Buddleja davidii

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Buddleja davidii
BuddlejaDavidiiStrauch.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Genus: Buddleja
Species:
B. davidii
Binomial name
Buddleja davidii
Synonyms
  • Buddleja davidii var. alba Rehder & E.H.Wilson
  • Buddleja davidii var. magnifica Rehder & E.H.Wilson
  • Buddleja davidii var. nanhoensis Rehder
  • Buddleja davidii var. superba (de Corte) Rehder & E.H.Wilson
  • Buddleja davidii var. veitchiana Rehder
  • Buddleja davidii var. wilsonii Rehder
  • Buddleja shimidzuana Nakai Syn. nov.

Buddleja davidii (spelling variant Buddleia davidii), also called summer lilac, butterfly-bush, or orange eye, is a species of flowering plant in the family Scrophulariaceae, native to Sichuan and Hubei provinces in central China, and also Japan.[1] It is widely used as an ornamental plant, and many named varieties are in cultivation. The genus was named Buddleja after Reverend Adam Buddle, an English botanist. The species name davidii honors the French missionary and explorer in China, Father Armand David, who was the first European to report the shrub.[2] It was found near Ichang by Dr Augustine Henry about 1887 and sent to St Petersburg. Another botanist-missionary in China, Jean-André Soulié, sent seed to the French nursery Vilmorin, and B. davidii entered commerce in the 1890s.[3]

B. davidii was accorded the RHS Award of Merit (AM) in 1898, and the Award of Garden Merit (AGM) in 1941.[4]

Description[edit]

Buddleja davidii is a vigorous shrub with an arching habit, growing to 5 m (16 ft) in height. The pale brown bark becomes deeply fissured with age. The branches are quadrangular in section, the younger shoots covered in a dense indumentum. The opposite lanceolate leaves are 7–13 cm (3–5 inches) long, tomentose beneath when young. The honey-scented lilac to purple inflorescences are terminal panicles, < 20 cm (8 inches) long.[5] Flowers are perfect (having both male and female parts), hence are hermaphrodite rather than monoecious (separate male and female flowers on the same plant) as is often incorrectly stated. Ploidy 2n = 76 (tetraploid).[6]

Buddleja davidii, after Leeuwenberg[edit]

In his 1979 revision of the taxonomy of the African and Asiatic species of Buddleja, the Dutch botanist Anthonius Leeuwenberg sank the six varieties of the species as synonyms of the type, considering them to be within the natural variation of a species, and unworthy of varietal recognition.[7] It was Leeuwenberg's taxonomy which was adopted in the Flora of China[8] published in 1996. However, as the distinctions of the former varieties are still widely recognized in horticulture, they are treated separately here:

Cultivation[edit]

Buddleja davidii cultivars are much appreciated worldwide as ornamentals and for the value of their flowers as a nectar source for many species of butterfly. However, the plant does not provide food for butterfly larvae, and buddlejas might out-compete the host plants that caterpillars require.[9][10]

The species and its cultivars are not able to survive the harsh winters of northern or montane climates, being killed by temperatures below about −15 to −20 °C (5 to −4 °F).

Younger wood is more floriferous, so even if frosts do not kill the previous year's growth, the shrub is usually hard-pruned in spring once frosts have finished, to encourage new growth. The removal of spent flower panicles may be undertaken to reduce the nuisance of self-seeding and encourage further flower production; this extends the flowering season which is otherwise limited to about six weeks, although the flowers of the second and third flushes are invariably smaller.

Hardiness: USDA zones 5–9.[11]

There are approximately 180 davidii cultivars, as well as numerous hybrids with B. globosa and B. fallowiana grown in gardens. Many cultivars are of a dwarf habit, growing to no more than 1.5 m (5 feet).

The following davidii cultivars held the RHS Award of Garden Merit in 2012:-

A plant-evaluation manager at the Chicago Botanic Garden in Glencoe, Illinois (USDA Hardiness zone 5b) rated nearly 50 Buddlejia varieties and cultivars during a six-year trial period, summarizing in 2015 the charactistics of each and the study's findings. The following nine B. davidii cultivars received the highest ratings:[12]

University studies have suggested that nectaring butterflies have greater preferences for some Buddleja cultivators than for others, with Lo & Behold 'Blue Chip' and 'Pink Delight' heading a list of eleven.[13]

Invasive species[edit]

Budleja davidii self-sown along a railroad right-of-way at Düsseldorf, Germany (2016)

Buddleja davidii has been designated as an invasive species or a "noxious weed" in a number of countries in temperate regions, including the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland and New Zealand.[14] It is naturalized in Australia[15] and in many cities of central and southern Europe, where it can spread on open lands and in gardens.

B. davidii was first documented as an invasive species in the United Kingdom during 1922. It is now often seen there along railway lines and on the sites of derelict factories and other buildings.[16] The plant frequently grew on urban bomb sites during the aftermath of World War II, earning it the nickname of "the bomb site plant".[17]

B. davidii is widely marketed throughout the United States, where it has reportedly become invasive in some, but not all, areas within which it has been planted.[18][19][20] Although its flowers feed many native butterflies and other pollinators, plantings of the species are now controversial.[19][21][22] To prevent seeding and to promote further flowering, its blossoms need to be removed ("deadheaded") as soon as they are spent.[18]

A number of Buddleja cultivars have become available that have a variety of sizes and blossom colors and that are either sterile or produce less than 2% viable seed.[18][21][23][24] The northwestern U.S. state of Oregon, which designated B. davidii as a "noxious weed" and initially prohibited entry, transport, purchase, sale or propagation of all of its varieties, amended its quarantine in 2009 to permit those cultivars when approved or when proven to be interspecific hybrids.[18][21][23][25] The adjacent state of Washington has taken actions that are similar to those of Oregon to bring parity to nursery sales between the two states.[26] Monarch Watch recommends planting only male-sterile "Flutterby" cultivars.[27]

Non-invasive Buddleja cultivars[edit]

Vendors have marketed the following "non-invasive" Buddleja cultivars:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Phillips, R. and Martin Rix, Shrubs, Macmillan, 1994, p210
  2. ^ "Buddleja davidii - Plant Finder". www.missouribotanicalgarden.org. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  3. ^ Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Buddleia"
  4. ^ Hillier & Sons. (1990). Hillier's Manual of Trees & Shrubs, 5th ed.. p. 47. David & Charles, Newton Abbot. ISBN 0-7153-67447
  5. ^ Stuart, D. (2006). Buddlejas. pp 30–34. RHS Plant Collector Series, Timber Press, Oregon. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0
  6. ^ Chen, G; Sun, W-B; Sun, H (2007). "Ploidy variation in Buddleja L. (Buddlejaceae) in the Sino - Himalayan region and its biogeographical implications". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 154 (3): 305–312. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2007.00650.x.
  7. ^ Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. H. Veenman & Zonen B. V., Wageningen, Nederland.
  8. ^ Li, P-T. & Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1996). Loganiaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 15. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 978-0915279371 online at www.efloras.org
  9. ^ Zerbe, Leah (2018-06-18). "Why You Should Never Plant a Butterfly Bush Again". Good Housekeeping. Hearst Media. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
  10. ^ Gupta, Tanya (2014-07-15). "Buddleia: The plant that dominates Britain's railways". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
  11. ^ Stuart, D. D. (2006). Buddlejas. pp. 119 – 120. RHS Plant Guide. Timber Press, Oregon. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0
  12. ^ Hawke, Richard (August 2015). "Beyond the basic Butterfly Bush: Plant Trial Results" (PDF). Fine Gardening. Newtown, Connecticut: Taunton Press. pp. 31–36. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  13. ^ "Buddleia" (PDF). New Brunswick, New Jersey: New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station: Rutgers Office of Continuing Education. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved August 15, 2021.
  14. ^ (1) "Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush)". Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, England: Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. 2021. Archived from the original on August 13, 2021. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
    (2) Dhuill, E.N.; Smyth, N. (2021). "Invasive non-native and alien garden escape plant species on the southern cliffs of Howth, Co. Dublin (H21)". Irish Naturalists. 37 (2): 102–108.
    (3) Tallent-Halsell, Nita G.; Watt, Michael S. (September 2009). "The Invasive Buddleja davidii (Butterfly Bush)". Botanical Review. New York: Springer. 75 (3): 292–325. doi:10.1007/s12229-009-9033-0. JSTOR 40389400. S2CID 46039523. Archived from the original on August 13, 2021. Retrieved August 13, 2021 – via ResearchGate.
  15. ^ "Buddleja davidii". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  16. ^ Gupta, Tanya (July 15, 2014). "Buddleia: The plant that dominates Britain's railways". BBC News. Archived from the original on April 8, 2020. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
  17. ^ Moynihan, Jonathan. "Flower of the Week: Butterfly Bush". Patch. Edgewater-Davisonville, Maryland. Archived from the original on August 7, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2021. These popular garden flowers can even survive in post-war circumstances, earning the name, "the bomb site plant."
  18. ^ a b c d Young-Mathews, Ann (2011). "Plant fact sheet for orange eye butterflybush (Buddleja davidii)" (PDF). Corvallis, Oregon: United States Department of Agriculture: Natural Resources Conservation Service: Corvallis Plant Materials Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 4, 2021. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  19. ^ a b Hurwitz, Jane, ed. (Summer 2012). "The Great Butterfly Bush Debate" (PDF). Butterfly Gardener. North American Butterfly Association. 7 (2). Archived (PDF) from the original on July 22, 2021. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  20. ^ (1) "butterflybush: Buddleja davidii Franch". Invasive Plant Atlas Of The United States. October 2018. Archived from the original on April 28, 2021. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
    (2) Brusati, Elizabeth D. (June 21, 2016). "Buddleja davidii Risk Assessment". Berkeley, California: California Invasive Plant Council. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved August 18, 2021.
  21. ^ a b c Hadley, Debbie (August 26, 2020). "Pros and Cons of Planting Butterfly Bush". ThoughtCo. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  22. ^ Marazzi, Brigitte; De Micheli, Andrea (2019). "Are sterile Buddleja cultivars really sterile and "environmentally safe"?" (PDF). Bollettino della Società ticinese di scienze naturali. 107: 55–60. ISSN 0379-1254. OCLC 611282784. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 13, 2021. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Butterfly Bush Approved Cultivars". Oregon Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on October 7, 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2021.
  24. ^ Bender, Steve (July 26, 2015). "Not Your Mama's Butterfly Bush". Southern Living. Birmingham, Alabama: Southern Progress Corporation. ISSN 0038-4305. OCLC 2457928. Archived from the original on February 26, 2021. Retrieved August 6, 2021.
  25. ^ (1) "Noxious Weed Pest Risk Assessment for Butterfly Bush: Buddleja davidii: Buddlejaceae" (PDF). Plant Pest Risk Assessment. Salem, Oregon: Oregon Department of Agriculture: Noxious Weed Control Program. March 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 6, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
    (2) Altland, James (January 2005). "How to keep butterfly bush from spreading noxiously". Oregon State University Extension Service. Archived from the original on May 20, 2021. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  26. ^ (1) "Butterfly Bush: Buddleja davidii". Olympia, Washington: Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board. Archived from the original on July 18, 2021. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
    (2) "Washington Administrative Code: Title 16: Section 16-752-610 (WAC 16-752-610). Regulated Articles". Olympia, Washington: Washington State Legislature. Archived from the original on April 10, 2021. Retrieved August 13, 2021. Buddleia davidii: butterfly bush (except accepted sterile cultivars)
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  28. ^ (1) Renfro, Scott E.; Burkett, Brent M.; Dunn, Bruce L.; Lindstrom, Jon T. (October 2007). "'Asian Moon' Buddleja". HortScience. Alexandria, Virginia: American Society for Horticultural Science. 42 (6): 1486–1487. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.42.6.1486. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved August 15, 2021.
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    (4) "Asian Moon Butterfly Bush: Buddleia x 'Asian Moon'". Garden Debut. Park Hill, Oklahoma: Greenleaf Nursery Company. Archived from the original on June 15, 2019. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
    (5) "Asian Moon Sterile Butterfly Bush: Buddleia davidii 'Asian Moon'". Green County, Northeast Oklahoma: Sooner Plant Farm. Archived from the original on October 13, 2021. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  29. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Podaras #12'". Google Patents. USPP22098P2. Archived from the original on August 8, 2021. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
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  33. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Podaras #2'". Google Patents. August 17, 2021. USPP22109P2. Archived from the original on August 8, 2021. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
    (2) "Flutterby Grande® Sweet Marmalade". Ball Seed: Plant Information. West Chicago, Illinois: Ball Horticultural Company. August 17, 2021. Archived from the original on August 6, 2018. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
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    (2) "Flutterby Grande® Tangerine Dream". Ball Seed: Plant Information. West Chicago, Illinois: Ball Horticultural Company. August 17, 2021. Archived from the original on August 6, 2018. Retrieved August 6, 2021.
  35. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Podaras #1'". Google Patents. USPP22080P2. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
    (2) "Flutterby Grande® Vanilla Butterfly Bush: Buddleia x 'Vanilla'". Keys, Oklahoma: Sooner Plant Farm, Inc. 2021. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
    (3) "Flutterby Grande® Vanilla". Ball Seed: Plant Information. West Chicago, Illinois: Ball Horticultural Company. August 17, 2021. Archived from the original on August 6, 2018. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  36. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Podaras #11'". Google Patents. USPP22067P2. Archived from the original on August 9, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
    (2) "Flutterby® Lavender (Nectar Bush)". Ball Seed: Plant Information. West Chicago, Illinois: Ball Horticultural Company. August 17, 2021. Archived from the original on August 6, 2018. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
    (3) "Flutterby® Lavender". Hardy Hybrids. Longstock, Hampshire, England: Longstock Park Nursery: National Plant Collection: The Buddleia National Collection. 2016. Accession Number B187. Archived from the original on January 17, 2021. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
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  42. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Podaras #15'". Google Patents. USPP22143P2. Archived from the original on August 7, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
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  45. ^ "Buddleia Inspired Pink® ('Pink Pagoda')". Lebanon, Connecticut: Prides Corner Farms. 2021. Retrieved August 6, 2021.
  46. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Blue Chip'". Google Patents. USPP19991P3. Archived from the original on August 7, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
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  47. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Blue Chip Jr'". Google Patents. USPP26581P3. Archived from the original on August 10, 2021. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
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  48. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Ice Chip'". Google Patents. USPP24015P3. Archived from the original on August 7, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
    (2) "Buddleja Lo & Behold® 'Ice Chip'". Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences: North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
    (3) Werner, Dennis J.; Snelling, Layne K. (2011). "'Purple Haze', 'Miss Molly', and 'Ice Chip' Buddleja". HortScience. Alexandria, Virginia: American Society for Horticultural Science. 46 (9): 1330–1332. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.46.9.1330. ISSN 2327-9834. LCCN 85644626. OCLC 768085913. Archived from the original on August 10, 2021. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
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  49. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Lilac Chip'". Google Patents. USPP24016P3. Archived from the original on August 11, 2021. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
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  50. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Pink Micro Chip'". Google Patents. USPP26547P3. Archived from the original on August 11, 2021. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
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  51. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Purple Haze'". Google Patents. USPP24514P2. Archived from the original on August 12, 2021. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
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  52. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Miss Molly'". Google Patents. USPP23425P2. Archived from the original on August 13, 2021. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
    (2) "Buddleja 'Miss Molly'". Raleigh, North Carolina: North Carolina State University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences: North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
    (3) Werner, Dennis J.; Snelling, Layne K. (2011). "'Purple Haze', 'Miss Molly', and 'Ice Chip' Buddleja". HortScience. Alexandria, Virginia: American Society for Horticultural Science. 46 (9): 1330–1332. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.46.9.1330. ISSN 2327-9834. LCCN 85644626. OCLC 768085913. Archived from the original on August 10, 2021. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
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  53. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Miss Ruby'". Google Patents. USPP19950P3. Archived from the original on August 14, 2021. Retrieved August 14, 2021.
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    (3) Werner, Dennis J.; Snelling, Layne K. (2009). "'Blue Chip' and 'Miss Ruby'". HortScience. Alexandria, Virginia: American Society for Horticultural Science. 44 (3): 841–842. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.44.3.841. ISSN 2327-9834. LCCN 85644626. OCLC 768085913. Archived from the original on August 10, 2010. Retrieved August 10, 2021.
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  54. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Miss Violet'". Google Patents. USPP28448P3. Archived from the original on August 14, 2021. Retrieved August 18, 2021.
    (2) "'Miss Violet' Butterfly bush: Buddleia x". DeKalb, Illinois: Proven Winners North America LLC. 2021. Archived from the original on August 6, 2021. Retrieved August 6, 2021.

External links[edit]