Buddleja

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Buddleja
White buddleia closeup.jpg
Buddleja davidii (white flowered form)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Tribe: Buddlejeae
Genus: Buddleja
L.
Type species
Buddleja americana
L.[1]
Species

About 140 species, see text.

Synonyms

Adenoplea Radlk.
Adenoplusia Radlk.
Buddleia L., orth. var.
Chilianthus Burch.[2]

Buddleja (/ˈbʌdliə/; orth. var. Buddleia; also historically given as Buddlea) is a genus comprising over 140[3] species of flowering plants endemic to Asia, Africa, and the Americas. The generic name bestowed by Linnaeus posthumously honoured the Reverend Adam Buddle (1662–1715), an English botanist and rector, at the suggestion of Dr. William Houstoun. Houstoun sent the first plants to become known to science as buddleja (B. americana) to England from the Caribbean about 15 years after Buddle's death.

Nomenclature[edit]

The botanic name has been the source of some confusion. By modern practice of botanical Latin, the spelling of a generic name made from 'Buddle' would be Buddleia, but Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum of 1753 and 1754 spelled it Buddleja, with the long i between two vowels, common in early modern orthography.[4] The pronunciation of the long i in Buddleja as j is a common modern error. The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature has gradually changed to incorporate stricter rules about orthographic variants and as of the 2006 edition requires (article 60, particularly 60.5) that Linnaeus' spelling should be followed in this case.[5]

Classification[edit]

The genus Buddleja is now included in Scrophulariaceae, having earlier been classified under Buddlejaceae (synonym: Oftiaceae) and Loganiaceae[6]

Description[edit]

Of the approximately 140 species, nearly all are shrubs less than 5 m (16 ft) tall, but a few qualify as trees, the largest reaching 30 m (98 ft). Both evergreen and deciduous species occur, in tropical and temperate regions respectively. The leaves are lanceolate in most species, and arranged in opposite pairs on the stems (alternate in one species, B. alternifolia); they range from 1–30 cm (0.4–11.8 in) long. The flowers of the Asiatic species are mostly produced in terminal panicles 10–50 cm (4–20 in) long; the American species more commonly as cymes forming small, globose heads. Each individual flower is tubular and divided into four spreading lobes (petals) about 3–4 mm (0.12–0.16 in) across, the corolla length ranging from around 10 mm in the Asiatics to 3–30 mm in the American species, the wider variation in the latter because some South American species have evolved long red flowers to attract hummingbirds, rather than insects, as exclusive pollinators.

The colour of the flowers varies widely, from mostly pastel pinks and blues in Asia, to vibrant yellows and reds in the New World, while many cultivars have deeper tones. The flowers are generally rich in nectar and often strongly honey-scented. The fruit is a small capsule about 1 cm (0.39 in) long and 1–2 mm (0.04–0.08 in) diameter, containing numerous small seeds; in a few species (previously classified in the separate genus Nicodemia) the capsule is soft and fleshy, forming a berry.

Distribution[edit]

The genus is found in four continents. Over 60 species are native through the New World from the southern United States south to Chile, while many other species are found in the Old World, in Africa, and parts of Asia, but all are absent as natives from Europe and Australasia. The species are divided into three groups based on their floral type: those in the New World are mostly dioecious (occasionally hermaphrodite or trioecious), while those in the Old World are exclusively hermaphrodite with perfect flowers.

Cultivation and uses[edit]

As garden shrubs, buddlejas are essentially 20th-century plants, with the exception of B. globosa which was introduced to Britain from southern Chile in 1774 and disseminated from the nursery of Lee and Kennedy, Hammersmith.[7] Several species are popular garden plants and are commonly known as "butterfly bushes", owing to their attractiveness to butterflies, and have become staples of the modern butterfly garden; they are also attractive to bees and moths.

The most popular cultivated species is Buddleja davidii from central China, named for the French Basque missionary and naturalist Père Armand David. Other common garden species include the aforementioned B. globosa, grown for its strongly honey-scented orange globular inflorescences, and the weeping Buddleja alternifolia. Several interspecific hybrids have been made, notably B. 'Lochinch' (B. davidii × B. fallowiana) and B. × weyeriana (B. globosa × B. davidii), the latter a cross between a South American and an Asiatic species.[8]

Budleja davidii self-sown along a railroad right-of-way at Düsseldorf, Germany (2016)

Some species commonly escape from the garden. B. davidii in particular is an extensive coloniser of dry open ground. In urban areas in the United Kingdom, it often self-sows on waste ground or old masonry, where it grows into a dense thicket. A number of agricultural organizations and governing authorities throughout the world have designated the plant as an invasive species or a noxious weed.[9] It is frequently seen in the United Kingdom beside railway lines, on the sites of derelict factories and other buildings and, in the aftermath of World War II, on urban bomb sites.[10][11] That earned it the popular nickname of "the bomb site plant".[11]

Popular garden cultivars include 'Royal Red' (reddish-purple flowers), 'Black Knight' (very dark purple), 'Sungold' (golden yellow), and 'Pink Delight' (pure pink). In recent years, much breeding work has been undertaken to create seed sterile cultivars (see Non-invasive Buddleja cultivars). This is a particularly important consideration in the United States, where several states have banned B. davidii and its fertile cultivars because of their invasiveness.[12] Unlike native B. davidii, some of these non-invasive cultivars are small and compact, such as 'Blue Chip', which only reaches a height of 46 cm (1.51 ft) and a width of 1.4 m (4.6 ft).[13]

Buddleja collections[edit]

In Britain, there are four National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens collections, held by:

  • The Lavender Garden, Ashcroft Nurseries, Kingscote, Tetbury, Glos. GL8 8YF. Tel. 01453 860356 www.thelavenderg.co.uk
  • Longstock Park Nursery, Longstock, Stockbridge, Hants. SO20 6EH. Tel. 01264 810894 www.longstocknursery.co.uk
  • Paignton Zoo, Totnes Road, Paignton, Devon TQ4 7EU. Tel. 01803 697529 www.paigntonzoo.org.uk
  • The Shapcott Barton Estate, East Knowstone, South Molton, Devon EX36 4EE. Tel. 01398 341664

List of Buddleja species and naturally occurring hybrids[edit]

The many species of Buddleja have been the subject of much taxonomic contention. The listing below includes the names, still prevalent in horticulture, of many former Asiatic species sunk by the late Toon Leeuwenberg as Buddleja crispa and adopted as such in the definitive Flora of China.[14][15][16]

Formerly placed here[edit]

Gallery[edit]

RHS Award of Garden Merit[edit]

The following Buddleja species and cultivars are (2017) holders of the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:

See also[edit]

Monographs[edit]

Asiatic and African species[edit]

  • Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. H. Veenman & Zonen, Wageningen, Nederland.

North and South American species[edit]

  • Norman, E. (2000). Buddlejaceae. Flora Neotropica, Vol. 81. New York Botanical Garden, USA. ISSN 0071-5794

Cultivated species and cultivars[edit]

  • Stuart, D. (2006). Buddlejas. RHS Plant Collector Guide. Timber Press, Oregon, USA. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Buddleja L." TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
  2. ^ "Genus Buddleja L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 20 April 2006. Archived from the original on 7 May 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
  3. ^ "Buddleja". The Plant List. Version 1.1. 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  4. ^ Linnaei, C. (1753). Species plantarum. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.
  5. ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F. R.; Buck, W. R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D. L.; Herendeen, P. S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme van Reine, W. F.; Smith, G. F.; Wiersma, J. H. & Turland, N. J., eds. (2012), International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), Adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011 (electronic ed.), Bratislava: International Association for Plant Taxonomy, retrieved 20 December 2012.
  6. ^ Stevens, P.F. (2001–2012), "Scrophulariaceae", Angiosperm Phylogeny Website
  7. ^ Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Buddleia".
  8. ^ van de Weyer, William (1920). "Buddleja weyeriana". Gardeners' Chronicle. 3, 68: 181.
  9. ^ (1) "Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush)". Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, England: Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. 2021. Archived from the original on 13 August 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
    (2) "butterflybush: Buddleja davidii Franch". Invasive Plant Atlas Of The United States. October 2018. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
    (3) "Noxious Weed Pest Risk Assessment for Butterfly Bush: Buddleja davidii: Buddlejaceae" (PDF). Plant Pest Risk Assessment. Salem, Oregon: Oregon Department of Agriculture: Noxious Weed Control Program. March 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
    (4) Tallent-Halsell, Nita G.; Watt, Michael S. (September 2009). "The Invasive Buddleja davidii (Butterfly Bush)". Botanical Review. New York: Springer. 75 (3): 292–325. doi:10.1007/s12229-009-9033-0. JSTOR 40389400. S2CID 46039523. Archived from the original on 13 August 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2021 – via ResearchGate.
  10. ^ Gupta, Tanya (15 July 2014). "Buddleia: The plant that dominates Britain's railways". BBC News. Archived from the original on 8 April 2020. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  11. ^ a b Moynihan, Jonathan. "Flower of the Week: Butterfly Bush". Patch. Edgewater-Davisonville, Maryland. Archived from the original on 7 August 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2021. These popular garden flowers can even survive in post-war circumstances, earning the name, "the bomb site plant."
  12. ^ (1) Young-Mathews, Ann (2011). "Plant fact sheet for orange eye butterflybush (Buddleja davidii)" (PDF). Corvallis, Oregon: United States Department of Agriculture: Natural Resources Conservation Service: Corvallis Plant Materials Center. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 August 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
    (2) Hurwitz, Jane, ed. (Summer 2012). "The Great Butterfly Bush Debate" (PDF). Butterfly Gardener. North American Butterfly Association. 7 (2). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 July 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
    (3) "butterflybush: Buddleja davidii Franch". Invasive Plant Atlas Of The United States. October 2018. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
    (4) "Butterfly Bush Approved Cultivars". Oregon Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 7 October 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
    (5) "Noxious Weed Pest Risk Assessment for Butterfly Bush: Buddleja davidii: Buddlejaceae" (PDF). Plant Pest Risk Assessment. Salem, Oregon: Oregon Department of Agriculture: Noxious Weed Control Program. March 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
    (6) Altland, James (January 2005). "How to keep butterfly bush from spreading noxiously". Oregon State University Extension Service. Archived from the original on 20 May 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  13. ^ (1) "Buddleja plant named 'Blue Chip'". Google Patents. Archived from the original on 7 August 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  14. ^ "Buddleja". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
  15. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Buddleja". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 20 January 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
  16. ^ Norman, E. (2000). Buddlejaceae. Flora Neotropica, Vol. 81. New York Botanical Garden, USA.

External links[edit]