Branchio-oto-renal syndrome

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Branchio-oto-renal syndrome
Autosomal dominant - en.svg
Branchio-oto-renal syndrome has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance
Classification and external resources
Specialty medical genetics
ICD-10 Q87.0
OMIM 113650
DiseasesDB 32599
MeSH D019280

Branchio-oto-renal syndrome (BOR), also known as branchiootorenal syndrome or BOR syndrome, is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder involving the kidneys, ears, and neck. It often has also been described as Melnick-Fraser syndrome.[1][2]

Symptoms/signs[edit]

The symptoms and/or signs of branchio-oto-renal syndrome are consistent with underdeveloped (hypoplastic) or absent kidneys with resultant renal insufficiency or renal failure. Ear anomalies include extra openings in front of the ears, extra pieces of skin in front of the ears (preauricular tags), or further malformation or absence of the outer ear (pinna). Malformation or absence of the middle ear is also possible, individuals can have mild to profound hearing loss. People with BOR may also have cysts or fistulae along the sides of their neck.[3]

Cause[edit]

The cause of branchio-oto-renal syndrome are mutations in genes, EYA1, SIX1, and SIX5 (approximately 40 percent of those born with this condition have a mutation in the EYA1 gene).[3][4]

Mechanism[edit]

The genetics of branchio-oto-renal syndrome indicate it is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, and results from a mutation in the EYA1 gene.[5] Autosomal dominant inheritance indicates that the defective gene responsible for a disorder is located on an autosome, and only one copy of the gene is sufficient to cause the disorder, when inherited from a parent who has the disorder. This gene is involved in many facets of embryonic development and is important in the normal formation of many organs and tissues, including the ears, and kidneys before birth.[medical citation needed]

Diagnosis[edit]

The diagnosis of this syndrome can be done via the test Branchiootorenal syndrome via the SIX5 Gene whose purpose is mutation confirmation and risk assessment (screening).[6]

Treatment[edit]

Otitis media -acute

The treatment of branchio-oto-renal syndrome is done per each affected area (or organ). For example, a person with hearing problems should have appropriate supports and prompt attention for any inflammation of the ear.[7][8]

A specialist should observe any kidney problems. Surgical repair may be needed depending on the degree of a defect or problem, whether a transplant or dialysis is needed.[9]

Epidemiology[edit]

The epidemiology of branchio-oto-renal syndrome has it with a prevalence of 1/40,000 in Western countries.A 2014 review found 250 such cases in the country of Japan[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Branchiootorenal syndrome". Genetics Home Reference. 2015-11-23. Retrieved 2015-11-29. 
  2. ^ "Branchiootorenal syndrome | Disease | Overview | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) – an NCATS Program". rarediseases.info.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-29. 
  3. ^ a b "Branchio Oto Renal Syndrome - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 2015-11-29. 
  4. ^ Little, Melissa Helen (2015-08-06). Kidney Development, Disease, Repair and Regeneration. Academic Press. p. 269. ISBN 9780128004388. 
  5. ^ Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) Branchiootorenal Syndrome 1; BOR1 -113650
  6. ^ "Branchiootorenal syndrome via the SIX5 Gene - Tests - GTR - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-29. 
  7. ^ Niparko, John K. (2009-01-01). Cochlear Implants: Principles & Practices. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 53. ISBN 9780781777490. 
  8. ^ Smith, Richard JH (1993-01-01). Pagon, Roberta A.; Adam, Margaret P.; Ardinger, Holly H.; Wallace, Stephanie E.; Amemiya, Anne; Bean, Lora JH; Bird, Thomas D.; Fong, Chin-To; Mefford, Heather C., eds. Branchiootorenal Spectrum Disorders. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle. PMID 20301554. |updated, 2015|
  9. ^ Izzedine, Hassane; Tankere, Frederic; Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Deray, Gilbert (2004-02-01). "Ear and kidney syndromes: Molecular versus clinical approach". Kidney International. 65 (2): 369–385. ISSN 0085-2538. PMID 14717907. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00390.x. 
  10. ^ Morisada, Naoya; Nozu, Kandai; Iijima, Kazumoto (2014-06-01). "Branchio-oto-renal syndrome: Comprehensive review based on nationwide surveillance in Japan". Pediatrics International. 56 (3): 309–314. ISSN 1442-200X. doi:10.1111/ped.12357. 

Further reading[edit]