Combat Vehicle 90
|Combat Vehicle 90|
A Strf9040C in Swedish service
|Type||Infantry fighting vehicle|
|Place of origin||Sweden|
|Used by||See Operators|
|Wars||War in Afghanistan
United Nations Mission in Liberia
|Manufacturer||BAE Systems AB|
|No. built||c. 1,200|
|Weight||23–35 tonnes (Mk0 to MkIII)|
|Crew||3 (commander, gunner, driver)
|40mm Bofors Autocannon,
30mm Bushmaster Cannon (export model MkI & MkII)
35mm/50 Bushmaster Cannon (export model MkIII)
|7.62 mm Ksp m/39 machine gun
6 × 76 mm grenade launchers
|Engine||Scania DS14 14 litres diesel I6 or DC16 16 litres diesel V8 engine
550–810 hp (410–595 kW) 2,300 Nm
The Combat Vehicle 90 (CV90; Sw. Stridsfordon 90, Strf90) is a family of Swedish tracked combat vehicles designed by FMV, Hägglunds (BAE Systems Hägglunds) and Bofors during the mid-1980s and early 1990s and entered service in Sweden in the mid-90s. The CV90 platform design has continuously evolved in steps from Mk0 to current MkIII with advances in technology and in response to changing battlefield requirements. The Swedish version of the main infantry fighting vehicle is fitted with a turret from Bofors that is equipped with a 40 mm autocannon. Export versions are fitted with BAE Systems Hägglunds E-series turret with 30 mm and 35 mm autocannons. Developed specifically for the Nordic sub-arctic climate, the vehicle has very good mobility in snow and wetlands while carrying and supporting eight and six fully equipped dismount soldiers. Other variants include Forward Observation, Command and control, Anti-air, Armoured Recovery, Electronic Warfare and so forth. The CV90 and Hägglunds E-series turrets has been under continuous development with more than 4 million hours invested and are still produced with modern protection, armament and network enabled solutions. Currently 1280 vehicles in 15 variants are in service with 7 user nations, 4 members of NATO under BAE Systems Hägglunds AB.
- 1 History
- 2 Design
- 3 Production
- 4 Research
- 5 Variants
- 6 Combat service
- 7 Operators
- 8 Specifications of variants (domestic)
- 9 Gallery
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
During the Cold War, in 1983, the Swedish Army required vehicles with high mobility, air defence and anti-tank capability, high survivability and protection. The project group "Stridsfordon 90" was formed by representatives from the Swedish armed forces (Försvarsmakten), the Defense Materiel Administration (Försvarets Materielverk) and Swedish industry including Hägglunds and Bofors, which in 1985 finalized the design for a "unity-vehicle" which originated from an airforce concept. In 1986, the prototypes for Strf 9040 and Strf 9025 were ordered. Five prototypes were constructed, but before delivery in 1988, the 9025-version was discontinued. These prototypes were tested during extensive trials for three years between 1988 and 1991, during which the prototypes for specialized variants (FOV, C&C and ARV) were ordered. The first deliveries started in 1994, and as of 2015 more than 1280 CV90s have been delivered worldwide.
The CV90 has undergone three mark shifts to meet different customer requirements. The vehicle mark shifts are focused on capability enhancements.
CV90 Mk 0
The first delivered CV90 was for Sweden. It was armed with the Bofors 40/L70 cannon in a 2-man turret. The vehicle had a conventional electrical system and was fitted for but not with appliqué armour systems. The Swedish Army ordered 5 different variants of the CV90. The requirements expressed by the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) on signature management were extremely challenging and led to a lot of new design features that have been inherited by all subsequent generations (Mk 0-III). FMV also prioritized the requirements to provide the best possible design to fulfil the user needs. Furthermore, the CV90 was also built for high reliability and ease-of-maintenance using only standard on-board tools and a conscripts to maintain and operate.
CV90 Mk I
The next variant of CV90 is known as the Mk I and was delivered to Norway. CV90 Mk I won the Norwegian competition for new IFV against other contemporary IFVs such as Bradley, Warrior and Pizzaro/ULAN. The Mk I variant of the CV90 had a newly designed 2-man 30 mm turret evolved from the 25 mm turret. CV90 Mk I was the first IFV with a high hit probability performance during suppression fire modes, both while the vehicle is on the move and against air targets. The CV90 Mk I incorporated several improvements compared to the original Swedish CV90. Trials on mobility, reliability, lethality, fightability, ergonomics, durability and survivability were performed during the trials phase for these vehicles with good results for CV90 Mk I.
CV90 Mk II
The CV90 Mk I was the base for the next development step, CV90 Mk II. The CV90 Mk II was produced in three different variants, CV9030 CH (Switzerland) IFV & COM, and CV9030 FIN (Finland) IFV. Both contracts were won in competition with other IFV’s. The difference between the two variants is mainly the size of the hull. The Swiss variant is 100 mm higher over the front part of the hull and an additional 70 mm over the combat compartment at the rear. The principal difference between the Mk I and Mk II is that the Mk II was partly digitized and provided with built-in Health & Unit Monitoring System (HUMS) together with interactive manuals and instructions.
CV90 Mk III
The Mk III variant of the CV90 is a further development of the CV90 Mk II. The areas that have undergone most development compared to Mk II are lethality, fightability, electronic architecture, survivability and mobility. The weapon system has been upgraded to a 35/50 mm Bushmaster III cannon with an integrated muzzle ammunition programmer and a number of different firing scenarios depending on target setup. The crew station design provides the Gunner and Commander with a continuous eye-on-target engagement feature (do not need to remove head from eye-piece to see and operate equipment). The electronic architecture has been further upgraded for Mk III to be completely digitized. The mobility improvements, in the field of upgraded suspension and power to weight ratio, was performed to handle the increased Gross Vehicle Weight. The improved survivability was mainly in the areas of mine protection and top attack. The horizontal protection has been designed in similar ways as to the other marks of CV90, i.e.: appliqué systems. The first variant of the Mk III was delivered to The Netherlands and Denmark, Mk III a. The second, most modern Mk III b variant is currently under delivery for Norway.
Various customer requirements have led to several variants of the CV90, where major differences are in survivability and electronic architecture. Higher protection has led to higher kerb weight; the vehicle's combat weight has risen from 23 to 35 tonnes. However, with increasingly more powerful diesel engines, the power-to-weight ratio has remained approximately the same. The track suspension system has seen upgrades in several stages. The Mk III version has a digital electronic architecture with several different CAN-buses and digital networks, and is the first IFV incorporating an automatic Defensive Aid Suite (DAS), which classifies threats and, in automatic mode, can fire smoke and/or the main gun to eliminate or evade targets as well as instruct the driver. At the Eurosatory 2010 exhibition, a version called Armadillo was presented. The Armadillo shown was an Armoured Personnel Carrier (APC) version. The basic chassis can be readily converted to ambulance, control vehicle or other turreted versions.
The basic armour of the CV9040 provides all-round protection against 14.5 mm armour-piercing rounds. Armour protection over the frontal arc is classified, but all models from CV9040B and later are said to be protected against 30 mm APFSDS. Some variants, including the CV9030N, can be fitted with MEXAS, a ceramic appliqué armor that provides protection against 30 mm APFSDS. This armour kit is intended to provide increased protection against Improvised explosive device, explosively formed penetrator and 30 mm caliber armour piercing rounds. All CV90s are fitted with a Spall liner, which covers the interior spaces and provides protection for the troops inside against shrapnel and anti-personnel artillery munitions.
The CV90 can be also fitted with cage armour, which provides protection against tandem-charge and shaped charge warheads. The CV90 is fitted with a nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) filtration system accompanied by a chemical detector and radiation detector systems. The CV90 also uses heat-absorbing filters to provide temporary protection against thermal imaging (TIS), image intensifier and infrared camera (IR). The CV 90 was designed to produce a very low and very compact structure to minimize radar and IR-signatures.
With every generation of CV90 there has been an increase in payload and corresponding protection levels. The inherent mine protection levels have risen substantially to presently defeat the heaviest (10 kg TNT) anti-tank mines.
In December 2016, BAE Systems received a contract from the Netherlands to test the Israel Military Industries (IMI) Iron Fist active protection system on their CV9035 vehicles. Iron Fist employs a multi-sensor early warning system utilizing both infrared and radar sensors to deploy soft- and hard-kill countermeasures against anti-tank rockets and missiles. A decision for integration is to be made by early 2018.
The CV90 Mk0 is powered by a DSI14 engine developed by Scania, which provides 550 horse power (HP) and it can reach speeds of 70 kilometres (43 mi) per hour. The basic CV90 has a maximum road range of 320 kilometres (200 mi), but the latest generation can reach up to 600 kilometres (370 mi). The CV90 offers quieter movement for improved stealth, greater speed over good terrain, and higher ground clearance for protection against mines and improvised explosive devices.
BAE Systems is considering upgrading the CV90 with a hybrid-electric propulsion system as armies look to cut fuel expenses, due to environmental issues and fuel economy. A hybrid-electric drive could cut fuel consumption by 10 to 30 percent. The new system would also provide a power boost to move the vehicle. The hybrid-electric combines a standard diesel engine with a battery pack to provide extra power to propel the vehicle or provide additional electricity. BAE Systems Hägglunds utilizes the knowledge acquired through many years of hybrid-electric drive development for the military SEP vehicles and the ongoing civilian hybrid-electric projects for forest machines, airplane howlers and loaders.
In April 2015, BAE Systems fitted a CV90 with an active damping suspension system derived from Formula One racing cars. This technology calculates the vehicle's speed and anticipates the terrain ahead, then pressurizes the suspension at independent points to lift the chassis and keep the vehicle level. The suspension, which had been modified to suit a 38-ton armored vehicle rather than the 700 kg (1,500 lb) racing car, reportedly increases speed by 30-40 percent on rough terrain, outrunning main battle tanks, decreases vehicle pitch acceleration by 40 percent, gives greater maneuverability and stability for on-the-move gunnery, and reduces crew fatigue and life-cycle costs.
The basic CV90 is fitted with a two-man turret armed with a Bofors 40 mm caliber gun and a coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun. The CV90 also carries six 76-mm grenade launchers, which are arranged in two clusters of three launchers; the clusters are positioned on each side of the turret. The grenade launchers are intended for smoke grenades, but can also be loaded with a variety of combat grenades.
The export variants of CV90 are fitted with Hagglunds E-series turret with more than 600 E30 and E35 turret delivered. The [ BAE] Systems Australia Limited (BAE Systems) offer for LAND 400 Phase 3 is the CV9035 with E35 turret. It provides high commonality with BAE Systems’ LAND 400 Phase 2 CRV offer – the AMV35 – through its use of the same E35 turret system.
The CV90 is equipped with a UTAAS (Universal Tank and Anti-Aircraft Sight) from Saab. Daytime optical, Thermal Imaging System (TIS) and Generation III Image Intensification (II). The Norwegian IFV, C2, Recce, Mortar and Combat Engineer variants are delivered with the Kongsberg Protector Remote Weapon Station with 360 degrees day and night sights as well as hunter killer capability.
Production of the CV 90 began in 1993, and as of 2014 over 1,200 vehicles had been ordered. In November 2000, Finland ordered 57 CV9030 vehicles. Total cost was €250 million (in 2008 euros), or €4.42 million per vehicle. In June 2004, Finland made another purchase, bringing the overall quantity ordered to 102. This time the cost was €2.92 million (in 2008 euros) per vehicle. In December 2005, Denmark ordered 45 CV9035 vehicles for a cost of €188 million or €4.18 million per vehicle. The Netherlands ordered 184 combat plus 8 instruction CV9035 vehicles for a cost of €749 million, or €3.9 million per vehicle. Norway initially bought 104 CV90s in the 1990s, buying new vehicles and upgrading the old ones in the 2010s. In total the Norwegian Army fields 144 CV90s, of whom 74 are combat vehicles, 16 engineering vehicles, 16 multi-use vehicles, 21 reconnaissance vehicles, 15 command vehicles, and two instruction vehicles. The upgrade of the Norwegian CV90s was estimated to cost around 10 billion kr.
Hägglunds (now BAE Systems AB) demonstrated in 2011 a version with an infrared camouflage called Adaptiv consisting of thermoelectric plates, capable of posing as many different objects, such as ordinary cars, stones, trees etc. to an enemy IR-viewfinder. It takes 1,500 plates to cover a CV90, at a cost of $100 per plate.
Developed by Hägglund/Bofors in cooperation with FOA and FMV for Försvarsmakten as part of the Stridsfordon 90 (Strf 90)-family. Sweden originally planned for a mix of CV9040 and CV9025, tests of the 25 mm turret being carried out on an Ikv 91 chassis, but finally decided on the 40 mm version, due to the much higher versatility of the larger calibre.
- Stridsfordon (Strf) 9040 (SB1A3): The original model carries eight soldiers and is equipped with a 40 mm Bofors autocannon. From November 1997, the gun was gyro-stabilized.
Versions are referred to by the letters A, B or C depending on upgrades. All from A onwards remain in service.
- Strf 9040 : Original production version with no gun stabilization and Lyran flare mortar. Incremental improvements during production, all have been upgraded to Strf9040A standard.
- Strf 9040A: Strf 9040 upgraded with extensive chassis modifications and external gun stabilisation on turret front. More storage and better emergency exits reduced the seats to seven in the troop compartment.
- Strf 9040B: 9040A updated with improvements to armament (new fire control software, electric firing pin, fully stabilized gun with internal stabilisation and reserve sight with video camera for the gunner), improved suspension for better accuracy and crew comfort while moving, new instrumentation and new seatbelts.
- Strf 9040B1: Strf9040B modified for international peacekeeping missions, has 3P ammunition programmer, climate control and Anti-Spall Liner.
- Strf 9040C: Up-graded version for crew training and international operations. As per 9040B1 with additional all-round armour, laser filtering in all periscopes and tropical grade air conditioning. Due to the bulk and weight of the modifications, only six soldiers can be carried.
- Luftvärnskanonvagn (lvkv) 9040: Anti-Air Vehicle, fitted with PS-95 radar from Thomson CSF Harfang (now Thales Group) and a high elevation 40 mm autocannon capable of using programmable ammunition. Also connected to the national air defence net LuLIS. Three have been upgraded to C-standard. There is also a demonstrator designated Lvkv 90-TD fitted with infrared video targeting and fully stabilized gun for firing on the move.
The command, forward observation and recovery vehicles are armed only with a machine gun.
- Stridsledningspansarbandvagn (Stripbv) 90, (Forward Command Vehicle): Used by battalion and brigade commander for command & control. Two were upgraded to C-standard, but have been decommissioned as of 2011.
- Eldledningspansarbandvagn (Epbv) 90, (Forward Observation Vehicle): For directing artillery and mortar fire, more advanced IR sensor fitted; eight have been upgraded to C-standard.
- Bärgningsbandvagn (Bgbv) 90, (Armored Recovery Vehicle). Two 9-tonne winches provides a maximum capacity of 72 tonnes through 4-way pulleys. Three have been upgraded to C-standard. and at least has been used in Afghanistan.
BAE Systems received a contract in December 2016 to install Mjölner 120 mm mortars on 40 Swedish CV90s to increase the vehicles' indirect fire capability to support mechanized battalions.
The following versions were not taken into Swedish army service.
- Störpansarbandvagn (Störpbv) 90, (Electronic Warfare Vehicle): A 9040A had its turret replaced with a fixed housing containing retractable mast and a LEMUR weapons station. Planned in 2002, a single unit was produced before serial production was cancelled for economic reasons and as of 2013 the project is still on hold.
- Stridsfordon 9040/56: Prototype version of the CV 9040 equipped with the Bofors RB56 anti-tank missile. Issues with the sight alignment were unsolved and no units ordered.
- *Granatkastarpansarbandvagn (Grkpbv) 90120:, (Tracked armoured mortar vehicle): A CV 90 fitted with the Advanced Mortar System, a project between Hägglunds and Patria. Now cancelled, the mortar system is offered on Patria and Armadillo respectively.
The export versions of CV90 is delivered with combat proven BAE Systems Hägglunds E-series turrets with calibers ranging from 30-120mm. The vast majority of 600 turrets delivered are fitted with 30mm and 35mm gun.
- CV9030: Export version with a 30 mm Bushmaster II autocannon. Adopted by Norway, Switzerland and Finland. Within BAE Systems Hägglunds, the upgraded Norwegian CV9030N with new chassies IFV, C2 and Recce are generally known as the CV90 MkIII+ the most advanced delivered so far. The Finnish CV9030FIN and Swiss CV9030CH vehicles are known as the CV90 MK II. The CV90 MK II is also available as CV9030 COM – Command & Control Vehicle.
- CV9035: Armed with a Bushmaster III 35/50 cannon. Adopted by the Netherlands as CV9035NL and Denmark as CV9035DK. Within BAE Systems Hägglunds, CV9035 is known as the CV90 MK III.
- CV90105: Light tank equipped with 105 mm rifled tank gun/turret. Designed by Hägglunds (BAE Systems) and GIAT (Nexter). A newer version features the Cockerill XC-8 turret.
- CV90120-T: Light tank equipped with tank turret and smoothbore 120 mm gun. (RUAG 120 mm Compact Tank Gun)
- CV90 CZ: Export variant designed in collaboration with VOP CZ marketed to the Czech Republic, manned turret variant.
- CV90 CZr: Export variant designed in collaboration with VOP CZ marketed to the Czech Republic featuring a Kongsberg MCT-30 unmanned, remote controlled turret, a slightly raised hull and periscope system.
- Armadillo: Armoured Personnel Carrier version built on a modular CV90 Mk III chassis
The CV90 Armadillo can be modified to become a personnel carrier, an ambulance, a command and control centre, a recovery vehicle and many other non-turreted variants at low cost due up to 80% commonality among variants. Currently, only the APC version has been built, with five units delivered to Denmark for trials.
First use was by the Swedish UN-forces in Liberia 2004, where 13 Stridsfordon 9040C were deployed.
Since production had begun in 1993, the CV90 had remained untested in combat until November 2007, when Norwegian Army CV90s from the 2nd Battalion saw heavy combat during Operation Harekate Yolo in Afghanistan. During the first week of November, Norwegian ISAF forces from the 2nd Battalion and Kystjegerkommandoen based in Mazar-e-Sharif, responded to a Taliban attack on Afghan National Army forces in the Ghowrmach district. Having been heavily outnumbered by the Taliban forces, the Norwegians used mortars and, in particular, CV90s, to suppress the attack. The operation left an unknown number of Taliban casualties, but Norwegian news sources say as many as 45 to 65 Taliban fighters may have been killed, and many more wounded.
The CV90 was later used extensively by ISAF-forces of the Norwegian Army's Telemark Battalion in May 2008, when the battalion came under heavy machine gun and RPG fire from Taliban fighters during Operation Karez in Badghis Province. The attack left 13 Taliban fighters dead, and unknown number of wounded. No allied casualties were reported. In January 2010, a Norwegian soldier driving a CV9030 was killed when it drove over a large IED in Ghowrmach, Afghanistan.
In February 2010, Denmark sent ten CV9035DKs to Afghanistan in order to bolster their contingent in Helmand Province. The Danish contingent had suffered numerous casualties since they began operations in the province in the autumn of 2006. The vehicles are from the Danish Royal Lifeguard Regiment, based in the Northern part of Seeland. They are working alongside MOWAG Piranha IIIC, MOWAG Eagle IV, M113 G3DK and Leopard 2A5DK vehicles, all contributed by Denmark, in the Helmand Province. By April 2010, two of the ten vehicles had been hit with IEDs, in both cases protecting the crew and passengers from personal injury. The vehicles lost two wheels and tracks, and were sent back to the manufacturer in Sweden for further investigation. On 7 August 2010, a CV9035DK hit an IED in Afghanistan, killing two soldiers and wounding another three. The explosion was so powerful that the vehicle was turned over.
As of the spring of 2011, Sweden operates nine Strf 9040Cs in Afghanistan. Swedish CV90s have seen combat with insurgents on dozens of occasions.
- Denmark: 45 CV9035DK. 10 are upgraded to international operations.
- Estonia: 44 CV9035NL purchased from the Netherlands in December 2014.Now referred as CV9035EE. First delivery took place in 2016. That same year, Estonia struck a deal with Norway to purchase an additional 35 surplus MK I hulls.
- Finland: 102 CV9030FIN (57 first batch, 45 second batch).
- Netherlands: 193 CV9035NL (initial order of 184 vehicles raised to 193). Deliveries completed in 2011. In December 2014, 44 CV9035NL were sold to Estonia.
- Norway: 144 (ordered) CV90 (all variants). 104 CV9030Ns were purchased in 1994. 17 of these were later upgraded with air-conditioning, additional mine protection, and rear-view cameras, and were designated CV9030NF1. In April 2012, the Norwegian Government proposed to upgrade all CV90s in the Norwegian Army's inventory, in addition to acquiring more vehicles. In June 2012, a deal was signed with BAE Systems Hägglunds and Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace for the acquisition of 144 new/upgraded vehicles, including 74 infantry fighting, 21 reconnaissance, 15 command, 16 engineering, 16 multi-role and two driver training vehicles.
- Switzerland: 186 CV9030CH
- Sweden: 509 vehicles, including 42 CV9040C with additional armour.
- Czech Republic: The Czech Army is considering the CV90 as an option to replace the BMP-2 vehicle being currently in service and soon to be phased out. BAE Systems and VOP CZ first unveiled two Czech-specific export variants at the International Fair of Defence and Security Technology in Brno on 31 May 2017.
- Croatia: The Croatian Army is looking at replacing 128 M80A IFV in its inventory, CV-90 and Puma are front contenders. Croatian Army requires 108 Vehicles, 88 Infantry combat vehicles, 4 Driver training vehicles, 8 Armoured Ambulance vehicles and 8 command vehicles. Budget for 108 Vehicles hasn't yet been set, however €400 million is projected cost of the vehicles. Croatian version will also come with 30mm cannon and twin anti tank launchers. Likely purchase of said vehicles is expected after 2021.
- Australia: The Commonwealth of Australia is looking for an replacement of the aging M113 by 2025 and CV90 with the E-series turrets are one of the contentenders.
- Canada: 1 CV9035 Mark III A combination of budget cuts and upgrades to the existing fleet of LAV IIIs have led the Canadian Army to cancel the procurement of light combat vehicles, where BAE Systems Hägglunds was offering its CV90.
- United Kingdom: competed with Scout SV as part of Future Rapid Effect System.
- Poland CV90120T on trials in 2007.
- United States
Specifications of variants (domestic)
|Total weight (tons)||22.8||23.1||23.1||27.6||22.4||24||23.2|
|Ground clearance (m)||0.45||0.45||0.45||0.36||0.45||0.45||0.45|
|Main armament||Bofors 40 mm L/70B||Bofors 40 mm L/70Bc||Bofors 40 mm L/70Bc||Bofors 40 mm L/70Bc||-||Bofors 40 mm L/70Bb||-|
|Secondary armament||7.62 mm Ksp m/39B
|Ksp m/39C||Ksp m/39C||7.62 mm Ksp 58 machine gun||Ksp m/39C||Ksp m/39C||Ksp m/39C|
|Defensive equipment||Smoke dischargers 6× Galix|
|Additional equipment||Illumination mortars Lyran 2×||-|
|Gun elevation (degrees)||?||−8 +35||−8 +27||−8 +27||-||−8 +50||-|
|Main gun ammunition||234||234||234||120||-||234||-|
|Turret weight (tons)||3.8||3.9||3.9||4.9||3.5||4.9||-|
|Engine||Scania DSI 14 turbodiesel V8|
|Gearbox||Allison/Perkins X-300-5 Automatic|
The result of an IED attack on a Norwegian CV9030 in Afghanistan, January 2010.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hägglunds Combat Vehicle 90.|
- Combat Vehicle 90 in Army Technology (in French)
- BAE Systems Hägglunds (in Swedish)
- SoldF.com – CV9040 (in Swedish)
- Armada International 6/97-52 Information on the Norwegian IFV trials and changes found in the Norwegian CV9030 (in Norwegian)
- Danish CV9035 MkIII (in Danish)