Bucovinean Romanian dialect
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Distribution of the Romanian language in Romania, Moldova and surroundings.
Bucovinean Romanian, or Bukovinan is a branch of the Romanian language spoken in Bukovina and which has influences of both Moldovan, Transylvanian, and Maramureș. It also features the presence of numerous German and Ruthenian loanwords which were introduced into the dialect while Bukovina was a province of the Austrian Empire (1774–1918). Due to the language policy promoted by the Austrian monarchy, several languages were spoken in Bucovina: Ukrainian, Romanian, Polish, German (Buchenländisch), and Yiddish. Today, the Bucovina dialect is being replaced by the standard Romanian language, especially in the urban areas of southern Bucovina, while the language in northern Bukovina is being replaced by Ukrainian.
The Bukovina dialect of the Romanian language can be divided into 5 more subdialects, with a different specificity and a more or less controversial individuality:
The Dornean was formed as a bar of transition in the 17th and 18th centuries and is spoken in the area of the former judicial district of Vatra Dornei. The most obvious phonetic differences in relation to the Transylvanian language are achieved not by the distinctive features of sounds, but by the speed of speech and by the prosodic elements. In contrast to the slower speaking and high general tone of the Transylvanian (northeast) Transylvanian, the Bucovina pronunciation is characterized by a faster pace and higher variations in height and intensity; the dynamic emphasis emphasizes the tonic syllables more strongly, but compensates for the short aphonised speech and even the fall of the non-accentuated syllables.
The dialect is the most archaic and at the same time the most striking individuality. With its center in Câmpulung, it extends along the Moldavian River, from Fundu Moldovei to Gura Humorului, with branches on the valley of Moldoviţa: Frumosu and Vatra Moldoviței, and from here on Obcina Mare to Sucevița, and on the Suhei Valley in Bucovina: Stulpicani and Ostra villages.
The Rădăuțean dialect assimilated various Transylvanian influences by due to the significant number of Transylvanian speakers emigrating to there in the eighteenth century. It was influenced by phonetic pronunciations specific to Maramures, northeastern Transylvania, Crişana, northern Banat and southwest Transylvania. The dialect area includes, besides the area between Falcau (in the West), Siret (in the East) and Solca (in the South) and the localities inhabited by Romanians in the Storojineţ area (in the North).
The area of southeast Bucovina, sometimes referred to as "africatizantă" after the specific phonetic phenomenon, was formed in the 18th century by the overlapping of the Transylvanian influences over an archaic dialect. The dialect area covers Gura Humorului (to the West) and Chilişeni (to the East), Iaslovăţ (to the North), the southern limit being the border of the historical Bucovina (Valea Moldovei, Stăneşti, Băişesti, Brăieşti, Drăgoieşti, Măzăneşti, Lucăceşti, Vorniceni, Liteni, Bunești, Securiceni, Plăvălari, Udeşti, Poieni-Suceava, and Chilișeni). In the east of this dialect area there are linguistic islands where the archaic language was preserved until the settlement of the Transylvanians, showing the remnants of the Câmpulungean dialect that was predominant until the settlement of the Transylvanians in the 17th–18th centuries.
The dialect is spread over Eastern Bucovina, which includes localities on the eastern border of historical Bucovina. The dialect preserved linguistic peculiarities are when it was separated by the settlement of Transylvanians in the 17th–18th centuries. From this area belong the localities around Suceava: Bosanci (and the villages later detached from Moara Nica, Moara Carp, Frumoasa, Vlădichii Mill, Bulai, and Podeni), Tişăuţi, Lisaura, Mihoveni, Costâna, continuing with the former border towns Mitocu Dragomirnei, Pălăraţi, Calafindeşti (where the elements from Rădăuţean), Sinauţi de Sus, Stăneşti, Poieni-Bucovina, Ţureni, came to Cernăuţi: the villages of Plaiul Cosminului, Voloca on Derelui, Ostriţa, Mahala, Boian and Lehăcenii Ţăutului. This subdialect of the Bucovinean is also spoken by the descendants of the Romanian immigrants to Boian, Alberta, Canada, at the end of the 19th century.
- Cum au apărut graiurile bucovinene unice în țară - The unique Bucovina language in the country - adevarul.ro
- Structura dialectală a graiurilor românești - The dialectal structure of the Romanian language - alil.ro
- Studia Linguistica-5-1; p. 325-331 - Studies Linguistica-5-1; pp. 325-331