of accounts, encounters and investigations began to circulate outside of Persia as events began to unfold from the Spring of 1844 with the Declaration of the Báb. Initially viewed as an Iranian development and often through Christian missionary perspectives, the growth of religion[45] would soon far transcend that limited perspective.

  • A number of articles were printed in 1848–9 in Journal de Constantinople in French near the time Battle of Fort Tabarsi. Before that in June 1848 a letter from May 1 was summarized.[52][53] A series in March 1849 followed,[54] and another appeared separately in April in the Revue de l'Orient.[55] Momen believes this article in Revue de l'Orient to be from Dr. Ernest Cloquet.[41] These accounts name the Báb. Accounts followed in English and French.[56]
  • 1850 Newspaper accounts mention the Báb having a "holy book",[57] and was followed through the Fall of 1850,[58] and as far as Australia and New Zealand late in the year.[59]
  • The first paper on the religion was as a letter dated February 10, 1851 by Dr. Rev. Austin H. Wright to the American Oriental Society, then holding its meetings in Boston and published by the society June 14, 1851,[60] It was also published in a Vermont newspaper June 26, 1851,[61] and in a German newspaper in 1851 translated by his superior, Rev. Justin Perkins.[41] It was also published in a South Carolinian newspaper in June 1865 on the front page.[62]
  • In 1852 there was a clumsy fringe[63] attempted assassination of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar. Various aspects of the events that unfolded were reported in newspapers in the West over a period of time and referred to back in time occasionally. Mention occurs in a hard to find very early Persian newspaper,[64] while Western papers begin October 1852.[65] The French Journal des débats politiques et littéraires, 30 October 1852, citing the Journal de Constantinople of 14 Oct had a story mentioning the event.[66] This French entry in late October mentions some 400 Bábís being executed. By December coverage is talking about 20,000 or 30,000 being executed.[67] Comparisons with Emperor Nero and the Great Fire of Rome were made decades later.[68]
  • A number of articles report Bábís west of Iran, in "Syria", in June 1853.[69]
  • Henry Aaron Stern (1820–1885) wrote a book that mentions "Baba, the Persian socialist" for a couple pages in 1854.[41][70]
  • Glimpses of Life and Manners in Modern Persia was published in London in 1856 by Mary Sheil and Sir Justin Sheil and on pp. 176–81, 273-82 made mention of events in 1849–1852.[41][71]
  • De:Julius Heinrich Petermann was in Baghdad 1854–5 and was a professor of oriental literature in Berlin. In 1861 his work Reisen im Orient published an article "Achtzehntes Kapital/Aufenthalt in Bagdad" - which mentions Bábís briefly in one paragraph.[41][72]
  • In 1865 the Dr. Jakob Eduard Polak published his first hand account of the attempted assassination of Shah in Das Land und seine Bewohner. It includes a significant witnessing of the death of Tahirih.[73] In 1865 two more significant works are produced. First, Frenchman Arthur de Gobineau wrote the first widely published and relatively extensive history of the religion. A third edition was printed in 1900 covering approximate pages 141-358 (217 pages) on the Bábí Faith.[74] It was the basis of much follow-up interest and accounts followed by others.[41][75] The work, while not very good did serve to get other scholars to follow along in their interests.[76][77] The second was by Alexander Kasimovich Kazembek who published the first book as such under the pseudonym "Mirza Kazem-Beg" albeit in Russian.[41][78] He joined the American Oriental Society (see above) in 1851.[79] In 1866 a version of his work was then published in French by him - Bab et les Babis - as 219 pages across several editions of the Journal Asiatique.[80] Abbas Amanat notes a correction of Kazembek attempt at a biographical workup of the Báb[81] Additionally the 1865 edition of the American Annual Cyclopedia had an entry on "Persia" and on p. 696 includes a paragraph on Bábís.[82] And Adolphe Franck[83] wrote two papers in French printed in back to back issues of Journal des Savants - Nov[84] and Dec[85] 1865 - which reviewed Gobineau's works on "Babysm".[41] Lastly, John Ussher published a memoir in 1865 based on notes of his travels in 1861[41] named A Journey from London to Persepolis with a few pages mentioning Bábí/Baháʼí events.[86]
  • In 1866 British diplomat Robert Grant Watson (1834–1892)[87] published a history of the first 58 years of the 19th century of Persia and included 16 pages on Bábí/Baháʼí events.[88][89] Frenchman Ernst Renan wrote The Origins of Christianity: The apostles in 1866 of which pages 299–301, 353 examines the Bábís through Gobineau and Kazembek and an attempt a first hand contact in Constantiniople.[90] The Nation published an article "A New Religion" in June.[91] It starts by mention of Renan's work and then focuses on Gobineau's account. A review of Gobineau in The Methodist Quarterly Review was published in July.[92]
  • William Hepworth Dixon published a travel book with a history with commentary which mentions the Báb and "Babees" on several pages in 1867.[93] Adolphe Franck wrote Philosophie et Religion in 1867, a chapter of which - chapter vi, "Une Nouvelle Religion en Perse" - significantly reviews "Babysm", mostly based on Gobineau.[41][94] Oriental Mysticism, by Edward Henry Palmer, mentioned the Báb in a footnote on page 44, following Kazembek.[95]
  • In 1868 "'Le Babysme'" by Michel Nicolas in Le Temps[96][97] Other mentions that year include "BABYSME" in l'Annuaire encyclopédique of some 15 pages by "Al Bonneau",[98] and in the Universal History of Catholicism an article on Islam mentions Bábís.[99]
  • In 1869 Stephen Greenleaf Bulfinch published followed the work of Renan.[100][101] Then Edward Payson Evans wrote "Bab and Babism" for the magazine Hours at Home[102] Then Rev. Edwin Bliss[103] wrote "Bab and Babism" in the Missionary Herald.[42][104] Leo de Colange's 1869 Zell's Popular Encyclopedia included a 2-page entry on the religion named "Babism".[105] It was published in the June 23 Daily Evening Telegraph, of Philadelphia, p. 6[106] Another repeat appeared July 17 in Green Bay, Wisconsin.[107] "A New Religion" was published in All the Year Round, anonymously,[108] which was echoed in the Brooklyn Eagle, August 3, 1869, page 1.[109] The Hawaiian Gazette, Honolulu Oahu, Hawaii, Sept 8, 1869, p. 4, had a 3 paragraph summary on the religion.[110] Robert Arbuthnot wrote an article for the Contemporary Review.[42][111] Meanwhile, Annee Philosophique - Études Critiques Sur Le Mouvement Des Idées Génénerales, published in 1869, by F. Pillon (other parts by Ch. Renouvier) included "Une Nouvelle Religion en Asia" across 35 pages.[112] The Saturday Review of Politics, Literature, Science and Art, August 21, 1869, carried a story "Reviews: The Philosophical Year and the Bábys"[113] looks at another journal, M. F. Pillon's Philosophical Annual.
  • In about 1870 Michele Lessona wrote a book I Babi which was published in 1881 by Vincenzo Bona in Turin, Italy.[41] Lessona had been a physician serving in Persia circa 1862 for a number of years where he learned of the Babis from a "Dávud Khán" as well as Gobineau. Polish writer pl:Aleksander Walerian Jablonowski had met Baháʼís in Baghdad.[41] Later in the 1870s he wrote several articles covering its early history in Persia[114] - one of these was to defend the Baháʼí Faith against an erroneous article in another publication.[115][116]
  • In the rest of the 1870s more scattered mentions are made. In 1871 Thomas Chaplin intended to visit Baháʼu'lláh and had a couple-hour interview with ʻAbdu'l-Bahá and sent a letter to the editor printed in The Times.[117] Momen comments this seems to be the first extended commentary on Baháʼu'lláh in western newspapers.[41] In 1872 "The Bâbys", The Church Missionary Intelligencer was published anonymously.[118] Augustus Henry Mounsey published A journey through the Caucasus and the interior of Persia which reviews events related to the Báb and Bábís.[119] In 1873 a couple of Christian missionary journals printed articles:The Colonial Church chronicle, and missionary journal[120] andSunday at Home.[121] A General Sketch of the History of Persia by Clements Markham mentioned Bábí events in 1874.[122] A Babism entry was in The World's Progress; a Dictionary of Dates.[123] The Dublin University Magazine, March 1878, noted of Bábí events contextualizing work by Percy Bysshe Shelley.[124]
  • Comparative sparse mentions continued in the 1880s though for the first time there is an academic conference called. First Adolfo Rivadeneyra traveled through Persia and in 1880 and published Viaje al Interior de Persia[41][125] Then on 5 and 12 December 1880 two conferences on the Bábí movement were given in Torino Italy by Michele Lessona.[126] Carla Serena traveled in Persia in 1877–78.[41] She published several books and the one was Hommes et Choses en Perse which was published in 1883.[127] An article "Babysm" was then published in the Oxford National Encyclopedia for 1884.[128] Mary F Wilson (Jan 12, 1861 - June 1895?)[129] wrote a 21-page article "Story of the Bab" which was published in several magazines - Contemporary Review, Dec 1885,[130] and repeated in Littell's Living Age,[131] The Library Magazine,[132] and Eclectic Magazine.[133] Echoes and summaries were also printed in Australia,[134] and other places.[135] "Woman in the Ministry: An Appeal to Fact", by John Tunis, was published in Unity, May 9, 1885.[136] Persia: the land of the imams. A narrative of travel and residence, 1871–1885, published 1886, by American Presbyterian missionary James Bassett[41][137][138] which was also reviewed in The New York Times, 9 May 1886[139] and The Inter Ocean in Chicago, Illinois.[140] Samuel Greene Wheeler Benjamin published Persia and the Persians in 1886[141] in America after being stationed in Persia from 1882 representing the US government. It was reprinted in London in 1887.[142] Reviews were published in various newspapers.[41] Jane Dieulafoy traveled in Persia with her husband in 1880–81[41] and publishes an account visiting Baháʼís in 1887.[143] A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles has an article where "Babism" as here is the second definition.[144] "The Babis of Persia" was published the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, July - Oct, 1889.[42][145] The first entry by The Encyclopædia Britannica on Babi/Baha'i history occurred in 1889[146] which was repeated into 1893[147] and appears to be identical to the one in 1902.[148]
  • Mentions begin to become more common in the 1890s. The first was by Robert Bruce called "News of the Month: In a Letter from Dr. Bruce of Persia…" by The Jewish Intelligence in August 1890.[42] A "Babism" entry in Blackie's modern cyclopedia of universal information also appeared that year.[149] However the main development was the interest of Edward Granville Browne who investigated the Babis in Persia and then the prisoners sent west and began to publish about 1891 many times ultimately through about the 1920s.[41][42] Among these were A Traveller's Narrative: Written to illustrate the episode of the Bab (1891),[150] A Year Among the Persians (1893),[151] Newspapers and magazines began to widely cover his work.[152][153][154]
  • But other writers still were independently addressing Bábí and Baháʼí history as well. Isabella Bird briefly describes Bábís being attacked and taking refuge in a book Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan printed in 1891,[155] and Theodore Bent published "Village life in Persia" in Review.[42]
  • Thomas Henry Huxley mentions Bábism in Essays upon some Controverted Questions in 1892.[156] George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston in his Persia and the Persian Question comments on Bábí-"Behai" presence in Persia.[41][157] A posthumous work of George Thomas Bettany was published in 1892. It includes alittle more than a page on "Babism".[158] Anonymously "The Bab" was published in The Oxford Magazine 1892,[42] and a "Catalogue and Descriptions of 27 Bábí Manuscripts" was published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, July 1892.[159] Baron Roman Rosen published some articles based on his collection of materials first in "Some Remarks on the Bábí Texts Edited by Baron Victor Rosen" in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1892.[42][160][161] This article was also reviewed in The New York Times, 5 June 1892, which names the author as Coutts Trotter.[162][163]
  • In 1893 Rev. Henry Harris Jessup delivered a talk at the Chicago Parliament of the World's Religionss held at World's Columbian Exposition and quoted Browne's meeting with Baháʼu'lláh.[164] The Inter Ocean also published a survey of presentations at the Parliament with Rev. Jessup's presentation is included.[165] A few notable Baháʼís are noted to have been present for or heard of the presentation: Sarah Farmer (see Green Acre Baháʼí School) and Thornton Chase. The Right Rev Charles Stileman, Anglican clergyman, also published an article in 1893.[42][166] Meanwhile, the first Baháʼí to enter the United States was briefly noted in the New York Tribune.[167] According to Stockman he is the US in the summer of 1892.[168]
  • Some newspapers lead of coverage of the Faith in 1894 start noting persecution of "Bahis".[169] An account of Frederic John Goldsmid reading at the Missionary conference of the Anglican Communion in the UK including quoting a translation by Browne from "Behá" was published in the Guardian.[170] "The Babis of Persia" article by M. Y. De Goeze, in The Missionary Review of the World followed.[171] "The Babis of Persia" by Rev P Z Easton, in The Missionary Review of the World appeared in the summer of 1894[172] along with "Wahabiism and Babism - Bibliography" in July.[173] A brief summary in the Sacramento Daily Union of religion in Persia mentions the Babis and the punishment they suffer under no protection of rank or standing.[174] JH Shedd also published "Babism: Its Doctrine and Relation to Mission Work" late in 1894.[175]
  • James Strong, of Concordance fame, had been continuing work on a Cyclopedia begun in 1853. The 1895 edition of Vol 1 had an entry on "Babist".[176] Henry Edward Plantagenet[177] wrote a brief piece of his encounter with Baháʼí's in Haifa in the article "'Babism' in a UK journal The Academy.[178] Rev Samuel Graham Wilson mentioned the Bab and Babis on a few pages in his Persian life and customs in 1895.[179] A more general review but with more modern terminology appeared in the Delphos Daily Herald in Ohio.[180] This was followed in 1896 in the October edition of The Missionary Review of the World in "The Gospel Work in Persia".[181] Scotsman Thomas Edward Gordon published Persia Revisited which mentions the Bab and Bábís.[182]
  • The pace of scholarly work expanded in 1896 with several further writers; Lepel Griffin,[42] Friedrich Carl Andreas,[183] J. D. Rees,[42][184] Gaston Dujarric,[185] Canon Edward Sell,[186] Hugh Reginald Haweis,[187] The last was also summarized in a newspaper account 16 December 1896 in the Indiana Democrat.[188]
  • Reverend James Thompson Bixby wrote a number of articles related to the Faith with the first being "Babism and the Bab" in the New World, December 1897,[42][189] Charles William Heckethorn,[190] and Áqá ʻAbdu'l-Ahad Zanjání wrote in "Personal Reminiscences of the Bábí Insurrection at Zanjân in 1850" for the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.[191] Then "Some Notes on the Literature and Doctrines of the Hurufi Sect" mentioned Bábísm.[192] entry "Báb-ed-Din" in a dictionary closes out 1898.[193]

20th century[edit]

  • 1900 Opens with Russian scholar H. Arakelian from his 1900 paper/lecture in French, "Le Bêbisme en Perse", at the September 5, 1900 meeting of the "International Congress of the History of Religions" held in Paris.[194]
  • 1901 Has Edward Denison Ross writing an article for The North American Review called "Babism".[195] It appeared again in 1912 in Great Religions of the World in 1912 with a preface about ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's travels.[196]
  • A.L.M. Nicholas, noted as "No European scholar has contributed so much to our knowledge of the life and teaching of the Báb as Nicolas. His study of the life of the Báb and his translations of several of the most important books of the Báb remain of unsurpassed value."[197]
  • Stoyan Krystoff Vatralsky made some news circa 1899/1900[198] and wrote a paper in 1902 in the American Journal of Theology.[199] Baha'is have reviewed his work.[200]
  • "The Missionary Outlook" by Rev. Courtenay H. Penn, followed in The Missionary Review August 1902[201]
  • "Babism and the Babites", by Rev. Henry Harris Jessup was published in The Missionary Review October.[202]
  • "A visit to the Prophet of Persia" by Philip Sidersky and Rev. S.K. Braun was published in The Missionary Review also in October.[203]
  • In 1904 in Missions and Modern History: a study of the missionary aspects of some great movements of the nineteenth century, by Presbyterian minister Robert Elliott Speer was published.[204] Another couple articles totaling 139 pages by Dr. Paul Carus came out in the summer in the journal Open Court,[205] (and also had an advertisement by Kheiralla and MacNutt.)[206] There is a reply in the January 1905 edition of Open Court lead by Carus' commentary adjusting some details and then publishing the rebuttal by Arthur Dodge.[207] An anonymous reprise and summary called "American; Babism in New York" followed in The Missionary Review in May 1906.[208] A. V. Williams Jackson then published Persia, Past and Present which has a couple pages on the Bábí/Baháʼí Faiths including brief mention of "Behaists" near Chicago.[209] Across Persia was then published in 1907 by Eliot Crawshay-Williams who travelled Persia in 1903 - chapter XX is about Bábí-Baháʼí history.[210] "Babism" had a section in the Orpheus: A General History of Religions, by Salomon Reinach in 1909.[211]
  • As early as 1909, but more often since 1911, a column named "The Awaking of the Older Nations", by William T. Ellis, copyrighted to Joseph B. Bowles, began to appear in several newspapers.[212] Ellis was a secular journalist who investigated missionary activity of Christians around the world.[213] Some of the articles of the series covered the Baháʼí Faith. He appears to have encountered the religion in 1910 while ʻAbdu'l-Bahá was in Egypt[214] and his interview was reported in Star of the West, (then called Baháʼí News,) of January 1911.[215] The series mention of the religion runs into 1912.[216] The article often included a picture of some kind. He reports visiting ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's home in Haifa and not seeing Him there - that He was away. He went to Alexandria to catch ʻAbdu'l-Bahá there and refers to an Englishman serving as translator for the interview - this was Sydney Sprague (who mentioned Mary Hanford Ford's "The Oriental Rose" as well.) There is a considerable discussion of the teachings but with various errors as well.[215]
  • The February 1910 edition of Twentieth Century Magazine had an article by Baháʼí Helen Campbell profiling the social and economic views of the religion.[217] The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge has entries on Babism and Behaism by associate editor of the encyclopedia, George W. Gilmore, with nothing newer than 1906 in the bibliography.[218] The second, "Behaism", was by Margaret Bloodgood Peeke, "Inspectress-General of the Martinist Order of America" with nothing newer than 1906 in the bibliography.[219] Peeke had gone on to visit ʻAbdu'l-Bahá as a non-Baháʼí in 1899 and judged it to be "living the life" of the teachings of Jesus Christ.[220]
  • In early 1911 unitarian minister Celia Parker Woolley advertised a meeting discussing the religion in the African newspaper The Chicago Defender.[221] In late 1911 Ethel Stefana Stevens published two articles in widely circulated magazines - Forthnightly Review,[222] and Everybody's Magazine.[223] a variety of 1911 mentions occur in newspapers - Ghodsea Ashrof emigratig,[224] conditions in Iran,[225] and specifically women's rights,[226][227] Behaists/"TruthKnowers",[228] a large article about the coming of ʻAbdul'-Bahá to the West of his presence in Europe.[229][230] Rev. Peter Z. Easton, a Presbyterian in the Synod of the Northeast in New York who was stationed in Tabriz, Iran from 1873 to 1880, didn't have an appointment to meet ʻAbdu'l-Bahá in Bristol, UK.[231][232] Easton attempted to meet and challenge ʻAbdu'l-Bahá and in his actions made those around him uncomfortable; ʻAbdu'l-Bahá withdrew him to a private conversation and then he left. Later he printed a polemic attack on the religion, Bahaism — A Warning, in the Evangelical Christendom newspaper of London.[233] and echoed.[234] The polemic was later responded to by Mírzá Abu'l-Faḍl in his book The Brilliant Proof written in December 1911.[235]
  • 1912 - A significant number of articles reviewed or mention ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's journeys to the West; see that article for significant mentions and reviews. However, separately, some mention the Faith of Abdu'l-Bahá before he came to the US such as by Gertrude Atherton[236] or a few mentions were made aside from coverage about ʻAbdu'l-Bahá. Lua Getsinger gave a talk on the religion that was noted in The Pacific Unitarian.[237] Tahirih was noted more than once.[238] The "Clio Information Club" hosted a talk by Howard MacNutt gave a talk in October as noted in the African American New York Age.[239] The first mention of the religion so far found in the Pittsburgh Courier occur when a "Mrs. Davis" held a meeting at her home for a club and the topic was the religion.[240] And there was mention in Australia.[241]
  • In 1913 Persia, the Land of the Magi... was published by Samuel Kasha Nweeya.[242] Also in 1913 the article "Key to the Heaven of the Beyan or a Third Call of Attention to the Behaists or Babists of America" was published by August J. Stenstrand for the Illinois State Historical Society.[243]
  • In the July 1914 edition of The Harvard Theological Review then Reverend Albert R. Vail published an article surveying the religion.[244] Part 1 of "Bahaism and the Woman Question", by Rev. Samuel G. Wilson, in October Missionary Review of the World.[245] and was followed by part 2 in December.[246] See Baháʼí Faith and gender equality.
  • In 1915 Robert P. Richardson published his first article in the Open Court.[247] In 1916 Mary Bird mentioned the religion in a missionary light.[248] In 1917 Albert Vail, along with his wife Emily McClellan Vail, published a two volume set of books each with a chapter about the religion: "Heroic lives" for sixth grade curriculums with student and teacher notebooks.[249]
  • ʻAbdu'l-Bahá died in 1921 and was a major event in the region with thousands attending the procession of the casket, and prominent local representatives of Muslim, Christian, and Jewish communities speaking on the occasion.[250][251] Obituaries appeared in the New York,[252] Los Angeles[253] and elsewhere, based out of reports announced in London news.
  • In 1924, American Ambassador to the Qajar dynasty of Persia, Robert Imbrie was killed on suspicion of being a Baháʼí.[254]
  • Juan Cole — historian, Richard P. Mitchell Collegiate Professor of History at the University of Michigan.
  • Denis MacEoin — historian, Senior Fellow at the Gatestone Institute and a Fellow at the Middle East Forum.
  • William McElwee Miller — missionary, Christian minister, and translator.
  • Suheil Bushrui[255] was a professor, author, poet, critic, translator, and peace maker as a prominent scholar in regard to the life and works of Kahlil Gibran, published more than one volume about him,[256][257] and served as the Kahlil Gibran Chair for Values and Peace at the University of Maryland[258][259] and winner of the Juliet Hollister Awards from the Temple of Understanding.[260]

21st century[edit]

Baháʼí review[edit]

Baháʼí scholars who are also members of the faith must submit their work for review by the Baháʼí administration and obtain prior approval. According to the administration of the religion, the purpose of the review is threefold:[264]

  • To ensure the accuracy of the presentation of the teachings of the religion
  • To protect the religion from misrepresentation by its own followers
  • To ensure dignity of the form

Juan Cole, a former Baháʼí who had disagreements with the Baháʼí administration on account of the review describes it as "a system of in-house censorship" which "has provoked many conflicts between Baháʼí officials and writers over the years."[265] There have been several conflicts originating from the practice of review, and a number of prominent academics, including Juan Cole, Denis MacEoin and Abbas Amanat, have either been excommunicated or forced to resign due to academic disagreements with the religious hierarchy. Denis MacEoin has said that the review has stifled research in Baháʼí studies.[266] Moojan Momen, another academic in the field of Baháʼí Studies who has labeled Juan Cole and Denis MacEoin "apostates," disagrees and states that "there is no more 'censorship' involved in this process than with any other academic journal."[267]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Association for Baháʼí Studies".
  2. ^ "Baháʼí Library Online".
  3. ^ "WA Baha'i History Museum ranked #2 best museum in Western Washington". The U District Partnership Newsletter. February 2016. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  4. ^ Lambden, Stephen (ed.). "Mission Statement (?) (volume 3, issue 4, inner-cover/page 1)" (PDF). Baháʼí Studies Bulletin and Monographs, 1982-1993 (A single PDF of all volumes). Newcastle upon Tyne: Stephen Lambden @ University of Newcastle upon Tyne: 522.
  5. ^ "(for example) The Bahá'í Faith in Russia: Two Early Instances". Études Baháʼí Studies. Ottawa: Canadian Association for Studies on the Baháʼí Faith. 5. January 1979. Retrieved 2020-10-10 – via Bahá'í Library Online.
  6. ^ "The Journal of Baháʼí Studies". Association for Baháʼí Studies (North America). National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada. Retrieved 2020-10-11.
  7. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20080209213354/http://www.bahaijournal.org.uk/archives.htm
  8. ^ "Bahá'í Journal of the United Kingdom".
  9. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20100814192907/http://www.bahai.org.uk/uk_review/
  10. ^ World Order Magazine's "Topical Index" Now Available on the Wilmette Institute Website, by Robert Stockman, Wilmetteinstitute.org, November 29, 2014
  11. ^ "Baha'I Chair for Studies in Development". Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  12. ^ "Bahai Chair for World Peace". University of Maryland. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  13. ^ "Moshe Sharon". Hebrew University of Jerusalem, The Faculty of Humanities, Chair in Baha'i Studies. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  14. ^ Lecture Series in Baha'i Studies Archived 2016-10-02 at the Wayback Machine, The Meir & Miriam Ezri Center for Iran and Persian Gulf Studies, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel, October 1, 2016
  15. ^ Ghassem Ghani, Iranica Online, by Abbas Milani, Originally Published: December 15, 2000
  16. ^ Ghassem Ghani collection, Manuscripts and Archives, Sterling Memorial Library, 128 Wall Street, P.O. Box 208240, New Haven, CT 06520
  17. ^ Jamshed & Parvati Fozdar Collection, National Library of Singapore
  18. ^ The St. Petersburg 19th c. Collection of Materials on the Babi and Bahaʼi Faiths: Primary and other Sources, Youli Ioannesyan, Institute of Oriental manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences, July 10, 2015
  19. ^ The St. Petersburg 19th Century Orientalist Collection of Materials on the Babi and Baha'i Faiths: Primary and Other Sources, by Ioannesyan, Y., in Lights of Irfan 7: 75-100, 2006
  20. ^ Badiʼu'lláh and Muhammad Ali Bahaʼi Papers, 1901–1944, Burke Library Archives, Columbia University Libraries, Union Theological Seminary, New York
  21. ^ Hurqalya Publications: Center for Shaykhī and Bābī-Bahāʼī Studies by Stephen Lambden, University of California, Merced
  22. ^ Welcome to National Bahai Archives, US
  23. ^ Catalog for the U.S. National Baháʼí Library Now Available, by Robert Stockman, December 31, 2014
  24. ^ Eliot Baha'i Archives
  25. ^ Los Angeles Baha'i Archives on Facebook
  26. ^ Los Angeles Baha'i Center
  27. ^ Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Washington, D.C. Archives, Religion Collections in Libraries and Archives: A Guide to Resources in Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia, Humanities & Social Sciences division, Library of Congress
  28. ^ Outstanding collection of Baha'i literature finds permanent home, Baháʼí World News Service, 15 February 2015.
  29. ^ Afnan Library Online
  30. ^ "Publishing Houses and Journals". Bahai-library.com. 2016. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  31. ^ BahaiBookStore.com
  32. ^ About Us, BahaiBooks.org.uk
  33. ^ About Us Archived 2016-10-05 at the Wayback Machine, Baha'i Publications Australia
  34. ^ Baha'i Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India
  35. ^ Oneworld Publications
  36. ^ About Us
  37. ^ Baha'i books on Oneworld Publications
  38. ^ Kalimát Press
  39. ^ Baháʼí Encyclopedia Project, About
  40. ^ Christopher Buck (August 2004). "The eschatology of globalization: the multiple-messiahship of Baháʼulláh revisited" (PDF). In Moshe Sharon; W. J. Hanegraaff; P. Pratap Kumar (eds.). Studies in Modern Religions and Religious Movements and the Babi/Baha'i Faiths. Mumen Book Series, Studies in the history of religions. CIV. Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 143–173. ISBN 9789004139046.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Momen, Moojan (1981), The Babi and Baha'i Religions, 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts, Oxford, England: George Ronald, ISBN 978-0-85398-102-2
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m William P. Collins (1990). Bibliography of English-language works on the Bábí and Baháʼí faiths, 1844–1985. G. Ronald. ISBN 978-0-85398-315-6. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
  43. ^ MacEoin, Denis. "The Babi and Baha'i Religions: An Annotated Bibliography". Greenwood Press's ongoing series of Bibliographies and Indexes in Religious Studies. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  44. ^ Resource Guide for the Scholarly Study of the Baháʼí Faith, by Robert Stockman and Jonah Winters, Wilmette, IL: Research Office of the Baháʼí National Center, 1997
  45. ^ Johnson, Todd M.; Brian J. Grim (26 March 2013). "Global Religious Populations, 1910–2010". The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 59–62. doi:10.1002/9781118555767.ch1. ISBN 9781118555767.
  46. ^ Robert Cadwalader (1977). ""Persia": An Early Mention of the Báb". World Order. Retrieved October 2, 2016.
  47. ^ "Mahometan Schism", Literary Gazette, November 15, 1845, p. 757, 1st column, below middle
  48. ^ for example see:
    • "Mahomedan Schism", Vermont Watchman and State Journal, February 19, 1845, p. 4, second column, top
    • "Mahometan Schism", Signal of Liberty, p. 3, center top of full page view
    • "Mahometan Schism", The Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art, January/February 1846, p. 142, bottom left then top of right columns
    • "A modern Mahomet", Boon's Lick Times, April 4, 1846, p. 1, fourth column, halfway down
    • "Mahometan Schism", Morning Chronicle, April 4, 1846, p. 4, 5th column, top, as highlighted
    • "Mahometan Schism", South Australian, April 7, 1846 p. 3, bottom of second column, top of next, as highlighted
    • "Persia", South Australian Register, April 11, 1846, p. 3, 5th column near bottom, as highlighted
    • "Mahometan Schism", New Zealand Spectator Cook's Strait Guardian, July 15, 1846, p. 3, near bottom of text selection
  49. ^ Hasan M. Balyuzi (31 January 1973). The Báb: The Herald of the Day of Days. G. Ronald. ISBN 978-0-85398-054-4.
  50. ^ "Persia": An Early Mention of the Báb, by Robert Cadwalader, World Order vol Winter 1976–77, pp. 30-34
  51. ^ * Amin Egea (July 7–10, 2006). "A preliminary survey of the press references to the Bábi and Baháʼí religions 1844–1932". Irfan Colloquia (in Italian). 69. Retrieved October 2, 2016.
  52. ^ D'apres notre correspondance de Perse, datée de Teheran, 1 mai…(pt 1), Journal de Constantinople, June 21, 1848, p. 1, far right below middle
  53. ^ D'apres notre correspondance de Perse, datée de Teheran, 1 mai…(pt 2), Journal de Constantinople, June 21, 1848, p. 2, top left
  54. ^ * Nouvellees de Perse, Journal de Constantinople, March 24, 1849, p. 1, bottom fourth column, above middle
  55. ^ second part of "'Perse'." Revue de l'Orient (Paris) 5 (2ème serie 1849) page 264
  56. ^ * "Turkey", Morning Post, 12 April 1849, p. 7, 1st column, near middle
    • "Persia", London Daily News, 23 April 1849, p. 5, 4th column, near top
    • "The Levant Mail", Glasgow Herald, 7 May 1849, p. 2, 2nd column, below middle
  57. ^ * "Persia", London Standard, 7 June, p. 3, 2nd column, near bottom
    • "Persia", London Daily News, 21 June 1850, p. 4
    • Turkey, London St James Chronicle Whiteltall And General Evening Post, July 16, 1850, p. 2, 5th col, above bottom
    • (unreadable title), Morning Post, London, England, 18 July 1850, p. 5
  58. ^ * A new religious sect, London Magnet, August 5, 1850, p. 6, 2nd col, above bottom
  59. ^ English News, The Argus, (Melbourne, Victoria), 4 November 1850, page 2, 3rd column (scroll up and over from the opening of the page)
    • English Extracts, Launceston Examiner, (Tasmania), 23 November 1850, page 5, near beginning of selection]
    • Extracts from our own previous files, The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, (NSW), 30 November 1850, page 4, far right end of selection, last section
  60. ^ "American Oriental Society". The Literary World. 8 (228): 470. June 14, 1851. ProQuest 90101699.(Subscription required.)
  61. ^ Austin H. Wright (June 26, 1851). Daniel Pierce Thompson (ed.). "A New Prophet" (PDF). Green Mountain Freeman. Montpelier Vermont. p. 1. Retrieved March 12, 2015.
  62. ^ "Bab - A curious history". The Daily Phoenix. Columbia, South Carolina. 16 June 1865. p. 1. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
  63. ^ Momen, Moojan (August 2008). "Millennialism and Violence: The Attempted Assassination of Nasir al-Din Shah of Iran by the Babis in 1852". Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions. 12 (1): 57–82. doi:10.1525/nr.2008.12.1.57. JSTOR 10.1525/nr.2008.12.1.57. S2CID 143581508.
  64. ^ (Google Translate) "Baha'i Babi - and discrimination in the historiography", by B. Masoumian, akhbar-rooz.com, August 5, 2012
  65. ^ "Persia", Morning Chronicle, p. 14, October 1, 1852
  66. ^ Des Nouvelles de Perse, Journal des débats politiques et littéraires, 30 October 1852, page 1, 3rd column, halfway down
  67. ^ "Turkey", London Standard, 20 December 1852, p. 3, 3rd column, section on the Bab above middle, (subscription required) to view original site requires fee unless accessed "in premises owned or operated by the British Library, or within a premises subscribed to The British Newspaper Archive Community Edition"
  68. ^ The Shah of Persia, Sacramento Daily Union, 14 February 1874, p. 4, 4th col
  69. ^ * Poetical Rebellions, Church And State Gazette, June 3, 1853, London, Middlesex, p. 9, at the end of the article, right col, below top
  70. ^ Henry Aaron Stern (1854). Dawnings of light in the East. Purday. pp. 261–262.
  71. ^ lady Mary Leonora Woulfe Sheil; Sir Justin Sheil (1856). Glimpses of Life and Manners in Persia. J. Murray. pp. 176–81, 273–82.
  72. ^ ""Bagdad. Babi's. Strassen. Häuser", Reisen I'm Orient, Volume 2, by Julius Heinrich Petermann, published by Veit, 1861, p. 282
  73. ^ Das Land und seine Bewohner which has been translated here Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine
  74. ^ Les religions et les philosophies dans l'Asie centrale, by Comte de Arthur Gobineau, 3rd edition
  75. ^ Dean-Deibert, Margaret (1978). "Early Journalistic Reactions to the Baháʼí Faith: 1845–1912". World Order (Summer 1978): 17–27.
  76. ^ Preface, The Work of A.L.M. Nicholas (1864–1937), from The Seven Proofs, by The Báb, translated by A.L.M. Nicolas and Peter Terry.
  77. ^ Browne, Edward Granville by Moojan Momen
  78. ^ Baha'i Faith, Scholarship on, by Moojan Momen, 1999?
  79. ^ The list of anniversaries of historic events and of eminent personalities celebrated by the Republic of Azerbaijan with which UNESCO is associated, Permanent Delegation of the Republic of Azerbaijan to UNESCO
  80. ^ Momen notes them in April–May, June, August–September and October–November. See:
    • Bab et les Babis, Journal asiatique, Publisher Société asiatique, April–May 1866, pp. 329–384.
    • Bab et les Babis, Journal asiatique, Publisher Société asiatique, June 1866, pp. 457–522.
    • Bab et les Babis, Journal asiatique, Publisher Société asiatique, August–September 1866, pp. 196–252.
    • Bab et les Babis, Journal asiatique, Publisher Société asiatique, October–November 1866, pp. 357–400.
  81. ^ Amanat, Abbas (1989). Resurrection and renewal: the making of the Babi movement in Iran, 1844-1850. G - Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Cornell University Press. pp. 110. ISBN 978-0-8014-2098-6.
  82. ^ "Persia" (latter part of), The American Annual Cyclopædia and Register of Important Events …: Embracing Political, Civil, Military, and Social Affairs; Public Documents; Biography, Statistics, Commerce, Finance, Literature, Science, Agriculture, and Mechanical Industry, published by D. Appleton, 1866, p. 696
  83. ^ see Adolphe Franck, Jewish Encyclopedia
  84. ^ "Premie article" as a review of Gobineau, by Adolphe Franch, in Journal des Savants, Nov, 1865, pp. 665–681.
  85. ^ "Deuxième et Dernier Article" as a review of Gobineau, by Adolphe Franch, in Journal des Savants, Dec, 1865, pp. 767–787.
  86. ^ John Ussher (1865). A Journey from London to Persepolis. Hurst and Blackett. pp. 627–629.
  87. ^ Peerage Watsons
  88. ^ A History of Persia from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century to the Year 1858 by Robert Grant Watson, pages 347-352, 385-393, 407-410, London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1866
  89. ^ A History of Persia from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century to the Year 1858 by Robert Grant Watson, 1866.
  90. ^ The Origins of Christianity: The apostles, Volume 2 of The Origins of Christianity, by Ernest Renan, Publisher Carleton, 1866,
    see also Under "Some New Books", "vi", The Sun, New York New York, September 11, 1898, p. 22, 5th column near bottom to 6th column top
  91. ^ A New Religion, The Nation, June 22, 1866, vol 2, no 59, pp. 793–795
  92. ^ "Foreign Intelligence… France", The Methodist Quarterly Review, 3rd paragraph, p. 467, July, 1866
  93. ^ New America, By William Hepworth Dixon. With illustrations from original photographs, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & co., 1867, pp. 188, 191
  94. ^ "Une Nouvelle Religion en Perse", by Adolphe Franck, in Philosophie et Religion, pp. 281–340, 1867, published by Didier et Co., Libraires–Editeurs.
  95. ^ E. H. Palmer (1 February 2003). Oriental Mysticism 1867. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-7661-4456-9.
  96. ^ * "'Le Babysme'." by Michel Nicolas, Le Temps (Paris) (14 August 1868), p.3, col.2
    • "'Le Babysme'." by Michel Nicolas, Le Temps (Paris) (19 August 1868), p.3, col.3
    • "'Le Babysme'." by Michel Nicolas, Le Temps (Paris) (20 August 1868), p.3, col.2
  97. ^ MacEoin, Denis. "Babi history". The Babi and Baha'i Religions: An Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Press's ongoing series of Bibliographies and Indexes in Religious Studies. Retrieved Oct 2, 2016.
  98. ^ "BABYSME" in l'Annuaire encyclopédique, 1868, p. 256–271
  99. ^ "L'Islamisme", of the "Annales Ecclesiastiques", by the Histoire Universaelle de L'Eglise Catholique ed by Abbe Rohrbacher, 1867/1868, pp. 18–20. On page 19-20 there is some discussion of the Bab, etc.
  100. ^ Studies in the evidences of Christianity (1869) by Stephen Greenleaf Bulfinch out of Boston, pp. 129 – 140.
  101. ^ Babism, Studies in the evidences of Christianity, 1869, pp. 129 – 140
  102. ^ "Bab and Babism" (with gap(s)), Evans, E.P., Hours at Home, Jan 1869, Vol 8 (Nov 1868 to April 1869), published by Charles Scribner & Company, pp. 210–222
  103. ^ see Edwin Bliss
  104. ^ * "Bab and Babism". The Missionary Herald: 145–148. 1869. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
  105. ^ "Babism", Zell's Popular Encyclopedia: A Universal Dictionary of English Language, Science, Literature, and Art, Volume 1, p. 190–192
  106. ^ Daily Evening Telegraph, June 23, 1869, in Philadelphia, p. 6
  107. ^ Babism, Green Bay Weekly Gazette (Green Bay, Wisconsin)17 Jul 1869, Sat • Main Edition • Page 1
  108. ^ anonymous (July 17, 1869). "A New Religion". All the Year Round: 149–154. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
  109. ^ A New Religion, Brooklyn Eagle, August 03, 1869, Page: 1
  110. ^ "A New Religion", The Hawaiian Gazette, Honolulu Oahu, Hawaii, Sept 8, 1869, p. 4, 4th column, from middle
  111. ^ Contemporary Review. Review. 1869. pp. 581–601. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
  112. ^ "Une Nouvelle Religion en Asia", Annee Philosophique - Études Critiques Sur Le Mouvement Des Idées Génénerales, published in 1869, by F. Pillon, pp. 181–216
  113. ^ "Reviews: The Philosophical Year and the Bábys", by anonymous, Saturday Review of Politics, Literature, Science and Art, August 21, 1869, pp. 254–256
  114. ^ "History in Poland". Official Webpage of the Baháʼís of Poland. National Spiritual Assembly of the Baháʼís of Poland. 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-01-24. Retrieved 2009-03-20.
  115. ^ Jasion, Jan T. (1999). "The Polish Response to Soviet Anti-Baháʼí Polemics". Associate. Winter 1999 (29). Association for Baháʼí Studies (English-Speaking Europe). Archived from the original on 2012-02-15.
  116. ^ Momen, Moojan. "Russia". Draft for "A Short Encyclopedia of the Baháʼí Faith". Baháʼí Library Online. Retrieved 2008-04-14.
  117. ^ "The Babs of Persia", The Times, London, 5 Oct, 1871, p. 8, 3rd column down from top
  118. ^ "The Bábys", The Church Missionary Intelligencer, June 1872, pp. 161–175
  119. ^ Augustus Henry Mounsey (1872). A journey through the Caucasus and the interior of Persia. Smith, Elder & co. pp. 103–107. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  120. ^ "The Church of England in Persia", by anonymous, in The Colonial Church chronicle, and missionary journal, June 1873, pp. 206–208
  121. ^ The Sunday at Home. Religious Tract Society. 1873. pp. circa p. 439. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  122. ^ A General Sketch of the History of Persia by Clements Robert Markham, published by Longmans, Green, and Company, 1874, pp. 495–6.
  123. ^ "Babism" in The World's Progress; a Dictionary of Dates, 21st edition, by George Palmer Putnam, Frederic Beecher Perkins, published by G. P. Putnam, 1877, p. 8
  124. ^ The Dublin University Magazine. William Curry, Jun., and Company. 1878. pp. 264–. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  125. ^ see Viaje al interior de Persia, by Adolfo Rivadneyra, 1880.
  126. ^ Italy: History of the Baha'i Faith by Julio Savi, 1992
  127. ^ See Formation de la Secte des babi in Hommes et choses en Perse, by Carla Serena, published by Charpentier, 1883
  128. ^ National cyclopaedia (1884). The national encyclopædia. Libr. ed. pp. 142–. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  129. ^ Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens of the State of Maine. New England Historical Publishing Company. 1903. p. 54.
  130. ^ The Contemporary Review. A. Strahan. 1885. pp. 808–829. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  131. ^ "Story of the Bab", by Mary Wilson, The Living Age (Jan–March, 1886) Volume 53; Volume 168, pp. 151–163
  132. ^ "Story of the Bab", by Mary Wilson, Library Magazine, 1886, pp. 137–148
  133. ^ The Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art. Leavitt, Trow, & Company. 1886. pp. 264–278. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  134. ^ "December Magazines", The Argus, Melbourne, Vic., Saturday 30 January 1886, p. 4 4th col, below middle as part of summary of Contemporary Review
  135. ^ "Noticeable Articles", The Tech, Jan 14, 1886, vol V, No. 7, p. 105, MIT, left col, below middle
  136. ^ "Woman in the Ministry: An Appeal to Fact", by John Tunis, in Unity, Vol XV, No 6, May 9, 1885, pp. 92–94
  137. ^ Persia the Land of the Imams: A Narrative of Travel And Residence 1871 to 1885, Author James Bassett, published 1886
  138. ^ Persia the Land of the Imams: A Narrative of Travel And Residence 1871 to 1885, Author James Bassett, published 1886
  139. ^ "A Residence in Persia", The New York Times, 9 May 1886, p. 12, 5th column, down from top
  140. ^ "Literary; Triumphant Democracy - Persia, by James Bassett - The Country Banker…", The Inter Ocean, 15 May 1886, p. 9
  141. ^ Persia and the Persians, by Samuel Greene Wheeler Benjamin, first edition, (1886)
  142. ^ Persia and the Persians, by Samuel Green Wheeler Benjamin, second edition, (1887)
  143. ^ Not sure what page the particular story takes place on but see La Perse, la Chaldée et la Susiane, by Jane Dieulafoy, 1887, p. 77...?
  144. ^ "Babism", A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles Vol 1, Part 2 by the Philological Society (Great Britain), ed by James Augustus Henry Murray, published by Clarendon Press, 1887, p. 606
  145. ^ See The Bábís of Persia. I. Sketch of their History, and Personal Experiences amongst them, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (New Series) / Volume 21 / Issue 03 / July 1889, pp 485-526.
  146. ^ see the index to the 1889 edition, p. 39, middle column near top.
  147. ^ "Babi", by "RG" - RG Watson? - The Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th edition, ed by William Harrison De Puy, published by Werner Company, 1893, vol III, pp. 180–181
  148. ^ Babi, Encyclopædia Britannica, 10th Edition (1902)
  149. ^ "Babism" entry in Blackie's modern cyclopedia of universal information, Vol 1, published 1890, p. 329–330
  150. ^ A Traveller's Narrative: Written to illustrate the episode of the Bab (1891)
  151. ^ Edward Granville Browne (1893). A Year Amongst the Persians: Impressions as to the Life, Character, & Thought of the People of Persia, Received During Twelve Months' Residence in that Country in the Years 1887-1888. A. and C. Black.
  152. ^ Religious Systems of the World, Guardian, (London, Greater London, England), 22 March 1893 • Page 26
  153. ^ * Browne, Edward G, "The Assassination of Násiru'd-Dín Shah", New Review, June 1896
    • "Mr. Browne in Persia", The Spectator, Dec 28, 1893
  154. ^ "Notes", The Nation, Dec 28, 1893, p. 486, second column, middle
  155. ^ Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan, by Isabella Bird, London: John Murray, 1891 (excerpt)
  156. ^ Essays upon some Controverted Questions, by Thomas Henry Huxley, in 1892
  157. ^ Marquess George Nathaniel Curzon Curzon of Kedleston (1892). Persia and the Persian Question. Longmans, Green & Company. pp. 496–504. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  158. ^ Mohammedanism and other religions of Mediterranean countries, by Bettany, G. T. (George Thomas), Publisher: London : Ward, Lock, Bowden and Co., 1892, pp. 167–169
  159. ^ (actually appeared in two segments - see Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (New Series) / Volume 24 / Issue 03 / July 1892, pp 433-499 and Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (New Series) / Volume 24 / Issue 04 / October 1892, pp 637-710
  160. ^ Some Remarks on the Bábí Texts edited by Baron Victor Rosen in Vols. I and VI of the Collections Scientifiques de l'Institut des Langues Orientales de Saint-Pétersbourg, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (New Series) / Volume 24 / Issue 02 / April 1892, pp 259-335
  161. ^ Review of Reviews and World's Work, Volume 5, by Albert Shaw, Publisher, Review of Reviews Corporation, 1892, p. 644
  162. ^ see Coutts Trotter.
  163. ^ "A New Religion", The New York Times, 5 June 1892, p. 4, bottom of 4th column, top of 5th.
  164. ^ The Religious Mission of the English-Speaking Nations, by Rev Henry H. Jessup, published in History of the Parliament of Religions and Religious Congresses of the World's Columbian Exposition, pages 637-641, Chicago: F. Tennyson Neely, 1894
  165. ^ Henry H. Jessup, D.D., Makes an Eloquent and Instructive Address The Inter Ocean, (Chicago, Illinois), 24 September 1893 • Page 2
  166. ^ Stileman, Charles, "A Week with the Babis", The Church Missionary Intelligencer, July 1893
  167. ^ "Mahometanism and Woman". New-York Tribune. New York, New York. 18 Dec 1893. p. 5. Retrieved Jan 15, 2015.
  168. ^ Stockman, Robert (1985). Baha'i Faith in America: Origins 1892-1900. Wilmette, Ill.: Baha'i Publishing Trust of the United States. ISBN 978-0-87743-199-2. Archived from the original on 2008-07-23. Retrieved 2016-10-16.
  169. ^ * The Bahis of Persia, The Wayne County Herald, March 8, 1894, p. 8, 5th col down from top
  170. ^ "Religions to be Dealt With", Guardian of 30 May 1894, p. 37, bottom of 2nd column and most of 3rd
  171. ^ Vol 17 is available as a free ebook, the google book preview limits what pages you can see, specifically this one page, but the free ebook lets you get them all.
  172. ^ "The Babis of Persia" by Rev P Z Easton, The Missionary Review of the World, Volume 17, Published by Missionary Review Publishing Company, Incorporated, June 1894, pp. 451–458
  173. ^ "Wahabiism and Babism - Bibliography" by Rev P Z Easton, The Missionary Review of the World, Vol 17, publisher Missionary Review Publishing Company, Incorporated, July, 1894 pp. 529–530
  174. ^ Religion of the Persians, Sacramento Daily Union of 14 July 1894, p. 6, bottom of second column, top of third.
  175. ^ "Babism - Its Doctrines and Relation to Mission Work", by Ref J H Shedd, pp. 894–904, The Missionary Review of the World, Vol 17, Dec 1894, published by Missionary Review Publishing Company, Incorporated
  176. ^ McClintock, John; Strong, James, eds. (1895). Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper. pp. 593–594. ISBN 9780405000201. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  177. ^ Sophia Augusta Cottrell (1823–1909) & Henry Cottrell (1811–71), The Brownings' Correspondence, 15, 354–357.
  178. ^ note several source point to a Syracuse version - it is believed this is an error.
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  234. ^ Warns Americans against Baha, The Hawaiian Star(Honolulu, Hawaii)11 May 1912 • First Edition
  235. ^ Burhan-i-Lamiʻ (The Brilliant Proof): Published, along with an English translation, in Chicago in 1912, the paper responds to a Christian clergyman's questions. Republished as Mírzá Abu'l-Faḍl Gulpáygání (1998) [1912]. The Brilliant Proof. Los Angeles: Kalimát Press.
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Further reading[edit]