Bitot's spots

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Bitot's spots
Other namesICD10 = E50.1
Typical location of Bitot's spots.jpg
Typical location of Bitot's spots
SpecialtyOphthalmology Edit this on Wikidata

Bitot's spots are the buildup of keratin located superficially in the conjunctiva of human's eyes. They can be oval, triangular or irregular in shape. The spots are a sign of vitamin A deficiency and associated with drying of the cornea. In 1863, the French physician Pierre Bitot (1822-1888) first described these spots.[1] The spots may abate under replacement therapy.[2] In ancient Egypt, this was treated with animal liver, which is where vitamin A is stored.[3]


Major cause of Bitots's spot is vitamin A deficiency (VAD).[4] Rarely, pellegra due to deficiency of vitamin B3 (Niacin) may also cause Bitots's spots.[5]


VAD is commonly treated with oral vitamin A supplements.[6] Improvement of Bitot’s spots is seen with high-dose vitamin A therapy.[7] Bitot's spots non-responsive to vitamin A therapy may be removed surgically.[8]


  1. ^ Shukla, M; Behari, K (Jul 1979). "Congenital Bitot spots". Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 27 (2): 63–4. PMID 541036.
  2. ^ Ram, Jagat; Jinagal, Jitender (2018). "Bitot's Spots". New England Journal of Medicine. 379 (9): 869. doi:10.1056/NEJMicm1715354. PMID 30157394.
  3. ^ Numitor, Gerd (February 2012). Bitot's Spots. Flu Press. ISBN 978-620-0-57824-2.
  4. ^ Gilbert, Clare (2013). "The eye signs of vitamin A deficiency". Community Eye Health. 26 (84): 66–67. ISSN 0953-6833. PMC 3936686. PMID 24782581.
  5. ^ Levine, Robert A.; Rabb, Maurice F. (1 November 1971). "Bitot's Spot Overlying a Pinguecula". Archives of Ophthalmology. 86 (5): 525–528. doi:10.1001/archopht.1971.01000010527007.
  6. ^ "Vitamin A Deficiency Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Consultations, Diet". 9 November 2019.
  7. ^ "Management of Bitot's Spots". American Academy of Ophthalmology. 1 December 2016.
  8. ^ Themes, U. F. O. (11 September 2016). "Bitot's Spots". Ento Key.

External links[edit]