Romanian diaspora

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The Romanian diaspora is the ethnically Romanian population outside Romania and Moldova. The concept does not usually include the ethnic Romanians who live as natives in nearby states, chiefly those Romanians who live in Ukraine and Serbia. Therefore, the number of all Romanians abroad is estimated at about 4-12 million people, depending on one's definition of the term "Romanian" as well as the inclusion/exclusion of ethnic Romanians living in nearby countries where they are indigenous. The definition of "who is a Romanian?" may range from rigorous conservative estimates based on self-identification and official statistics to estimates that include people of Romanian ancestry born in their respective countries as well as people born to ethnic-minorities from Romania.

In 2006, the Romanian diaspora was estimated at about 8 million people by the president of Romania, Traian Băsescu, most of them living in the former USSR, Western Europe (esp. Italy, Spain and France, see Romanian-French), North America, South America and Australia.[1] It is unclear if Băsescu included the indigenous Romanians living in the immediate surroundings of the Romanian state such as those in Moldova, Ukraine or Serbia. It is also unclear if Băsescu counted ethnic minorities such as Jews, Romanis, Hungarians, Germans (Transylvanian and Banat Swabians and Transylvanian Saxons) as Romanians when he made his estimate, as well as third-generation individuals in the United States and Canada.

In December 2013, Cristian David, the government minister for The Department of Romanians Everywhere, declared that a new reality illustrates that between 6-8 million Romanians live outside Romania's borders. This includes 2-3 million indigenous Romanians living in neighbouring states such as Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, the Balkans and especially the Republic of Moldova. The number also includes circa 2.7 - 3.5 million Romanians in Western Europe.[2]

Below is a list of self-declared ethnic Romanians in the countries where they live, excluding those who live in Romania and Moldova but including those who live in Ukraine, Serbia, Hungary and Bulgaria. The numbers are based on official statistical data in the respective states where such Romanians reside or - wherever such data is unavailable - based on official estimates made by the Romanian department for Romanians abroad. (Figures for Spain, Italy, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Sweden, Portugal and Turkey are for Romanian citizens, and may include individuals of any ethnicity.) Ethnic-Romanians are primarily present in Europe and North America. However, there are ethnic Romanians in Turkey, both in the Asian and European parts of the country, descendants of Walachian settlers invited by the Ottoman Empire from the early 14th to the late 19th centuries. Over 100,000 ethnic Romanians are living throughout far eastern Russia, thousands of Romanians in villages of the Amur River valley on the Chinese Manchurian side of that river, and about 2,000 Romanian immigrants in Japan since the late 20th century.[3]

The Romanian diaspora has emerged as a powerful political force in elections since 2009.[4][5] For the 2014 presidential elections, voting in the diaspora has been poorly organized and resulted in protests in several major European cities.[5] The diaspora vote played a key role in the 2014 presidential result.[5]

Distribution by country[edit]

Country Population Year Origin, notes
Italy Italy 1,131,839 2014[6] Immigrants (additional 150,021 Moldovans)
Spain Spain 721,445 2014[7] Immigrants (additional 20,000 Moldovans)
Germany Germany 700 000 2013[8] Immigrants
United States United States 518,653 2009[9]
Immigrants
Israel Israel 205,600 2014[10]
Immigrants
France France 200,000 2013[11]
Immigrants
Ukraine Ukraine 150,989 2001[12] Indigenous to Zakarpattia Oblast, Odessa Oblast and Chernivtsi Oblast. (additional 258,619 Moldovans)
United Kingdom United Kingdom 101,000 2012[13]
Immigrants
Canada Canada 82,995 2011[14]
Immigrants (additional 121,635 of mixed origin and additional 8,050 Moldovans).
Austria Austria 91,271 2015[15]
Immigrants
Greece Greece 46,523 2011[16]
Romanian citizen immigrants. (additional 10,391 Moldovans). There are also Aromanian and Megleno speaking people in Greece, however they are not considered an ethnic but a linguistic/cultural minority - the majority of them express an ethnic Greek identity.[17][18][19][20] In addition to that no Greek census has recorded mother tongue statistics since 1951, so the number of those two Romanian-speaking groups can not be exact. Therefore this number includes Romanian citizens only.
Belgium Belgium 45,877 2012[21]
Immigrants
Portugal Portugal 39,312 2011[22]
Immigrants (additional 13,586 Moldovans)
Serbia Serbia 29,332 2011[23] Indigenous to Vojvodina (Banat), Timočka Krajina and parts of Central Serbia. (additional 35,330 Vlachs).
Hungary Hungary 26,345 2011[24] Indigenous to Eastern Hungary
Cyprus Cyprus 24,376 2011[25]
(excluding Moldovans) Immigrants
Sweden Sweden 21,016 2011[26]
Immigrants
Australia Australia 20,998 2011[27]
Immigrants
Republic of Ireland Ireland 17,995 2011[28]
Immigrants
Netherlands Netherlands 16,987 2012[29]
Immigrants
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 14,666 2009[30][31]
(including Moldovans) Immigrants / Displaced during World War II
Denmark Denmark 10,732 [32] Immigrants
Argentina Argentina 10,000 [33]
Immigrants
Venezuela Venezuela 10,000 [34]
Immigrants
Switzerland Switzerland 8,578 2012[35]
Immigrants
Norway Norway 6,869 2012[36]
Immigrants
Czech Republic Czech Republic 5,069 [37]
Immigrants
United Arab Emirates UAE 5,000 [38]
Immigrants
Brazil Brazil 4,000 [39]
Immigrants
Russia Russia 3,201 2010[40]
Immigrants / Displaced during World War II (additional 156,400 Moldovans)
New Zealand New Zealand 3,100 [41]
Immigrants
South Africa South Africa 3,000 [42]
Immigrants
Japan Japan 3,000 [43]
Immigrants
Lithuania Lithuania 1,350 [44]
Immigrants
Turkey Turkey 1,304 [45]
Immigrants
Qatar Qatar 1,000 [46]
Immigrants
Bulgaria Bulgaria 891 2011[47] Indigenous to Vidin Province and parts of Northern Bulgaria (additional 3,684 Vlachs)
Luxembourg Luxembourg 500 [48]
Immigrants
Finland Finland 500 [49]
Immigrants
Ethiopia African Union 485 [42]
Immigrants
Mexico Mexico 400 [50]
Immigrants
Chile Chile 389 2002 Census Immigrants
South Korea South Korea 300 [43]
Immigrants
Colombia Colombia 270 [50]
Immigrants
TOTAL 4 189 558 The estimate is the sum of the countrywide estimates listed.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Preşedintele României
  2. ^ 6-8 Million Romanians Live outside Romania's Borders
  3. ^ Departamentul Românilor de Pretutindeni
  4. ^ "REZULTATE ALEGERI 2014 [Results of 2014 election]". Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c "Romania election surprise as Klaus Iohannis wins presidency". Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  6. ^ "Bilancio demografico nazionale". 
  7. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Population Figures at 1 July 2014 [1].
  8. ^ Departamentul Românilor de Pretutindeni - Federal Republic of Germany
  9. ^ US Census Bureau Estimate 2009
  10. ^ Statistical Abstract of Israel 2014
  11. ^ români muncesc în străinătate şi unde sunt cei mai mulţi
  12. ^ (Ukrainian) Ukraine 2001 Census results
  13. ^ UK Migration Statistics Quarterly Aug 2013
  14. ^ Statistics Canada, Canada 2001 Census. 2011 Canada National Household Survey - Ethnic Origin
  15. ^ [2]
  16. ^ [3] Greek Census
  17. ^ Viktor Meier. Yugoslavia: a history of its demise. Routledge, 1999 ISBN 978-0-415-18596-7, p. 184: "They both consider themselves Greeks."
  18. ^ http://vlahos.xan.duth.gr/nea/180304.htm
  19. ^ http://www.tamos.gr/popsb_reply_en.htm
  20. ^ Spyros Ergolabos, "The Zagori villages in the beginning of the 20th century: 2 precious documents", Epirus Publications, Ioannina 1993
  21. ^ Non-Profit Data
  22. ^ 2011 Portugal foreigners
  23. ^ 2011 Serbian Census
  24. ^ Hungarian census 2011
  25. ^ Preliminary Results of the Census of Population, 2011
  26. ^ [4], 2011
  27. ^ Population by ancestry (Australia), 2006 Australian census
  28. ^ Irish Census of 2011: Ireland becoming more Diverse
  29. ^ CBS StatLine 2012
  30. ^ Ethnic composition, religion and language skills in the Republic of Kazakhstan
  31. ^ Cotidianul [5]
  32. ^ "BEF5: Folketal pr 1 januar efter køn, alder og fødeland". Danmark statistik. Danmark statistik. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  33. ^ [6]
  34. ^ Departamentul Românilor de Pretutindeni
  35. ^ Swiss Statistical Office 2012
  36. ^ Statistics Norway – Persons with immigrant background by immigration category, country background and gender. 1 January 2012 (Corrected 30 April 2012)
  37. ^ Departamentul Românilor de Pretutindeni
  38. ^ Departamentul Românilor de Pretutindeni
  39. ^ Departamentul Românilor de Pretutindeni
  40. ^ 2010 Russia Census
  41. ^ [7]
  42. ^ a b [8]
  43. ^ a b Departamentul Românilor de Pretutindeni
  44. ^ [9]
  45. ^ [10]
  46. ^ [11]
  47. ^ 2011 Bulgaria Census
  48. ^ [12]
  49. ^ [13]
  50. ^ a b Departamentul Românilor de Pretutindeni